Nissan Motor Co. Ltd. shortened to Nissan, is a Japanese multinational automobile manufacturer headquartered in Nishi-ku, Yokohama. The company sells its cars under the Nissan and Datsun brands with in-house performance tuning products labelled Nismo; the company traces its name to the Nissan zaibatsu, now called Nissan Group. Since 1999, Nissan has been part of the Renault–Nissan–Mitsubishi Alliance, a partnership between Nissan of Japan, Mitsubishi Motors of Japan and Renault of France; as of 2013, Renault holds a 43.4% voting stake in Nissan, while Nissan holds a 15% non-voting stake in Renault. From 2009 to 2017 Carlos Ghosn served as CEO of both companies. In February 2017 Ghosn announced he would step down as CEO of Nissan on 1 April 2017, while remaining chairman of the company. On 19 November 2018, Ghosn was fired as chairman following his arrest for the alleged underreporting of his income to Japanese financial authorities. After 108 days in detention, Ghosn was released on bail, but after 29 days he was again detained on new charges.
He'd been due to hold a news conference, but instead his lawyers released a video of Ghosn alleging this 2018-2019 Nissan scandal is itself evidence of value destruction and Nissan corporate mismanagement. In 2013, Nissan was the sixth largest automaker in the world, after Toyota, General Motors, Volkswagen Group, Hyundai Motor Group, Ford. Taken together, the Renault–Nissan Alliance would be the world's fourth largest automaker. Nissan is the leading Japanese brand in China and Mexico. In 2014 Nissan was the largest car manufacturer in North America. Nissan is the world's largest electric vehicle manufacturer, with global sales of more than 320,000 all-electric vehicles as of April 2018; the top-selling vehicle of the car-maker's electric lineup is the Nissan LEAF, an all-electric car and the world's top-selling highway-capable plug-in electric car in history. In January 2018, Nissan CEO Hiroto Saikawa announced that all Infiniti vehicles launched from 2021 will be hybrid vehicles or all-electric vehicles.
Masujiro Hashimoto founded the Kaishinsha Motor Car Works 1 July 1911 in Tokyo's Azabu-Hiroo district, Japan's first automobile manufacturer. In 1914, the company produced its first car, called DAT; the new car's model name was an acronym of the company's investors' surnames: Kenjiro Den Rokuro Aoyama Meitaro Takeuchi It was renamed to Kaishinsha Motorcar Co. Ltd. in 1918, again to DAT Jidosha & Co. Ltd. in 1925. DAT Motors built trucks in addition to the Datsun passenger cars; the vast majority of its output were trucks, due to an non- existent consumer market for passenger cars at the time, disaster recovery efforts as a result of the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake. Beginning in 1918, the first DAT trucks were produced for the military market. At the same time, Jitsuyo Jidosha Co. Ltd. produced small trucks using parts, materials imported from the United States. Commercial operations were placed on hold during Japan's participation in World War I, the company contributed to the war effort. In 1926 the Tokyo-based DAT Motors merged with the Osaka-based Jitsuyo Jidosha Co.
Ltd a.k.a. Jitsuyo Jidosha Seizo to become DAT Jidosha Seizo Co. Ltd Automobile Manufacturing Co. Ltd. in Osaka until 1932. From 1923 to 1925, the company produced light trucks under the name of Lila. In 1931, DAT came out with a new smaller car, called the Datsun Type 11, the first "Datson", meaning "Son of DAT". In 1933 after Nissan Group zaibatsu took control of DAT Motors, the last syllable of Datson was changed to "sun", because "son" means "loss" ) in Japanese, hence the name "Datsun". In 1933, the company name was moved to Yokohama. In 1928, Yoshisuke Aikawa founded the holding company Nihon Sangyo; the name'Nissan' originated during the 1930s as an abbreviation used on the Tokyo Stock Exchange for Nihon Sangyo. This company was Nissan "Zaibatsu" which included Tobata Hitachi. At this time Nissan controlled foundries and auto parts businesses, but Aikawa did not enter automobile manufacturing until 1933; the zaibatsu grew to include 74 firms, became the fourth-largest in Japan during World War II.
