Downtown Cleveland is the central business district of Cleveland, Ohio. It is the symbolic center of the Cleveland-Akron-Canton, OH Combined Statistical Area. Reinvestment in the area in the mid-1990s spurred a rebirth in Downtown, with the residential population growing from 7,261 in 1990 to 9,599 in 2000 and 11,693 in 2010, it had the largest population growth, by percentage, of any Cleveland neighborhood over that time. The neighborhood's population was estimated at 15,000 in September 2017, with another 1,000 rental units becoming available by the end of 2017; the Downtown Cleveland Alliance, a nonprofit which promotes the area, said that the neighborhood's population could hit more than 20,000 by 2020 if all 17 anticipated housing projects were completed. Between 2010 and 2014, Downtown Cleveland saw more than $4.5 billion in residential and commercial developments. In 2012, Forbes included Downtown Cleveland in a list of "15 U. S. Cities Emerging Downtown"; as of 2000, 100,000 people worked in the district, which in 2012 contained more than 16 million square feet of rentable office space.
The heart of downtown and the city's first settled area, Public Square was laid out by city founder Moses Cleaveland in 1796 and has remained unchanged. It consists of a large open space, cut into quadrants by Superior Avenue. Public Square is the symbolic heart of the city, has hosted presidents, vast congregations of people, a free annual 4th of July concert by the Cleveland Orchestra. At one time, Public Square was inaccessible to vehicles. In 1860, the Perry Monument, a memorial to Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry's victory in the Battle of Lake Erie in the War of 1812, was dedicated in the center of Public Square. In 1892, it was moved out of the square, which by had the fences removed after lobbying by commercial interests. Public Square is home to the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, which commemorates residents of Cuyahoga County who served in the Civil War. Public Square features a statue of Cleaveland; the Consulate-General of Slovenia in Cleveland is in the 55 Public Square building. Notable buildings on Public Square include the Terminal Tower, home to Tower City Center, 200 Public Square - the former BP Building, as well as Key Tower, the tallest building in Ohio and one of the tallest in the United States.
Public Square is home to the historic Old Stone Church, completed in 1855. The west side of Public Square was to become the headquarters of the Cleveland Trust Company called Ameritrust, but the project was cancelled after Ameritrust was purchased and merged into Key Bank, leaving that side of the square open to this day, with only a surface parking lot on the site; the classic Higbee's department store building is home to the Jack Cleveland Casino, since its opening on May 14, 2012. An early residential neighborhood, The Warehouse District was built into a warehousing and shipping neighborhood during the industrial rise of Cleveland, Within the past few decades, it has been converted again back into an entertainment and residential hub; the Warehouse District is the largest downtown neighborhood by population, continues to grow with an assortment of shops, clubs and loft condos/apartments. West Sixth Street is known as the heart of the district. Famously, the 17-story Rockefeller Building sits on the corner West Sixth and Superior Ave erected by John D. Rockefeller.
Revitalization of the Historic Gateway District began in the 1990s with the Gateway Project, which included construction of Progressive Field and Rocket Mortgage FieldHouse, the homes of the MLB Cleveland Indians, NBA Cleveland Cavaliers, AFL Cleveland Gladiators, AHL Cleveland Monsters. The Gateway complex was built on parking lots on the site of a former produce market; the baseball stadium and basketball arena are connected to Tower City Center, RTA's rail transit system, via an enclosed walkway. The neighborhood includes retail, a large variety of restaurants. East 4th Street is a popular restaurant and entertainment street near Progressive Field and Quicken Loans Arena, it is home to Cleveland's House of Blues, Iron Chef Michael Symon's Lola Bistro, comedy club/restaurant Pickwick and Frolic, as well as a dozen other dining and retail storefronts. The neighborhood is home to hundreds of residents who live in the apartments and loft condominiums above the storefronts; the neighborhood houses the Cleveland Arcade, the first indoor shopping mall in the United States.
