Cape Wrath is a cape in the Durness parish of the county of Sutherland in the Highlands of Scotland. It is the most north-westerly point in mainland Britain, the cape is separated from the rest of the mainland by the Kyle of Durness and consists of 107 square miles of moorland wilderness known as the Parph. The first road in the district was built in 1828 by the lighthouse commission across the Parph and this road is only accessible via the passenger ferry that crosses the Kyle of Durness. Much of the cape is owned by the Ministry of Defence and is used as a training area. Areas of it are designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest, a Special Protection Area, a Special Area of Conservation. The name Cape Wrath is derived from Old Norse hvarf, in this context Wrath is pronounced /ˈræθ/, in contrast to the ordinary English word wrath, usually pronounced /ˈrɒθ/ in British English. Vikings are believed to have used the cape as a point where they would turn their ships. Cape Wrath was once the home of a series of small crofting communities, in the 1930s it supported a population of 30 to 40 people, including a small side school at Achiemore which had up to ten pupils in the 1930s but closed in 1947.
Building remains at locations such as Kearvaig have been dated to the 18th century, the Cape has few archaeological remains which can be dated to earlier than this, although a promontory fort at Eilean nan Coarach to the east of the headland may date to the late prehistoric age. Much of the area has used for sheep grazing, a use which continues today. The area declined in population in the century and is now almost entirely unpopulated, although military. The Cape Wrath Lighthouse was built in 1828 and the road from the Kyle of Durness dates from the same period. A Lloyds of London signal station was close to the lighthouse at the end of the 19th century to track shipping around the Cape. On 27 September 1915, while sailing for Scapa Flow, HMS Caribbean foundered off Cape Wrath in bad weather, a tow by HMS Birkenhead was unsuccessful, and 15 died. The wreck was found in 2004,35 miles off Cape Wrath, in 96 metres of water, Cape Wrath is located in the traditional county of Sutherland within Highland Region.
Durness is the closest village,10 miles to the south-east with Inverness around 120 miles to the south, the sea cliffs around the cape are composed of Torridonian sandstone and Lewisian gneiss. These rise to 281 metres above sea level and include the highest sea cliffs on the British mainland at Clò Mòr around 4 miles to the east of the headland. Sea stacks, such as Stac an Dùnain at the cape itself and Stac Clò Kearvaig to the east, rise out of the sea off the coastline, with Duslic, a reef,0.6 miles north of the cape
Lands End is a headland and holiday complex in western Cornwall, England. It is the most westerly point of mainland Cornwall and England, is within the Penwith peninsula and is eight miles west-south-west of Penzance at the western end of the A30 road. The actual Land’s End or Peal Point, is a modest headland compared with nearby headlands such as Pedn-men-dhu overlooking Sennen Cove and Pordenack, the present hotel and tourist complex is at Carn Kez,200 m south of the actual Land’s End. Lands End has a particular resonance because it is used to suggest distance. Lands End to the northernmost point of England is a distance of 556 miles by road, there are two varieties of granite represented at Lands End. Adjacent to the hotel the granite is coarse-grained with large phenocrysts of orthoclase, the granite dates to 268–275 million years ago of the Permian period. The contact zone between the Lands End granite pluton and the altered ″country rocks″ is nearby and the Longships Lighthouse, Lands End is a popular venue for rock climbers.
The area around Lands End has been designated part of an Important Plant Area, by the organisation Plantlife, tourists have been visiting Land’s End for over two hundred years. In 1878 people left Penzance by horse-drawn vehicles from outside the Queens and Union hotels and travelled via St Buryan and Treen, there was a short stop to look at Porthcurno and the Eastern Telegraph Company followed by refreshments at the First and Last Inn in Sennen. They headed for Land’s End, often on foot or horse, because of the uneven, over one hundred people could be at Lands End at any one time. At Carn Kez, the First and Last Inn owned a house which looked after the horses while visitors roamed the cliffs. The house at Carn Kez eventually developed into the present hotel, the earliest part of the house was damaged by the Luftwaffe when a plane returning from a raid on Cardiff jettisoned its remaining bombs. A number of local fisherman were injured or killed, in the build-up to D-Day American troops were billeted in the hotel leaving the building in a bad state.
