Total fertility rate
The total fertility rate, sometimes called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate, or total period fertility rate of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if: She was to experience the exact current age-specific fertility rates through her lifetime, She was to survive from birth to the end of her reproductive life. It is obtained by summing the single-year age-specific rates at a given time; the TFR is a synthetic rate, not based on the fertility of any real group of women since this would involve waiting until they had completed childbearing. Nor is it based on counting up the total number of children born over their lifetime. Instead, the TFR is based on the age-specific fertility rates of women in their "child-bearing years", which in conventional international statistical usage is ages 15–44 or 15–49; the TFR is, therefore, a measure of the fertility of an imaginary woman who passes through her reproductive life subject to all the age-specific fertility rates for ages 15–49 that were recorded for a given population in a given year.
The TFR represents the average number of children a woman would have, were she to fast-forward through all her childbearing years in a single year, under all the age-specific fertility rates for that year. In other words, this rate is the number of children a woman would have if she was subject to prevailing fertility rates at all ages from a single given year, survives throughout all her childbearing years. An alternative fertility measure is the net reproduction rate, which measures the number of daughters a woman would have in her lifetime if she were subject to prevailing age-specific fertility and mortality rates in the given year; when the NRR is one each generation of women is reproducing itself. The NRR is less used than the TFR, the United Nations stopped reporting NRR data for member nations after 1998, but the NRR is relevant where the number of male babies born is high due to gender imbalance and sex selection. This is a significant factor in world population, due to the high level of gender imbalance in the populous nations of China and India.
The gross reproduction rate, is the same as the NRR, except that—like the TFR—it ignores life expectancy. The TFR is a better index of fertility than the crude birth rate because it is independent of the age structure of the population, but it is a poorer estimate of actual completed family size than the total cohort fertility rate, obtained by summing the age-specific fertility rates that applied to each cohort as they aged through time. In particular, the TFR does not predict how many children young women now will have, as their fertility rates in years to come may change from those of older women now. However, the TFR is a reasonable summary of current fertility levels; the TPFR is affected by a tempo effect—if age of childbearing increases while the age of childbearing is increasing, TPFR will be lower, the age of childbearing stops increasing, the TPFR will increase though the life cycle fertility has been unchanged. In other words, the TPFR is a misleading measure of life cycle fertility when childbearing age is changing, due to this statistical artifact.
This is a significant factor such as the Czech Republic and Spain in the 1990s. Some measures seek to adjust for this timing effect to gain a better measure of life-cycle fertility. Replacement fertility is the total fertility rate at which women give birth to enough babies to sustain population levels. If there were no mortality in the female population from birth to the end of the childbearing years, the replacement level of TFR would be close to 2.1. The replacement fertility rate is indeed only above 2.0 births per woman for most industrialized countries, but ranges from 2.5 to 3.3 in developing countries because of higher mortality rates child mortality. The global average for the replacement total fertility rate was 2.33 children per woman in 2003. The term "lowest-low fertility" is defined as TFR at or below 1.3. This is characteristic of some Eastern Southern European and East Asian countries. In 2001, more than half of the population of Europe lived in countries with lowest-low TFR, but TFRs have since increased there.
A population that maintained a TFR of 3.8 over an extended period without a correspondingly high death or emigration rate would increase whereas a population that maintained a TFR of 2.0 over a long time would decrease, unless it had a large enough immigration. However, it may take several generations for a change in the total fertility rate to be reflected in birth rate, because the age distribution must reach equilibrium. For example, a population that has dropped below replacement-level fertility will continue to grow, because the recent high fertility produced large numbers of young couples who would now be in their childbearing years; this phenomenon carries forward for several generations and is called population momentum, population inertia or population-lag effect. This time-lag effect is of great importance to the growth rates of human populations. TFR and long term population growth rate, g, are related. For a population structure in a steady state and with zero migration, g equal
Manaus known as Manaós before 1939 and Barra do Rio Negro, is the capital city of the state of Amazonas in the North Region of Brazil. It is situated near the confluence of the Solimões rivers. With a population of more than 2 million, it is the most populous city of both the Brazilian state of Amazonas and the Amazon rainforest; the city was founded in 1669. It was elevated to a town in 1832 with the name of "Manaus", an altered spelling of the indigenous Manaós peoples, transformed into a city on October 24, 1848, with the name of Cidade da Barra do Rio Negro, Portuguese for "The City of the Margins of the Black River". On September 4, 1856 it returned to its original name. Manaus is located in the middle of the Amazon rainforest, access to the city is by boat or airplane; this isolation helped preserve both the natural environment as well as the culture of the city. The culture of Manaus, more than in any other urban area of Brazil, preserves the habits of Native Brazilian tribes; the city is the main access point for visiting the flora of the Brazilian Amazon.