Home to the second-largest performing arts complex in the U. S. Playhouse Square Center in the Cleveland Theater District is downtown's cultural heart; the area is dominated by five historic theaters built during the 1920s -- State, Allen and Palace theaters are all located in a cluster near the intersection of Euclid Avenue and E. 14th Street. Additionally, the smaller theaters include the 14th Street Theater, Kennedy's Theater, Westfield Insurance Studio Theater, Second Stage, Helen Rosenfeld Lewis Bialosky Lab Theatre. WVIZ-TV 25, WCPN FM 90.3, classical music station WCLV FM 104.9 teamed up with Playhouse Square to renovate the former Playhouse Square Building, an empty office building, transforming it into One Playhouse Square, a downtown broadcast headquarters. The building is now known as the Idea Center, includes high definition television studios, control rooms, radio studios, performance space fronting Euclid Avenue, as well as a variety of high-tech business startups and other tenants located
Euclid Avenue (Cleveland)
Euclid Avenue is a major street in Cleveland, Ohio. It runs northeasterly from Public Square in Downtown Cleveland, through the cities of East Cleveland and Wickliffe, to the suburb of Willoughby as a part of U. S. Route 20 and U. S. Route 6; the street passes Playhouse Square, University Circle, Cleveland State University, the Cleveland Clinic, Severance Hall, Case Western Reserve University’s Maltz Performing Arts Center, Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals Case Medical Center. The HealthLine bus rapid transit line runs in designated bus lanes in the median of Euclid Avenue from Public Square to Louis Stokes Station at Windermere in East Cleveland, it received nationwide attention from the 1860s to the 1920s for its beauty and wealth, including a string of mansions that came to be known as Millionaires' Row. There are several theaters and churches along Euclid, as well as Cleveland's oldest extant building, the Dunham Tavern. A large reconstruction project, which brought the HealthLine to the street, was completed in 2008.
In the second half of the 19th century and early in the 20th century, Euclid Avenue was internationally known. Baedeker's Travel Guides called the elm-lined avenue "The Showplace of America", designated it as a must see for travelers from Europe; the concentration of wealth was unparalleled. Accounts at the time compared it to the Avenue des Champs-Élysées in Paris and the Unter den Linden in Berlin. Families living along "Millionaires' Row" included those of John D. Rockefeller, Sylvester T. Everett, Isaac N. Pennock I, arc light inventor Charles F. Brush, George Worthington, Horace Weddell, Marcus Hanna, Ambrose Swasey, Amasa Stone, John Hay, Jeptha Wade, Alfred Atmore Pope, Charles E. J. Lang, Worthy S. Streator, Mary Corinne Quintrell, Charles Lathrop Pack. Euclid Avenue's most infamous resident was con artist Cassie Chadwick, the wife of Leroy Chadwick, unaware that his wife was passing herself off to bankers as the illegitimate daughter of steel magnate Andrew Carnegie. Architect Charles F. Schweinfurth designed at least 15 mansions on the street.
Samuel Mather's mansion, "was among the last" to be built on Euclid Avenue. The Mather Mansion remains as part of Cleveland State University, but most of the homes were demolished. Charles Lathrop Pack is credited with at least part of the development of Euclid Avenue, on which he lived from about 1888 to the early years of the 20th century, into a thriving business district. According to Eyle, "In 1913, an article about Charles reported that'inside of ten years...the have disappeared. In their stead are skyscrapers, great retail establishments, magnificent banks, a hotel that cost $2,000,000. Much of the land is leased for long periods, he helped to organize the companies. It is said that his rentals, out of which not a penny is subtracted for taxes or anything else, amount to $100,000 a year."As Cleveland's commercial district began to push eastward along Euclid Avenue, families moved east towards University Circle. However, southeast of University Circle, the topography of the area rises into what is referred to as "The Heights," and the development of Cleveland Heights and Shaker Heights, along with more efficient means of travel, became more attractive than the commercialized Euclid Avenue.