In 1987, Peter de Savary outbid the National Trust to purchase Land’s End for almost £7 million from David Goldstone and he had two new buildings erected and much of the present theme park development was instigated by him. He sold both Lands End and John o Groats to businessman Graham Ferguson Lacey in 1991, the current owners purchased Land’s End in 1996 and formed a company named Heritage Great Britain PLC. Attractions at the park include childrens playgrounds and recorded music. Twice a week in August, Lands End hosts Magic in the Skies, within the complex is the Lands End Hotel. In May 2012, Lands End received worldwide publicity as the point of the 2012 Summer Olympics torch relay
Cape of Good Hope
The Cape of Good Hope is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa. In fact, the southernmost point of Africa is Cape Agulhas, when following the western side of the African coastline from the equator, the Cape of Good Hope marks the point where a ship begins to travel more eastward than southward. Thus, the first modern rounding of the cape in 1488 by Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias was a milestone in the attempts by the Portuguese to establish trade relations with the Far East. Dias called the cape Cabo das Tormentas, which was the name of the Cape of Good Hope. As one of the capes of the South Atlantic Ocean. It is a waypoint on the Cape Route and the route followed by clipper ships to the Far East and Australia. The term Cape of Good Hope is used in three ways, It is a section of the Table Mountain National Park, within which the cape of the same name, as well as Cape Point. Prior to its incorporation into the park, this section constituted the Cape Point Nature Reserve.
It was the name of the early Cape Colony established by the Dutch in 1652, just before the Union of South Africa was formed, the term referred to the entire region that in 1910 was to become the Cape of Good Hope Province. When Eudoxus was returning from his voyage to India the wind forced him south of the Gulf of Aden. Somewhere along the coast of East Africa, he found the remains of the ship, due to its appearance and the story told by the natives, Eudoxus concluded that the ship was from Gades and had sailed anti-clockwise around Africa, passing the Cape and entering the Indian Ocean. This inspired him to repeat the voyage and attempt a circumnavigation of the continent, organising the expedition on his own account he set sail from Gades and began to work down the African coast. The difficulties were too great, and he was obliged to return to Europe, after this failure he again set out to circumnavigate Africa. Although some, such as Pliny, claimed that Eudoxus did achieve his goal, in the 1450 Fra Mauro map, the Indian Ocean is depicted as connected to the Atlantic.
It sailed for 40 days in a south-westerly direction without ever finding anything other than wind and water. According to these people themselves, the ship went some 2,000 miles ahead until - once favourable conditions came to an end - it turned round and sailed back to Cape Diab in 70 days. The ships called junks that navigate these seas carry four masts or more, some of which can be raised or lowered, and have 40 to 60 cabins for the merchants and only one tiller. They can navigate without a compass, because they have an astrologer, thus one can believe and confirm what is said by both these and those, and that they had therefore sailed 4,000 miles
Beachy Head is a chalk headland in East Sussex, England. It is situated close to Eastbourne, immediately east of the Seven Sisters, Beachy Head is located within the administrative area of Eastbourne Borough Council which owns the land. The cliff is the highest chalk sea cliff in Britain, rising to 162 metres above sea level, the peak allows views of the south east coast from Dungeness in the east, to Selsey Bill in the west. Its height has made it one of the most notorious suicide spots in the world. The chalk was formed in the Late Cretaceous epoch, between 66 and 100 million years ago, when the area was under the sea, during the Cenozoic Era, the chalk was uplifted. When the last Ice Age ended, sea levels rose and the English Channel formed, wave action contributes towards the erosion of cliffs around Beachy Head, which experience frequent small rock falls. Since chalk forms in layers separated by bands of flints. Wave action undermines the lower cliffs, causing frequent slab failures - slabs from layers of chalk break off, undermining the upper parts of the cliffs, in contrast to small rock falls, mass movements are less common.