In 1931, DAT Jidosha Seizo became affiliated with Tobata Casting, was merged into Tobata Casting in 1933. As Tobata Casting was a Nissan company, this was the beginning of Nissan's automobile manufacturing. In 1934, Aikawa separated the expanded automobile parts division of Tobata Casting and incorporated it as a new subsidiary, which he named Nissan Motor Co. Ltd.. The shareholders of the new company however were not enthusiastic about the prospects of the automobile in Japan, so Aikawa bought out all the Tobata Casting shareholders in June 1934. At this time, Nissan Motor became owned by Nihon Sangyo and Hitachi. In 1935, construction of its Yokohama plant was completed. 44 Datsuns were shipped to Asia and South America. In 1935, the first car manufactured by an integrated assembly system rolled off the line at the Yokohama plant. Nissan built trucks and engines for the Imperial Japanese Army. November 1937 Nissan'
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology. New Scientist, based in London, publishes editions in the UK, the United States, Australia. Since 1996 it has been available online. Sold in retail outlets and on subscription, the magazine covers news, features and commentary on science and their implications. New Scientist publishes speculative articles, ranging from the technical to the philosophical; the magazine was founded in 1956 by Tom Margerison, Max Raison and Nicholas Harrison as The New Scientist, with Issue 1 on 22 November, priced one shilling. The British monthly science magazine Science Journal, published 1965–71, was merged with New Scientist to form New Scientist and Science Journal; the cover of New Scientist listed articles in plain text. Page numbering followed academic practice with sequential numbering for each quarterly volume. So, for example, the first page of an issue in March could be 649 instead of 1.
Issues numbered issues separately. From the beginning of 1961 "The" was dropped from the title. From 1965, the front cover was illustrated; until the 1970s, colour was not used except for on the cover. Since its first issue, New Scientist has written about the applications of science, through its coverage of technology. For example, the first issue included an article "Where next from Calder Hall?" on the future of nuclear power in the UK, a topic that it has covered throughout its history. In 1964 there was a regular "Science in British Industry" section with several items. An article in the magazine's 10th anniversary issues provides anecdotes on the founding of the magazine. In 1970, the Reed Group, which went on to become Reed Elsevier, acquired New Scientist when it merged with IPC Magazines. Reed retained the magazine when it sold most of its consumer titles in a management buyout to what is now TI Media. Throughout most of its history, New Scientist has published cartoons as light relief and comment on the news, with contributions from regulars such as Mike Peyton and David Austin.
The Grimbledon Down comic strip, by cartoonist Bill Tidy, appeared from 1970 to 1994. The Ariadne pages in New Scientist commented on the lighter side of science and technology and included contributions from Daedalus; the fictitious inventor devised plausible but impractical and humorous inventions developed by the DREADCO corporation. Daedalus moved to Nature. Issues of New Scientist from Issue 1 to the end of 1989 have been made free to read online. Subsequent issues require a subscription. In the first half of 2013, the international circulation of New Scientist averaged 125,172. While this was a 4.3% reduction on the previous year's figure, it was a much smaller reduction in circulation than many mainstream magazines of similar or greater circulation. For the 2014 UK circulation fell by 3.2% but stronger international sales, increased the circulation to 129,585. See #Website below. In April 2017, New Scientist changed hands when RELX Group known as Reed Elsevier, sold the magazine to Kingston Acquisitions, a group set up by Sir Bernard Gray, Louise Rogers and Matthew O’Sullivan to acquire New Scientist.