By the 1920s, the former "Millionaires' Row" was in decline. During the Great Depression, many mansions were converted by their owners into rooming houses, which accelerated the decline. In the 1950s, Cleveland's Innerbelt Freeway cut through the Euclid Avenue neighborhood between downtown and the rail crossing at East 55th Street. By the 1960s, the street that once rivaled Fifth Avenue as the most expensive address in America was a two-mile long slum of commercial buildings and substandard housing. In the late 1960s, Cleveland Cavaliers owner Nick Mileti announced plans to move the basketball club from Euclid Avenue's Cleveland Arena to a new arena in suburban Richfield Township. Eight houses from the era remain on Euclid, including the Samuel Mather and Howe mansions owned and used by Cleveland State University. One of the most recent to be demolished was the Lyman Treadway Mansion, which served as part of the Cleveland Museum of Health from the 1930s until it was razed in 2002 for a new museum building.
The Euclid Avenue Historic District is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. On August 5, 1914, the American Traffic Signal Company installed a traffic signal system on the corner of East 105th Street and Euclid Avenue, the first traffic light installed in the United States. In their 1949 musical South Pacific and Hammerstein indirectly acknowledged the street's fame. In the script, Captain Brackett sends a grass skirt to one "Amelia Fortuna, 325 Euclid Avenue, Shaker Heights, Ohio". Theaters on Euclid include the Allen Theatre, State Theatre, Ohio Theatre, Palace Theater. In April 2006, parts of Euclid Avenue were closed to traffic for the filming of a scene from the film Spider-Man 3. No major stars were on location. Most of the filming invo
The BRT Standard is an evaluation tool for Bus Rapid Transit corridors around the world, based on international best practices. The Standard establishes a common definition for BRT and identifies BRT best practices, as well as functioning as a scoring system to allow BRT corridors to be evaluated and recognized for their superior design and management aspects; the Standard was conceived by the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy in 2012 to ensure that BRT corridors worldwide meet a minimum quality standard and deliver consistent passenger and environmental benefits. In addition to serving as an overview of BRT design elements, the Standard can be used to evaluate existing BRT corridors and certify them as a Basic, Silver, or Gold rated corridors. Corridors which fail to meet minimum standards for Basic ratings are not considered to be BRT; the latest edition of the Standard was published in 2016. First released in 2012, the BRT Standard was created “to establish a common definition of bus rapid transit and ensure that BRT corridors more uniformly deliver world-class passenger experiences, significant economic benefits, positive environmental impact”.
The Standard was developed in response to a lack of consensus among planners and engineers as to what constitutes a true BRT corridor. Without a clear definition, the term BRT was used for corridors that provided only minor improvements in bus service and lacked the elements of BRT that make it competitive with light rail or metro alternatives; this caused a backlash against the BRT "brand", confusion as to its benefits. The 2014 edition made some improvements to the methodology, including adjustments to the corridor definition, infrequent-service penalties, increased emphasis on basics. In order to allow BRT corridors in downtown areas to qualify as BRT, the definition of a BRT corridor has been reduced to 3 km in length; the peak and off-peak frequency design metrics have been removed, penalties for low peak and off-peak frequencies have been added. An additional point was added to each of the BRT basic elements, to put greater emphasis on the basic elements of a BRT corridor; the BRT Standard was developed and continues to be updated by a technical committee, with strategic direction and guidance from several organizations.
The 2014 Technical Committee consisted of: Manfred Breithaupt,Wagner Colombini Martins, Dario Hidalgo, Walter Hook, Colleen McCaul, Gerhard Menckhoff, CarlosFelipe Pardo, Scott Rutherford, Pedro Szasz, Lloyd Wright. The Standard further incorporates advice from, has the institutional endorsement of ITDP, GIZ, ClimateWorks Foundation, UN Habitat, Barr Foundation, UNEP, ICCT, the Rockefeller Foundation; the BRT Standard creates a concrete “minimum standard”, identifying several critical design elements that must be present for a corridors to qualify as BRT. For each element, a best practice is identified, along with benchmarks for partial achievement of the feature. There are five essential characteristics of a BRT corridor. Dedicated right-of-way — An exclusive right-of-way is vital to ensuring that buses can move and unimpeded by congestion. Enforcement of the dedicated lane can be handled in different ways, such as delineators, bollards, or colorized pavement. Busway alignment — Alignment of traffic lane so that conflicts with other traffic can be minimized.