Few places in the world afford such a variety of plants, birds and fishes. It was known at the beginning of the century, as "Heart of the Amazon" and "City of the Forest", its main economic engine is the Industrial Park of Manaus, a Free Economic Zone. The city has an international airport, its manufactures include electronics, chemical products, soap. Manaus exports Brazil nuts, rubber and rosewood oil, it has a cathedral, opera house and botanical gardens, an ecopark and regional and native peoples museums. With a population of 2,145,444 people in 2018, Manaus is the most populous city in the Brazilian Amazon area and the 7th most populous in the country, it is located on the north bank of the Negro River, 18 km above the meeting of the rivers where the Negro merges with the Solimões, to form the Amazon proper. Manaus is 1,400 km inland from the Atlantic Ocean, it is the hub of tourism for the jungle lodges and the river cruises. The Solimões and Negro rivers join to form the Amazon River. Rubber made it the richest city in South America during the late 1800s.
Rubber helped Manaus earn its nickname, the "Paris of the Tropics". Many wealthy European families settled in Manaus and brought their love for sophisticated European art and culture with them. Manaus is a duty-free zone, which has encouraged development in the region; the name Manaus comes from the native people called Manaós. The history of the European colonization of Manaus began in 1499 with the Spanish discovery of the mouth of the Amazon River; the Spanish continued to colonize the region north of Brazil. Development continued in 1668-1669 with the building of the Fort of São José da Barra do Rio Negro by the Portuguese in order to ensure its predominance in the region against the Dutch, at that time headquartered in what is today Suriname; the fort was constructed with four cannon guarding the curtains. It continued to function for more than 100 years. Next to the fort there were many indigenous mestizos, who helped in its construction and began to live in the vicinity; the population grew so much that in 1695, the missionaries built a nearby chapel dedicated as Nossa Senhora da Conceição, who in time became the patron saint of the city.
A Royal Charter of March 3 of 1755, created the captaincy of São José do Rio Negro, with capital in Mariuá, but with the governor, Lobo D'Almada fearing a Spanish invasion, the seat went back to Lugar de Barra in 1791. Being located at the confluence of the Rio Negro and Amazon Rivers, it was a strategic point. On November 13 of 1832, Lugar da Barra was named Manaus. On October 24 of 1848, under Law 145 of the Provincial Assembly of Para, it was renamed City of Barra do Rio Negro. On September 4 of 1856 the governor Herculano Ferreira Pena gave it the name "Manaus"; the Cabanagem was the revolt in which blacks, Native Americans and mestizos fought against the white political elite and took power in 1835. The Cabanagem reduced the population of the state of Grão-Pará from about 100,000 to 60,000; the involvement of rebels from the Upper Amazon in what was a movement based in Belém was crucial for the birth of the current state of the Amazon. During the brief period of revolution, the Cabanos of the Upper Amazon, bands of rebels, roamed throughout the region, occupying Manaus twice, in most settlements their arrival was greeted by the non-white population spontaneously joining their ranks, leading to a greater number of adherents to the movement.
With that there was an integration of people in the region thus forming the state. Manaus was at the center of the Amazon region's rubber boom during the late 19th century. For a time, it was "one of the gaudiest cities of the world". Historian Robin Furneaux wrote of this period, "No extravagance, however absurd, deterred" the rubber barons. "If one rubber baron bought a vast yacht, another would install a tame lion in his villa, a third would water his horse on champagne." The city built a grand opera house, with vast domes and gilded balconies, using marble and crystal, from around Europe. The opera house cost ten million dollars. In one season, half the members of one visiting opera troupe died of yellow f
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, values and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, teaching and directed research. Education takes place under the guidance of educators and learners may educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational; the methodology of teaching is called pedagogy. Formal education is divided formally into such stages as preschool or kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and college, university, or apprenticeship. A right to education has been recognized by the United Nations. In most regions, education is compulsory up to a certain age. Etymologically, the word "education" is derived from the Latin word ēducātiō from ēducō, related to the homonym ēdūcō from ē- and dūcō. Education began in prehistory, as adults trained the young in the knowledge and skills deemed necessary in their society.
In pre-literate societies, this was achieved orally and through imitation. Story-telling passed knowledge and skills from one generation to the next; as cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond skills that could be learned through imitation, formal education developed. Schools existed in Egypt at the time of the Middle Kingdom. Plato founded the Academy in the first institution of higher learning in Europe; the city of Alexandria in Egypt, established in 330 BCE, became the successor to Athens as the intellectual cradle of Ancient Greece. There, the great Library of Alexandria was built in the 3rd century BCE. European civilizations suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in CE 476. In China, Confucius, of the State of Lu, was the country's most influential ancient philosopher, whose educational outlook continues to influence the societies of China and neighbours like Korea and Vietnam. Confucius gathered disciples and searched in vain for a ruler who would adopt his ideals for good governance, but his Analects were written down by followers and have continued to influence education in East Asia into the modern era.
The Aztecs had a well-developed theory about education, which has an equivalent word in Nahuatl called tlacahuapahualiztli. It means "the art of raising or educating a person" or "the art of strengthening or bringing up men." This was a broad conceptualization of education, which prescribed that it begins at home, supported by formal schooling, reinforced by community living. Historians cite that formal education was mandatory for everyone regardless of social class and gender. There was the word neixtlamachiliztli, "the act of giving wisdom to the face." These concepts underscore a complex set of educational practices, oriented towards communicating to the next generation the experience and intellectual heritage of the past for the purpose of individual development and his integration into the community. After the Fall of Rome, the Catholic Church became the sole preserver of literate scholarship in Western Europe; the church established cathedral schools in the Early Middle Ages as centres of advanced education.