Kingston Acquisitions renamed itself New Scientist Ltd. New Scientist contains the following sections: Leader, Technology, Features, CultureLab, The Last Word and Jobs & Careers. A Tom Gauld cartoon appears on the Letters page. A readers' letters section discusses recent articles and discussions take place on the website. Readers contribute observations on examples of pseudoscience to Feedback, offer questions and answers on scientific and technical topics to Last Word. New Scientist has produced a series of books compiled from contributions to Last Word. There are 51 issues a year, with a New Year double issue; the double issue in 2014 was the 3,000th edition of the magazine. The Editor-in-chief is Emily Wilson, Executive Editor is Graham Lawton, Managing Editor is Rowan Hooper and Editor-at-Large is Jeremy Webb. Consultants include Fred Pearce, Marcus Chown, Linda Geddes. Simon Ings and former editor Alun Anderson are contributors.) Percy Cudlipp Nigel Calder Donald Gould Bernard Dixon Michael Kenward David Dickson Alun Anderson Jeremy Webb Roger Highfield Sumit Paul-Choudhury Emily Wilson The New Scientist website carries blogs and news articles.
Users with free-of-charge registration have limited access to new content and can receive emailed New Scientist newsletters. Subscribers to the print edition have full access to all articles and the archive of past content that has so far been digitised. Online readership takes various forms. Overall global views of an online database of over 100,000 articles are 8.0m by 3.6m unique users according to Adobe Reports & Analytics, as of September 2014. On social media there are 1.47m+ Twitter followers, 2.3m+ Facebook likes and 365,000+ Google+ followers as of January 2015. New Scientist has published books derived from its content, many of which are selected questions and answers from the Last Word section of the magazine and website: 1998; the Last Word. ISBN 978-0-19-286199-3 2000; the Last Word 2. ISBN 978-0-19-286204-4 2005. Does Anything Eat Wasps?. ISBN 978-1-86197-973-5 2006. Why Don't Penguins' Feet Freeze?. ISBN 978-1861978769 2007. How to
A HANS device, is a product, part of a family of devices known as head restraints. Head restraints are safety items which are mandatory when competing with most major motorsports sanctioning bodies; these devices reduce the likelihood of head and/or neck injuries, such as a basilar skull fracture, in the event of a crash. There are many such devices on the market today, but the HANS is the original and the most common. Made of carbon fiber reinforced polymer, the HANS device is shaped like a "U", with the back of the "U" set behind the nape of the neck and the two arms lying flat along the top of the chest over the pectoral muscles; the device, in general, is supported by the shoulders. It is only attached to the helmet, not to the belts, the driver's body, or the seat. In a properly installed 5- or 6-point racing harness, the belts that cross the driver's upper body directly pass over the HANS device on the driver's shoulders and they buckle at the center of the driver's abdomen. Therefore, the HANS device is secured with the body of the driver, not the seat.
The purpose of the HANS device is to keep the head from whipping fore and aft in a crash, preventing excessive rotational movement as a secondary protection, without otherwise restricting movement of the neck. In other words, it allows the wearer's head to move but prevents or restricts head movements during a crash that would exceed the normal articulation range of the musculoskeletal system and cause severe injury. In any kind of crash, the person's body, not protected, is decelerated by the seat belt, with the head maintaining velocity until it is decelerated by the neck; the HANS device maintains the relative position of the head to the body, in addition to transferring energy to the much stronger chest, shoulder, seat belts, seat as the head is decelerated. The device was designed in the early 1980s by American scientist and researcher Dr. Robert Hubbard, a professor of biomechanical engineering at Michigan State University. After talking to his brother-in-law, accomplished American road-racer Jim Downing, following the death of Patrick Jacquemart, a mutual friend, killed in an International Motor Sports Association testing accident at the Mid-Ohio Sports Car Course when his Renault Le Car struck a sandbank, leaving him dead on arrival with head injuries, IMSA officials decided that some sort of protection was required to help prevent injuries from sudden stops during accidents.
A major cause of death among drivers during races was through violent head movements, where the body remains in place because of the seat belts, but the momentum keeps the head moving forward, causing a basilar skull fracture, resulting in serious injury or immediate death. Notable race car drivers who died from basilar skull fractures include: Formula 1 driver Roland Ratzenberger in the 1994 San Marino Formula One Grand Prix. Indy 500 drivers Scott Brayton, Bill Vukovich and Tony Bettenhausen NASCAR drivers Adam Petty, Kenny Irwin, Jr.. Hubbard had extensive experience as a biomechanical crash engineer, including in General Motors' auto safety program, his first prototype was developed in 1985, in crash tests in 1989 — the first to use crash sleds and crash dummies using race car seat belt harnesses — the energy exerted on the head and neck was lowered by 80%. After major racing safety companies declined to produce the product and Downing formed Hubbard Downing Inc. to develop, manufacture and promote the HANS in 1990.