Options include exclusive bus only corridor, median aligned and curb aligned Off-board fare collection — Collecting fares before boarding, either through a “barrier controlled” or “proof-of-payment” method, is one of the most important factors in reducing station dwell time and therefore total travel time, thus improving the customer experience. Intersection treatments — There are several ways to increase bus speeds at intersections, all of which are aimed at increasing the green signal time for the bus lane. Forbidding turns across the bus lane and minimizing the number of traffic-signal phases where possible are the most important. Traffic-signal priority when activated by an approaching BRT vehicle is useful in lower-frequency corridors. Platform-level boarding — Having the bus-station platform level with the bus floor is one of the most important ways of reducing boarding and alighting times per passenger; the reduction or elimination of the vehicle-to-platform gap is key to customer safety and comfort.
A range of measures can be used to achieve platform gaps of less than 5 cm, including guided busways at stations, alignment markers, Kassel curbs, boarding bridges. In addition to BRT basics, the Standard identifies several categories of BRT elements and characteristics which contribute to superior BRT corridors: Service Planning — multiple routes, peak frequency buses, hours of operation Infrastructure — passing lanes at stations, minimizing vehicle exhaust emissions, improved pavement quality Station Design and Station-Bus Interface — safe and comfortable stations, number of doors on bus, reasonable distances between stations Quality of Service and Passenger Information Systems — branding and passenger information Integration and Access — integration with other transportation, secure bicycle parking, universal access Points are awarded for those elements of BRT corridors that most improve operational performance and quality of service; the points act as proxies for a higher quality of customer service.
For each element identified in the BRT Standard, a maximum point value is assigned. A given BRT corridor is rated based on how it
Bus priority or transit signal priority is a name for various techniques to improve service and reduce delay for mass transit vehicles at intersections controlled by traffic signals. TSP techniques are most associated with buses, but can be used along tram/streetcar or light rail lines those that mix with or conflict with general vehicular traffic. Transit signal priority techniques can be classified as "active" or "passive". Passive TSP techniques involve optimizing signal timing or coordinating successive signals to create a “green wave” for traffic along the transit line's route. Passive techniques require no specialized hardware and rely on improving traffic for all vehicles along the transit vehicle's route. Active TSP techniques rely on detecting transit vehicles as they approach an intersection and adjusting the signal timing dynamically to improve service for the transit vehicle. Unlike passive techniques, active TSP requires specialized hardware: the detection system involves a transmitter on the transit vehicle and one or more receivers, the signal controller must be “TSP capable”, i.e. sophisticated enough to perform the required timing adjustments.
Active strategies include: Green Extension: This strategy is used to extend the green interval by up to a preset maximum value if a transit vehicle is approaching. Detectors are located so that any transit vehicle that would just miss the green light extends the green and is able to clear the intersection rather than waiting through an entire red interval. Green Extension provides a benefit to a small percentage of buses, but the reduction in delay for those buses that do benefit is large. Early Green: This strategy is used to shorten the conflicting phases whenever a bus arrives at a red light in order to return to the bus's phase sooner; the conflicting phases are not ended like they are for emergency vehicle preemption systems but are shortened by a predetermined amount. Early green benefits a large portion of buses but provides a modest benefit to those buses. Early green can be combined with green extension at the same intersection to increase the average benefits for transit. Early Red: If a transit vehicle is approaching during a green interval, but is far enough away that the light would change to red by the time it arrives, the green interval is ended early and the conflicting phases are served.
The signal can return to the transit vehicle's phase sooner than it otherwise would. Early red is theoretical and is not used in practice. Phase Rotation: The order of phases at the intersection can be shuffled so that transit vehicles arrive during the phase they need. For example, it is common for traffic controllers to give protected left turn phases followed by the adjacent through phases. A signal with phase rotation enabled could switch from its normal leading left operation to a lagging left sequence if a left-turning bus is expected to arrive after the scheduled leading left phase would end. Actuated Transit Phase: These are phases that are only called if a transit vehicle is present; these might be seen on dedicated bus lanes. They could be used where transit vehicles are allowed to make movements that general traffic is not or at the entrances and exits to transit hubs. Transit signal faces look different from a standard green/yellow/red face to avoid confusion with the signals for general traffic.