A mass movement happened in 2001 when, after a winter of heavy rain and this made the cliff edge erode and collapse into the sea, destroying a well-known chalk stack called the Devils Chimney. The name Beachy Head appears as Beauchef in 1274, and was Beaucheif in 1317, becoming consistently Beachy Head by 1724, instead it is a corruption of the original French words meaning beautiful headland. In 1929 Eastbourne bought 4,000 acres of land surrounding Beachy Head to save it from development at a cost of about £100,000, the prominence of Beachy Head has made it a landmark for sailors in the English Channel. The ashes of German social scientist and philosopher Friedrich Engels, one of the fathers of communism, were scattered off the cliffs at Beachy Head into the Channel and she has become known as Beachy Head Lady. The headland was a danger to shipping, in 1831, construction began on the Belle Tout lighthouse on the next headland west from Beachy Head. Because mist and low clouds could hide the light of Belle Tout, the third day of fighting in the Battle of Portland in 1653 took place off Beachy Head during the First Anglo-Dutch War.
The Battle of Beachy Head in 1690 was an engagement during the Nine Years War. The so-called Second Battle of Beachy Head took place over a week in September 1916 during the First World War, three German U-Boats sank 30 merchant ships between Beachy Head and the Eddystone. This was despite an effort involving the Royal Navy and 49 destroyers,48 torpedo boats. During the Second World War, the Royal Air Force established a relay station at Beachy Head to improve radio communications with aircraft
A coastline or a seashore is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake. A precise line that can be called a coastline cannot be determined due to the Coastline paradox, the term coastal zone is a region where interaction of the sea and land processes occurs. Both the terms coast and coastal are often used to describe a location or region, for example, New Zealands West Coast. Edinburgh for example is a city on the coast of Scotland, a pelagic coast refers to a coast which fronts the open ocean, as opposed to a more sheltered coast in a gulf or bay. A shore, on the hand, can refer to parts of the land which adjoin any large body of water, including oceans. Similarly, the related term refers to the land alongside or sloping down to a river or to a body of water smaller than a lake. Bank is used in parts of the world to refer to an artificial ridge of earth intended to retain the water of a river or pond. According to the UN atlas, 44% of people live within 150 kilometres of the sea, tides often determine the range over which sediment is deposited or eroded.
Areas with high tidal ranges allow waves to reach farther up the shore, the tidal range is influenced by the size and shape of the coastline. Tides do not typically cause erosion by themselves, tidal bores can erode as the waves surge up river estuaries from the ocean. Waves erode coastline as they break on shore releasing their energy, the larger the wave the more energy it releases and the more sediment it moves. Coastlines with longer shores have more room for the waves to disperse their energy, while coasts with cliffs and short shore faces give little room for the wave energy to be dispersed. In these areas the wave energy breaking against the cliffs is higher, sediment deposited by waves comes from eroded cliff faces and is moved along the coastline by the waves. This forms an abrasion or cliffed coast, sediment deposited by rivers is the dominant influence on the amount of sediment located on a coastline. Today riverine deposition at the coast is often blocked by dams and other human regulatory devices, like the ocean which shapes them, coasts are a dynamic environment with constant change.
The coast and its adjacent areas on and off shore are an important part of a local ecosystem, Salt marshes and beaches support a diversity of plants and insects crucial to the food chain. The high level of biodiversity creates a level of biological activity. More and more of the people live in coastal regions
Cabo San Lucas
Cabo San Lucas, commonly called Cabo in American English, is a city at the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula, in the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. Cabo San Lucas together with San José del Cabo is known as Los Cabos. Cabo has been rated as one of Mexicos top 5 tourist destinations, it is known for its beaches, scuba diving locations, the sea arch El Arco de Cabo San Lucas, and marine life. The Los Cabos Corridor has become a heavily trafficked holiday destination for tourists, with numerous resorts, Cabo houses a range of wildlife, including rays, birds, and a range of fish, such as mahi-mahi, and striped marlin. Archaeological excavations have shown evidence of human habitation in the area for at least 10,000 years. When the first Europeans arrived, they encountered the Pericú people, who survived on a diet based on hunting and gathering seeds, shellfish. According to the narrative of Hatsutaro, a Japanese castaway, in the book Kaigai Ibun, American authors such as Henry Edwards and John Ross Browne claim that Cabo San Lucass founder was an Englishman named Thomas Old Tom Ritchie.