However, the product languished until 1994, when Formula One showed interest in the wake of the deaths of Roland Ratzenberger and Ayrton Senna. In 1999, CART driver Gonzalo Rodríguez was killed after suffering a basilar skull fracture in a crash. At the same time, Mercedes was completing research of the HANS on behalf of the FIA for Formula One deciding that it out-performed their airbag project; the device was first adopted by the National Hot Rod Association in 1996, following the death of Top Fuel driver Blaine Johnson. Other racing series were slow to follow suit. Many drivers, including Dale Earnhardt, resisted the HANS devices or anything, similar to them, claiming that they were uncomfortable, more restrictive. There was fear that it would cause more injuries and problems than it prevented; some stated that the positioning of the device made the seat belts feel less secure or rubbed on the shoulders or the collar bone. Earnhardt referred to the device as "that damn noose", claiming the tethers would more hang him than save him in the event of a crash.
Media members turned the focus on the HANS device after the death of one of the most famous racers in history. On February 18, 2001, in a live nationally televised event seen by more than 17 million viewers, seven-time Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Serie
Mercedes-Benz is a German global automobile marque and a division of Daimler AG. The brand is known for luxury vehicles, buses and trucks; the headquarters is in Baden-Württemberg. The name first appeared in 1926 under Daimler-Benz. In 2018, Mercedes-Benz was the biggest selling premium vehicle brand in the world, having sold 2.31 million passenger cars. Mercedes-Benz traces its origins to Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft's 1901 Mercedes and Karl Benz's 1886 Benz Patent-Motorwagen, regarded as the first gasoline-powered automobile; the slogan for the brand is "the best or nothing". Mercedes-Benz traces its origins to Karl Benz's creation of the first petrol-powered car, the Benz Patent Motorwagen, financed by Bertha Benz and patented in January 1886, Gottlieb Daimler and engineer Wilhelm Maybach's conversion of a stagecoach by the addition of a petrol engine that year; the Mercedes automobile was first marketed in 1901 by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft. Emil Jellinek, an Austrian automobile entrepreneur who worked with DMG, created the trademark in 1902, naming the 1901 Mercedes 35 hp after his daughter Mercedes Jellinek.
Jellinek was a businessman and marketing strategist who promoted "horseless" Daimler automobiles among the highest circles of society in his adopted home, which, at that time, was a meeting place for the "Haute Volée" of France and Europe in winter. His customers included other well-known personalities, but Jellinek's plans went further: as early as 1901, he was selling Mercedes cars in the New World as well, including US billionaires Rockefeller, Astor and Taylor. At a race in Nice in 1899, Jellinek drove under the pseudonym "Monsieur Mercédès", a way of concealing the competitor's real name as was normal and regularly done in those days; the race ranks as the hour of birth of the Mercedes-Benz brand. In 1901, the name "Mercedes" was registered by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft worldwide as a protected trademark; the first Mercedes-Benz brand name vehicles were produced in 1926, following the merger of Karl Benz's and Gottlieb Daimler's companies into the Daimler-Benz company on 28 June of the same year.
Gottlieb Daimler was born on 17 March 1834 in Schorndorf. After training as a gunsmith and working in France, he attended the Polytechnic School in Stuttgart from 1857 to 1859. After completing various technical activities in France and England, he started working as a draftsman in Geislingen in 1862. At the end of 1863, he was appointed workshop inspector in a machine tool factory in Reutlingen, where he met Wilhelm Maybach in 1865. Throughout the 1930s, Mercedes-Benz produced the 770 model, a car, popular during Germany's Nazi period. Adolf Hitler was known to have driven these cars during his time in power, with bulletproof windshields. Most of the surviving models have been sold at auctions to private buyers. One of them is on display at the War Museum in Ottawa, Ontario; the pontiff's Popemobile has been sourced from Mercedes-Benz. In 1944, 46,000 forced laborers were used in Daimler-Benz's factories to bolster Nazi war efforts; the company paid $12 million in reparations to the laborers' families.