For example, bus traffic signals may show a letter "B" while trams and Light Rail Vehicles may show a letter "T". Phase Insertion: This strategy allows a signal controller to return to a critical phase more than once in the same cycle if transit vehicles that use that phase are detected. For example, if a left-turning bus arrives at an intersection after the left turn phase has been served, the signal can insert a second left turn phase before proceeding to serve the side street. Bus lane Bus rapid transit City Gate Traffic engineering Traffic signal preemption Transit Signal Priority: A Planning and Implementation Handbook at the Wayback Machine by the Federal Transit Administration This Futuristic Transport System Could End Traffic Jams on YouTube by NBC News
Bus rapid transit
Bus rapid transit called a busway or transitway, is a bus-based public transport system designed to improve capacity and reliability relative to a conventional bus system. A BRT system includes roadways that are dedicated to buses, gives priority to buses at intersections where buses may interact with other traffic. BRT aims to combine the capacity and speed of a metro with the flexibility, lower cost and simplicity of a bus system; the first BRT system was the Rede Integrada de Transporte in Curitiba, which entered service in 1974. As of March 2018, a total of 166 cities in six continents have implemented BRT systems, accounting for 4,906 km of BRT lanes and about 32.2 million passengers every day, of which about 19.6 million passengers ride daily in Latin America, which has the most cities with BRT systems, with 54, led by Brazil with 21 cities. The Latin American countries with the most daily ridership are Brazil and Mexico. In the other regions and Iran stand out. TransJakarta is considered as the largest BRT network in the world with 230.9 kilometres of corridors connecting the Indonesian capital city.
Bus rapid transit takes its name from rail rapid transit, which describes a high-capacity urban public-transit system with its own right of way, multiple-car vehicles at short headways, longer stop spacing than traditional streetcars and buses. BRT uses buses on a wide variety of rights-of-way, including mixed traffic, dedicated lanes on surface streets, busways separated from traffic; the expression "BRT" is used in the Americas and China. Critics have charged that the term "bus rapid transit" has sometimes been misapplied to systems that lack most or all the essential features which differentiate it from conventional bus services; the term "bus rapid transit creep" has been used to describe degraded levels of bus service which fall far short of the BRT Standard promoted by the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy and other organizations. The first use of a protected busway was the East Side Trolley Tunnel in Rhode Island, it was converted from trolley to bus use in 1948. However, the first BRT system in the world was the OC Transpo system in Canada.
Introduced in 1973, the first element of its BRT system was dedicated bus lanes through the city centre, with platformed stops. The introduction of the first exclusive separate busways occurred in 1983. By 1996, all of the envisioned 31 km Transitway system was in operation; as of 2017, the central part of the Transitway is being converted to a Light Rail Transit, due to the downtown section being operated beyond its designed capacity. The second BRT system in the world was the Rede Integrada de Transporte, implemented in Curitiba, Brazil, in 1974. Most of the elements that have become associated with BRT were innovations first suggested by Curitiba Mayor Architect Jaime Lerner. Just dedicated bus lanes in the center of major arterial roads, in 1980 the Curitiba system added a feeder bus network and inter-zone connections, in 1992 introduced off-board fare collection, enclosed stations, platform-level boarding. Other systems made further innovations, including platooning in Porto Alegre, passing lanes and express service in São Paulo.
In the United States, BRT began in 1977, with Pittsburgh's South Busway, operating on 4.3 miles of exclusive lanes. Its success led to the Martin Luther King Jr. East Busway in 1983, a fuller BRT deployment including a dedicated busway of 9.1 miles, traffic signal preemption, peak service headway as low as two minutes. After the opening of the West Busway, 5.1 miles in length in 1990, Pittsburgh’s Busway system is today over 18.5 miles long. In 1995, Ecuador, opened trolleybus BRT; the TransMilenio in Bogotá, opening in 2000, was the first BRT system to combine the best elements of Curitiba's BRT with other BRT advances, achieved the highest capacity and highest speed BRT system in the world. The success of TransMilenio spurred other cities to develop high quality BRT systems. In January 2004 the first BRT in Asia, TransJakarta, opened in Indonesia; as of 2015, at 210 kilometres, it is the longest BRT system in the world. Africa's first BRT system was opened in Lagos, Nigeria, in March 2008 but is considered as a light BRT system by many people.