John Ross Browne says Ritchie arrived there about 1828, while Edwards says that he died in October 1874, a fishing village began growing in the area. In 1917, an American company built a platform to catch tuna. The plant operated for several years, Cabo San Lucas has become a prominent vacation and spa destination, with a variety of sites of interest and timeshares that have been built on the coast between San Lucas and San José del Cabo. The distinctive Arco de Cabo San Lucas is a local landmark, Cabo San Lucas has the highest paying marlin tournament in the world. In the winter, pods of whales can be observed in the area and they bear their calves in the warm waters of the Gulf of California after completing their 6000-mile migration from Alaska and Siberia. The development of Cabos tourism industry was prompted by the Mexican governments development of infrastructure to turn Cabo San Lucas into a center for tourism in Mexico. Upon completion of the Transpeninsular Highway, known as the Mexican Federal Highway 1, there is, however, a growing collection of activists and attorneys now involved in preserving many of Bajas desert habitats, marine mammals, and stretches of coastline.
It is expected that by 20184,000 new sleeping rooms will come online in Cabo, Cabo San Lucas and San José del Cabo are served by Los Cabos International Airport. The town is a port of call for many cruise ships. Cabo San Lucas has a small airfield, which handles air traffic for general aviation flights. Many tourists get around the area through the numerous local taxis that service the primary parts of Cabo, as well as the Corridor and the airport
A landform is a natural feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body. Landforms together make up a given terrain, and their arrangement in the landscape is known as topography, landforms are categorized by characteristic physical attributes such as elevation, orientation, rock exposure, and soil type. Oceans and continents exemplify the highest-order landforms, landform elements are parts of a high-order landforms that can be further identified and systematically given a cohesive definition such as hill-tops, saddles and backslopes. Some generic landform elements including, peaks, ridges, pools, Terrain is the third or vertical dimension of land surface. Topography is the study of terrain, although the word is used as a synonym for relief itself. When relief is described underwater, the term bathymetry is used, in cartography, many different techniques are used to describe relief, including contour lines and TIN. Elementary landforms are the smallest homogeneous divisions of the land surface and these are areas with relatively homogeneous morphometric properties, bounded by lines of discontinuity. A plateau or a hill can be observed at various scales ranging from few hundred meters to hundreds of kilometers, the spatial distribution of landforms is often scale-dependent as is the case for soils and geological strata. A number of factors, ranging from plate tectonics to erosion and deposition, can generate, landforms do not include man-made features, such as canals and many harbors, and geographic features, such as deserts and grasslands.
Many of the terms are not restricted to refer to features of the planet Earth, examples are mountains, polar caps, and valleys, which are found on all of the terrestrial planets. The scientific study of landforms is known as geomorphology, landforms may be extracted from a digital elevation model using some automated techniques where the data has been gathered by modern satellites and stereoscopic aerial surveillance cameras. Until recently, compiling the data found in data sets required time consuming. The most detailed DEMs available are measured directly using LIDAR techniques, geomorphology Land List of landforms Open-geomorphometry project Terrain Open-Geomorphometry Project
In geography, a cape is a headland or a promontory of large size extending into a body of water, usually the sea. A cape usually represents a change in trend of the coastline. Their proximity to the makes them prone to natural forms of erosion. This results in capes having a relatively short geologic lifespan, capes can be formed by glaciers and changes in sea level. Erosion plays a role in each of these methods of formation. Eritrea–Sudan Ras Kasar Ghana Cape Coast Liberia Cape Mesurado - The Cape on which Monrovia is located, separates the Golden Horn Bay from the Sea of Marmara
Cape Finisterre is a rock-bound peninsula on the west coast of Galicia, Spain. In Roman times it was believed to be the end of the known world, the name Finisterre, like that of Finistère in France, derives from the Latin finis terrae, meaning end of the earth. It is sometimes said to be the westernmost point of the Iberian Peninsula, Cabo da Roca in Portugal is about 16.5 kilometres further west and thus the westernmost point of continental Europe. Even in Spain Cabo Touriñán is farther west, Monte Facho is the name of the mountain on Cape Finisterre, which has a peak that is 238 metres above sea level. A prominent lighthouse is at the top of Monte Facho, the seaside town of Fisterra is nearby. The Artabri were an ancient Gallaecian Celtic tribe that inhabited the area. Cape Finisterre has some beaches, including O Rostro, Mar de Fora, Riveira. Many of the beaches are framed by steep cliffs leading down to the Mare Tenebrosum, there are several rocks in this area associated with religious legends, such as the holy stones, the stained wine stones, the stone chair, and the tomb of the Celtic crone-goddess Orcabella.