Mercedes-Benz has introduced many technological and safety innovations that became common in other vehicles. Mercedes-Benz is one of the best-known and established automotive brands in the world. For information relating to the famous three-pointed star, see under the title Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft, including the merger into Daimler-Benz; as part of the Daimler AG company, the Mercedes-Benz Cars division includes Mercedes-Benz and Smart car production. Mercedes-AMG became a majority owned division of Mercedes-Benz in 1999; the company was integrated into DaimlerChrysler in 1999, became Mercedes-Benz AMG beginning on 1 January 1999. Daimler's ultra-luxury brand Maybach was under Mercedes-Benz cars division until 2013, when the production stopped due to poor sales volumes, it now exists under the Mercedes-Maybach name, with the models being ultra-luxury versions of Mercedes cars, such as the 2016 Mercedes-Maybach S600. Daimler cooperates with BYD Auto to sell a battery-electric car called Denza in China.
In 2016, Daimler announced plans to sell. Beside its native Germany, Mercedes-Benz vehicles are manufactured or assembled in: Since its inception, Mercedes-Benz has maintained a reputation for its quality and durability. Objective measures looking at passenger vehicles, such as J. D. Power surveys, demonstrated a downturn in reputation in these criteria in the late 1990s and early 2000s. By mid-2005, Mercedes temporarily returned to the industry average for initial quality, a measure of problems after the first 90 days of ownership, according to J. D. Power. In J. D. Power's Initial Quality Study for the first quarter of 2007, Mercedes showed dramatic improvement by climbing from 25th to 5th place and earning several awards for its models. For 2008, Mercedes-Benz's initial quality rating improved to fourth place. On top of this accolade, it received the Platinum Plant Quality Award for its Mercedes’ Sindelfingen, Germany assembly plant. J. D. Power's 2011 US Initial Quality and Vehicle Dependability Studies both ranked Mercedes-Benz vehicles above average in build quality and reliability.
In the 2011 UK J. D. Power Survey, Mercedes cars were rated above average. A 2014 iSeeCars.com study for Reuters found Mercedes to have the lowest vehicle recall rate. Mercedes-Benz offers a full range of light commercial and heavy commercial equipment. Vehicles are manufactured in multiple countries worldwide; the Smart marque of city cars are produced by Daimler AG
In vertebrates, cervical vertebrae are the vertebrae of the neck below the skull. Thoracic vertebrae in all mammalian species are those vertebrae that carry a pair of ribs, lie caudal to the cervical vertebrae. Further caudally follow the lumbar vertebrae, which belong to the trunk, but do not carry ribs. In reptiles, all trunk vertebrae are called dorsal vertebrae. In many species, though not in mammals, the cervical vertebrae bear ribs. In many other groups, such as lizards and saurischian dinosaurs, the cervical ribs are large; the vertebral transverse processes of mammals are homologous to the cervical ribs of other amniotes. Most mammals have 7 cervical vertebrae. In humans, cervical vertebrae are the smallest of the true vertebrae, can be distinguished from those of the thoracic or lumbar regions by the presence of a foramen in each transverse process, through which the vertebral artery, vertebral veins and inferior cervical ganglion pass; the remainder of this article focuses upon human anatomy.
By convention, the cervical vertebrae are numbered, with the first one closest to the skull and higher numbered vertebrae proceeding away from the skull and down the spine. The general characteristics of the third through sixth cervical vertebrae are described here; the first and seventh vertebrae are extraordinary, are detailed later. The bodies of these four vertebrae are small, broader from side to side than from front to back; the anterior and posterior surfaces are flattened and of equal depth. The upper surface is concave transversely, presents a projecting lip on either side; the lower surface is concave from front to back, convex from side to side, presents laterally shallow concavities that receive the corresponding projecting lips of the underlying vertebra. The pedicles are directed laterally and backward, attach to the body midway between its upper and lower borders, so that the superior vertebral notch is as deep as the inferior, but it is, at the same time, narrower; the laminae are narrow, thinner above than below.