Johannesburg’s BRT, Rea Vaya, was the first true BRT in Africa, in August 2009, carrying 16,000 daily passengers. Rea Vaya and MIO were the first two systems to combine full BRT with some services that operated in mixed traffic joined the BRT trunk infrastructure. BRT systems include most of the following features: Bus-only lanes make for faster travel and ensure that buses are not delayed by mixed traffic congestion. A median alignment bus-only keeps buses away from busy curb-side side conflicts, where cars and trucks are parking and turning. Separate rights of way may be used such as the elevated Xiamen BRT. Transit malls or'bus streets' may be created in city centers. Fare prepayment at the station, instead of on board the bus, eliminates the delay caused by passengers paying on board. P
The HealthLine is a bus rapid transit line run by the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority in Cleveland and East Cleveland, United States. The line runs along Euclid Avenue from Public Square in downtown Cleveland to the Louis Stokes Station at Windermere in East Cleveland, it began operation on October 24, 2008. Its current name was the result of a naming rights deal with the Cleveland Clinic and University Hospitals of Cleveland; the HealthLine is denoted with a silver color and abbreviated as HL on most RTA publications. By late 2009, ridership had expanded 47 percent compared to the former line running along the same route prior to the completion of the Euclid Corridor project and the creation of the HealthLine; the Healthline is the top rated BRT system in the United States with a Silver rating according to the BRT Standard. The HealthLine route travels 6.8 miles along Euclid Avenue from Public Square in Downtown Cleveland to Louis Stokes Station at Windermere in East Cleveland. It passes through the neighborhoods of Downtown, Fairfax, University Circle and the suburb of East Cleveland.
There are 59 stations along Euclid Avenue. All stations are equipped with a fare 24-hour lighting and an emergency phone. An illuminated text display informs passengers of expected arrival times. Between Public Square and East 107th Street, all stations have raised platforms that align with the floor of the rapid transit vehicle, easing boarding and alighting. Between Public Square and East 105th Street, Euclid Avenue has two "bus only" lanes close to the inner median which only allow HealthLine vehicles passage, reducing delays due to conflicts with general traffic during busy times. Complementing the HealthLine is a set of bike lanes on the outer edges of the stretch Euclid Avenue that connects Cleveland State University with Case Western Reserve University; as late as July 2010, the trip from East Cleveland to downtown during rush hour was more than 40 minutes – longer than the planned 33 minutes. This was due to the 25 mph speed limit along most of the route; the speed limit was raised to 35 mph for buses and traffic light timing was adjusted further to combat this issue.
The decision to turn off signal priority along portions of the line has been referred to as a form of BRT creep. The HealthLine runs a fleet of 21 articulated DE63LFA-BRT vehicles, manufactured by New Flyer Industries, each with a seating capacity of 47 and able to accommodate 53 more standing up; the vehicles have two doors on each side and run on a diesel-electric hybrid motor system that produce 90% less emissions than regular buses. A low sulfur diesel engine generates electrical power to run smaller electric motors mounted on each of the wheels; each vehicle has a GPS locator on board, which allows automated traffic signals to give the HealthLine buses priority at busy intersections. The RTA classifies its bus rapid transit stops as "curb stations" and "median stations"; the term "station" is used. RTA Rapid Transit List of bus rapid transit systems Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority RTA HealthLine
Cleveland is a major city in the U. S. state of Ohio, the county seat of Cuyahoga County. The city proper has a population of 385,525, making it the 51st-largest city in the United States, the second-largest city in Ohio. Greater Cleveland is ranked as the 32nd-largest metropolitan area in the U. S. with 2,055,612 people in 2016. The city anchors the Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area, which had a population of 3,515,646 in 2010 and is ranked 15th in the United States; the city is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie 60 miles west of the Ohio-Pennsylvania state border. It was founded in 1796 near the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, it became a manufacturing center due to its location on both the river and the lake shore, as well as being connected to numerous canals and railroad lines. Cleveland's economy relies on diversified sectors such as manufacturing, financial services and biomedicals. Cleveland is home to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Cleveland residents are called "Clevelanders".