Cape Finisterre is the destination for many pilgrims on the Way of St. James. Cape Finisterre is about a 90-km walk from Santiago de Compostela and it is a recent tradition for pilgrims to burn their clothes or boots at the end of their journey at Cape Finisterre. The origin of the pilgrimage to Finisterre is not certain, however, it is believed to date from pre-Christian times and was possibly associated with Finisterres status as the edge of the world. The tradition continued in medieval times, when hospitals were established to cater to pilgrims along the route from Santiago de Compostela to Finisterre, some pilgrims continue on to Muxía, which is a days walk away. In the area there are many pre-Christian sacred locations, there was an Altar Soli on Cape Finisterre, where the Celts engaged in sun worship and assorted rituals. Greco-Roman historians called the residents of Cape Finisterre the Nerios. Monte Facho was the place where the Celtic Nerios from Duio carried out their offerings, Monte Facho is the site of current archaeological investigations and there is evidence of habitation on Monte Facho circa 1000 BCE.
There is a Roman Road to the top of Monte Facho, San Guillerme, known as St. William of Penacorada, lived in a house located on Monte Facho. Near San Guillermes house is a stone now known as St Williams Stone, sterile couples used to copulate on St. Williams Stone to try to conceive, following a Celtic rite of fertility. This was where the Phoenicians sailed from to trade with Bronze Age Britain, because it is a prominent landfall on the route from northern Europe to the Mediterranean, several nearby battles are named the Battle of Cape Finisterre
St Bees Head
St Bees Head is a headland on the North West coast of the English county of Cumbria and is named after the nearby village of St Bees. It is the stretch of Heritage Coast on the English coastline between the Welsh and Scottish borders, and is a Site of Special Scientific Interest. The sea off the Head is protected as part of the Cumbria Coast Marine Conservation Zone and it lies on two long-distance footpaths, the Cumbria Coastal Way and Wainwright Coast to Coast. Both long-distance footpaths follow the edge of the cliffs, which rise to 90 metres above sea level, the true geographical head is the North Head, which is the most westerly point of Northern England and is the site of St Bees Lighthouse. During WW2 a radar station was operated here, and some of the buildings can still be seen adjacent to the lighthouse. The foghorn building is to the west of the lighthouse, but is now disused, the lighthouse is still operating, but is unmanned. Next to the path north of the lighthouse is Birkhams quarry which is still in use for extracting St Bees sandstone.
The rocks on the sea platform at the North Head are now a popular bouldering area for climbers. The RSPB maintains a reserve, which includes kittiwakes, guillemots, cormorants, shags and it is the only breeding place in England for black guillemots. There are observation stations on the North Head footpath, the South Head is known locally as Tomlin and dominates the long sandy St Bees Beach. At the top of the footpath from St Bees are the remains of the coastguard lookout and this now has a viewing table in its ruins. Between the two headlands is Fleswick Bay and this is accessible only on foot or from the sea, and is a spectacular location consisting of a shingle beach on a wave cut platform bounded by high sandstone cliffs. The coast to coast walk descends to the bay en route to the North Head, the rugged cliff face supports diverse flora mainly due to the nature of the rock formations. Near the cliff top is bloody cranesbill - Geranium sanguineum, Wood vetch - Viccia sylvatica, Orpine - Sedum telephium and soft shield-fern - Polystichum setiferum.
Along the cliff top, there can be found Dyer’s greenweed - Genista tinctoria, western gorse - Ulex gallii, heather - Calluna vulgaris, the cliffs are composed of a red Permian and Triassic sandstone about 200 Million years old. St Bees sandstone was created by water borne sand and has a small grain size. The mica in the stone gives it a sparkling effect, St Bees sandstone occurs as far north as Brampton, but it is named after its most prominent outcrop here at St Bees. The SSSI citation carries a description of the geological features