The spinous process is short and bifid, the two divisions being of unequal size. Because the spinous processes are so short, certain superficial muscles attach to the nuchal ligament rather than directly to the vertebrae; the superior and inferior articular processes of cervical vertebrae have fused on either or both sides to form articular pillars, columns of bone that project laterally from the junction of the pedicle and lamina. The articular facets are flat and of an oval form: the superior face backward and medially; the inferior face forward and laterally. The transverse processes are each pierced by the foramen transversarium, which, in the upper six vertebrae, gives passage to the vertebral artery and vein, as well as a plexus of sympathetic nerves; each process consists of a posterior part. These two parts are joined, outside the foramen, by a bar of bone that exhibits a deep sulcus on its upper surface for the passage of the corresponding spinal nerve; the anterior portion is the homologue of the rib in the thoracic region, is therefore named the costal process or costal element.
It arises from the side of the body, is directed laterally in front of the foramen, ends in a tubercle, the anterior tubercle. The posterior part, the true transverse process, springs from the vertebral arch behind the foramen, is directed forward and laterally; the anterior tubercle of the sixth cervical vertebra is known as the carotid tubercle or Chassaignac tubercle. This separates the carotid artery from the vertebral artery and the carotid artery can be massaged against this tubercle to relieve the symptoms of supraventricular tachycardia; the carotid tubercle is used as a landmark for anaesthesia of the brachial plexus and cervical plexus. The cervical spinal nerves emerge from above the cervical vertebrae. For example, the cervical spinal nerve 3 passes above C3; the atlas and axis are the two topmost vertebrae. The atlas, C1, is the topmost vertebra, along with the axis, its chief peculiarity is that it has no body because the body of the atlas has been fused with that of the axis. The axis, C2, forms the pivot.
The most distinctive characteristic of this bone is the strong odontoid process that rises perpendicularly from the upper surface of the body. The body is deeper in front than behind, prolonged downward anteriorly so as to overlap the upper and front part of the third vertebra; the vertebra prominens, or C7, has a distinctive long and prominent spinous process, palpable from the skin surface. Sometimes, the seventh cervical vertebra is associated with an abnormal extra rib, known as a cervical rib, which develops from the anterior root of the transverse process; these ribs are small, but may compress blood vessels or nerves in the brachial plexus, causing pain, numbness and weakness in the upper limb, a condition known as thoracic outlet syndrome. This rib occurs in a pair; the long spinous process of C7 is thick and nearly horizontal in dire
Jaguar is the luxury vehicle brand of Jaguar Land Rover, a British multinational car manufacturer with its headquarters in Whitley, England. Jaguar Cars was the company, responsible for the production of Jaguar cars until its operations were merged with those of Land Rover to form Jaguar Land Rover on 1 January 2013. Jaguar's business was founded as the Swallow Sidecar Company in 1922 making motorcycle sidecars before developing bodies for passenger cars. Under the ownership of S. S. Cars Limited the business extended to complete cars made in association with Standard Motor Co, many bearing Jaguar as a model name; the company's name was changed from S. S. Cars to Jaguar Cars in 1945. A merger with the British Motor Corporation followed in 1966, the resulting enlarged company now being renamed as British Motor Holdings, which in 1968 merged with Leyland Motor Corporation and became British Leyland, itself to be nationalised in 1975. Jaguar was spun off from British Leyland and was listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1984, becoming a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index until it was acquired by Ford in 1990.
Jaguar has, in recent years, manufactured cars for the British Prime Minister, the most recent delivery being an XJ in May 2010. The company holds royal warrants from Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Charles. In 1990 Ford acquired Jaguar Cars and it remained in their ownership, joined in 2000 by Land Rover, till 2008. Ford sold both Jaguar and Land Rover to Tata Motors. Tata created Jaguar Land Rover as a subsidiary holding company. At operating company level, in 2013 Jaguar Cars was merged with Land Rover to form Jaguar Land Rover Limited as the single design, sales company and brand owner for both Jaguar and Land Rover vehicles. Since the Ford ownership era and Land Rover have used joint design facilities in engineering centres at Whitley in Coventry and Gaydon in Warwickshire and Jaguar cars have been assembled in plants at Castle Bromwich and Solihull; the Swallow Sidecar Company was founded in 1922 by two motorcycle enthusiasts, William Lyons and William Walmsley. In 1934 Walmsley elected to sell-out and in order to buy the Swallow business Lyons formed S.