The city has many nicknames, the oldest of which in contemporary use being "The Forest City". Cleveland was named on July 22, 1796, when surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company laid out Connecticut's Western Reserve into townships and a capital city, they named it "Cleaveland" after General Moses Cleaveland. Cleaveland oversaw design of the plan for what would become the modern downtown area, centered on Public Square, before returning home, never again to visit Ohio; the first settler in Cleaveland was Lorenzo Carter, who built a cabin on the banks of the Cuyahoga River. The Village of Cleaveland was incorporated on December 23, 1814. In spite of the nearby swampy lowlands and harsh winters, its waterfront location proved to be an advantage, giving access to Great Lakes trade; the area began rapid growth after the 1832 completion of the Erie Canal. This key link between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes connected the city to the Atlantic Ocean via the Erie Canal and Hudson River, via the St. Lawrence Seaway.
Its products could reach markets on the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River. Growth continued with added railroad links. Cleveland incorporated as a city in 1836. In 1836, the city located only on the eastern banks of the Cuyahoga River, nearly erupted into open warfare with neighboring Ohio City over a bridge connecting the two. Ohio City remained an independent municipality until its annexation by Cleveland in 1854; the city's prime geographic location as a transportation hub on the Great Lakes has played an important role in its development as a commercial center. Cleveland serves as a destination for iron ore shipped from Minnesota, along with coal transported by rail. In 1870, John D. Rockefeller founded Standard Oil in Cleveland. In 1885, he moved its headquarters to New York City, which had become a center of finance and business. Cleveland emerged in the early 20th century as an important American manufacturing center, its businesses included automotive companies such as Peerless, People's, Jordan and Winton, maker of the first car driven across the U.
S. Other manufacturers located in Cleveland produced steam-powered cars, which included White and Gaeth, as well as the electric car company Baker; because of its significant growth, Cleveland was known as the "Sixth City" of the US during this period. By 1920, due in large part to the city's economic prosperity, Cleveland became the nation's fifth-largest city; the city counted Progressive Era politicians such as the populist Mayor Tom L. Johnson among its leaders, its industrial jobs had attracted waves of European immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, as well as both black and white migrants from the rural South. In commemoration of the centennial of Cleveland's incorporation as a city, the Great Lakes Exposition debuted in June 1936 along the Lake Erie shore north of downtown. Conceived as a way to energize the city after the Great Depression, it drew four million visitors in its first season, seven million by the end of its second and final season in September 1937; the exposition was housed on grounds that are now used by the Great Lakes Science Center, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Burke Lakefront Airport, among others.
Following World War II, Cleveland continued to enjoy a prosperous economy. In sports, the Indians won the 1948 World Series, the hockey team, the Barons, became champions of the American Hockey League, the Browns dominated professional football in the 1950s; as a result, along with track and boxing champions produced, Cleveland was dubbed "City of Champions" in sports at this time. Businesses proclaimed that Cleveland was the "best location in the nation". In 1940, non-Hispanic whites represented 90.2% of Cleveland's population. Wealthy patrons supported development of the city's cultural institutions, such as the art museum and orchestra; the city's population reached its peak of 914,808, in 1949 Cleveland was named an All-America City for the first time. By the 1960s, the economy slowed, residents sought new housing in the suburbs, reflecting the national trends of suburban growth following the subsidized highways. In the 1950s and 1960s, African Americans worked in numerous cities to gain constitutional rights and relief from racial discrimination.
As change lagged despite federal laws to enforce rights and racial unrest occurred in Cleveland and numerous other industrial cities. In Cleveland, the Hough Riots erupted from July 18 to 23, 1966; the Glenville Shootout took place from July 23 to 25, 1968. In November 1967, Cleveland became the first major American city to elect a black mayor, Carl Stokes. Industrial restructuring in the railroad and steel industries, resulted in the loss of numerous