S. Cars Limited, finding new capital by issuing shares to the public. Jaguar first appeared in September 1935 as a model name on an SS 2½-litre sports saloon. A matching open two seater sports model with a 3½-litre engine was named SS Jaguar 100. On 23 March 1945 the S. S. Cars shareholders in general meeting agreed to change the company's name to Jaguar Cars Limited. Said chairman William Lyons "Unlike S. S. the name Jaguar is distinctive and cannot be connected or confused with any similar foreign name."Though five years of pent-up demand ensured plenty of buyers production was hampered by shortage of materials steel, issued to manufacturers until the 1950s by a central planning authority under strict government control. Jaguar sold Motor Panels, a pressed steel body manufacturing company bought in the late 1930s, to steel and components manufacturer Rubery Owen, Jaguar bought from John Black's Standard Motor Company the plant where Standard built Jaguar's six-cylinder engines. From this time Jaguar was dependent for their bodies on external suppliers, in particular independent Pressed Steel and in 1966 that carried them into BMC, BMH and British Leyland.
Jaguar made its name by producing a series of successful eye-catching sports cars, the Jaguar XK120, Jaguar XK140, Jaguar XK150, Jaguar E-Type, all embodying Lyons' mantra of "value for money". The sports cars were successful in international motorsport, a path followed in the 1950s to prove the engineering integrity of the company's products. Jaguar's sales slogan for years was "Grace, Pace", a mantra epitomised by the record sales achieved by the MK VII, IX, Mks I and II saloons and the XJ6. During the time this slogan was used; the core of Bill Lyons' success following WWII was the twin-cam straight six engine, conceived pre-war and realised while engineers at the Coventry plant were dividing their time between fire-watching and designing the new power plant. It had a hemispherical cross-flow cylinder head with valves inclined from the vertical; as fuel octane ratings were low from 1948 onwards, three piston configuration were offered: domed and dished. The main designer, William "Bill" Heynes, assisted by Walter "Wally" Hassan, was determined to develop the Twin OHC unit.
Bill Lyons agreed over misgivings from Hassan. It was risky to take what had been considered a racing or low-volume and cantankerous engine needing constant fettling and apply it to reasonable volume production saloon cars; the subsequent engine was the mainstay powerplant of Jaguar, used in the XK 120, Mk VII Saloon, Mk I and II Saloons and XK 140 and 150. It was employed in the E Type, itself a development from the race winning and Le Mans conquering C and D Type Sports Racing cars refined as the short-lived XKSS, a road-legal D-Type. Few engine types have demonstrated such ubiquity and longevity: Jaguar used the Twin OHC XK Engine, as it came to be known, in the Jaguar XJ6 saloon from 1969 through 1992, employed in a J60 variant as the power plant in such diverse vehicles as the British Army's Combat Vehicle Reconnaissance family of vehicles, as well as the Fox armoured reconnaissance vehicle, the Ferret Scout Car, the Stonefield four-wheel-drive all-terrain lorry. Properly maintained, the standard production XK Engine would a
Saab Automobile AB was a manufacturer of automobiles, founded in Sweden in 1945 when its parent company, SAAB AB, began a project to design a small automobile. The first production model, the Saab 92, was launched in 1949. In 1968 the parent company merged with Scania-Vabis, ten years the Saab 900 was launched, in time becoming Saab's best-selling model. In the mid-1980s the new Saab 9000 model appeared. In 1989, the automobile division of Saab-Scania was restructured into an independent company, Saab Automobile AB; the American manufacturer General Motors took 50 percent ownership with an investment of US$600 million. Two well-known models to come out of this period were the Saab 9-3 and the Saab 9-5. In 2000, GM exercised its option to acquire the remaining 50 percent for a further US$125 million. In 2010 GM sold Saab Automobile AB to the Dutch automobile manufacturer Spyker Cars N. V. After struggling to avoid insolvency throughout 2011, the company petitioned for bankruptcy following the failure of a Chinese consortium to complete a purchase of the company.
On 13 June 2012, it was announced that a newly formed company called National Electric Vehicle Sweden had bought Saab Automobile's bankrupt estate. According to "Saab United", the first NEVS Saab 9-3 drove off its pre-production line on 19 September 2013. Full production restarted on 2 December 2013 the same gasoline-powered 9-3 Aero sedans that were built before Saab went bankrupt, intended to get the automaker’s supply chain reestablished as it attempted development of a new line of NEVS-Saab products. NEVS lost its license to manufacture automobiles under the Saab name in the summer of 2014 and now produces electric cars based on the Saab 9-3 but under its own new car designation "NEVS". Saab AB, "Svenska Aeroplan Aktiebolaget", a Swedish aerospace and defence company, was created in 1937 in Linköping; the company had been established in 1937 for the express purpose of building aircraft for the Swedish Air Force to protect the country's neutrality as Europe moved closer to World War II. As the war drew to a close and the market for fighter planes seemed to weaken, the company began looking for new markets in which to diversify.
An automobile design project was started in 1945 with the internal name "X9248". The design project became formally known as "Project 92". In 1948, a company site in Trollhättan was converted to allow automobile assembly and the project moved there, along with the car manufacturing headquarters, which has remained there since; the company made four prototypes named "Ursaab" or "original Saab", numbered 92001 through to 92004, before designing the production model, the Saab 92, in 1949. The Saab 92 went into production in December 1949; the 92 was redesigned and re-engineered in 1955, was renamed the "Saab 93". The car's engine gained a cylinder, going from two to three and its front fascia became the first to sport the first incarnation of Saab's trademark trapezoidal radiator grill. A wagon variant, the Saab 95, was added in 1959; the decade saw Saab's first performance car, the Saab 94, the first of the Saab Sonetts. 1960 saw the third major revision to the 92's platform in the Saab 96. The 96 was an important model for Saab: it was the first Saab to be exported out of Sweden.
The unusual vehicle proved popular, selling nearly 550,000 examples. Unlike American cars of the day, the 93, 95 and 96 all featured the 3-cylinder 2-cycle engine, which required adding oil to the gasoline tank, front-wheel drive, freewheeling, which allowed the driver to downshift the on-the-column manual shifter without using the clutch. Front seat shoulder belts were an early feature. More important to the company's fortunes was 1968's Saab 99; the 99 was the first all-new Saab in 19 years and a clean break from the 92. The 99 had many innovations and features that would come to define Saabs for decades: wraparound windscreen, self-repairing bumpers, headlamp washers and side-impact door beams; the design by Sixten Sason was no less revolutionary than the underlying technology, elements like the Saab hockey stick profile graphic continue to influence Saab design. In 1969, Saab AB merged with the Swedish commercial vehicle manufacturer Scania-Vabis AB to form Saab-Scania AB, under the Wallenberg family umbrella.
The 99 range was expanded in 1973 with the addition of a combi coupe model, a body style which became synonymous with Saab. The millionth Saab was produced in 1976. Saab entered into an agreement with Fiat in 1978 to sell a rebadged Lancia Delta as the Saab 600 and jointly develop a new platform; the agreement yielded sister to the Alfa Romeo 164, Fiat Croma and Lancia Thema. The 9000 was Saab's first proper luxury car. 1978 was the first year for the 99's replacement: the Saab 900. Nearly one million 900s would be produced, making it most iconic model. A popular convertible version followed in 1986, all of which were made at the Saab-Valmet factory in Finland, making up nearly 20% of 900 sales. Today, the "classic 900" retains a cult following. In 1989, the Saab car division of Saab-Scania was restructured into an independent company, Saab Automobile AB, headquartered in Sweden. GM's investment o