Some of these establishments evolved into medieval universities and forebears of many of Europe's modern universities. During the High Middle Ages, Chartres Cathedral operated the famous and influential Chartres Cathedral School; the medieval universities of Western Christendom were well-integrated across all of Western Europe, encouraged freedom of inquiry, produced a great variety of fine scholars and natural philosophers, including Thomas Aquinas of the University of Naples, Robert Grosseteste of the University of Oxford, an early expositor of a systematic method of scientific experimentation, Saint Albert the Great, a pioneer of biological field research. Founded in 1088, the University of Bologne is considered the first, the oldest continually operating university. Elsewhere during the Middle Ages, Islamic science and mathematics flourished under the Islamic caliphate, established across the Middle East, extending from the Iberian Peninsula in the west to the Indus in the east and to the Almoravid Dynasty and Mali Empire in the south.
The Renaissance in Europe ushered in a new age of scientific and intellectual inquiry and appreciation of ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. Around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg developed a printing press, which allowed works of literature to spread more quickly; the European Age of Empires saw European ideas of education in philosophy, religion and sciences spread out across the globe. Missionaries and scholars brought back new ideas from other civilizations – as with the Jesuit China missions who played a significant role in the transmission of knowledge and culture between China and Europe, translating works from Europe like Euclid's Elements for Chinese scholars and the thoughts of Confucius for European audiences; the Enlightenment saw the emergence of a more secular educational outlook in Europe. In most countries today, full-time education, whether at school or otherwise, is compulsory for all children up to a certain age. Due to this the proliferation of compulsory education, combined with population growth, UNESCO has calculated that in the next 30 years more people will receive formal education than in all of human history thus far.
Formal education occurs in a structured environment. Formal education takes place in a school environme
São Paulo is a municipality in the Southeast Region of Brazil. The metropolis is an alpha global city and the most populous city in Brazil, the Western Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, besides being the largest Portuguese-speaking city in the world; the municipality is the Earth's 11th largest city proper by population. The city is the capital of the surrounding state of São Paulo, the most populous and wealthiest state in Brazil, it exerts strong international influences in commerce, finance and entertainment. The name of the city honors Saint Paul of Tarsus; the city's metropolitan area, the Greater São Paulo, ranks as the most populous in Brazil and the 12th most populous on Earth. The process of conurbation between the metropolitan areas located around the Greater São Paulo created the São Paulo Macrometropolis, a megalopolis with more than 30 million inhabitants, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. Having the largest economy by GDP in Latin America and the Southern Hemisphere, the city is home to the São Paulo Stock Exchange.
Paulista Avenue is the economic core of São Paulo. The city has the 11th largest GDP in the world, representing alone 10.7% of all Brazilian GDP and 36% of the production of goods and services in the state of São Paulo, being home to 63% of established multinationals in Brazil, has been responsible for 28% of the national scientific production in 2005. With a GDP of US$477 billion, the São Paulo city alone would have ranked 26th globally compared with countries by 2017 estimates; the metropolis is home to several of the tallest skyscrapers in Brazil, including the Mirante do Vale, Edifício Itália, North Tower and many others. The city has cultural and political influence both nationally and internationally, it is home to monuments and museums such as the Latin American Memorial, the Ibirapuera Park, Museum of Ipiranga, São Paulo Museum of Art, the Museum of the Portuguese Language. The city holds events like the São Paulo Jazz Festival, São Paulo Art Biennial, the Brazilian Grand Prix, São Paulo Fashion Week, the ATP Brasil Open, the Brasil Game Show and the Comic Con Experience.
The São Paulo Gay Pride Parade rivals the New York City Pride March as the largest gay pride parade in the world. São Paulo is a cosmopolitan, melting pot city, home to the largest Arab and Japanese diasporas, with examples including ethnic neighborhoods of Mercado and Liberdade respectively. São Paulo is home to the largest Jewish population in Brazil, with about 75,000 Jews. In 2016, inhabitants of the city were native to over 200 different countries. People from the city are known as paulistanos, while paulistas designates anyone from the state, including the paulistanos; the city's Latin motto, which it has shared with the battleship and the aircraft carrier named after it, is Non ducor, which translates as "I am not led, I lead." The city, colloquially known as Sampa or Terra da Garoa, is known for its unreliable weather, the size of its helicopter fleet, its architecture, severe traffic congestion and skyscrapers. São Paulo was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, the city hosted the IV Pan American Games and the São Paulo Indy 300.
The region of modern-day São Paulo known as Piratininga plains around the Tietê River, was inhabited by the Tupi people, such as the Tupiniquim and Guarani. Other tribes lived in areas that today form the metropolitan region; the region was divided in Caciquedoms at the time of encounter with the Europeans. The most notable Cacique was Tibiriça, known for his support for the Portuguese and other European colonists. Among the many indigenous names that survive today are Tietê, Tamanduateí, Anhangabaú, Diadema, Itapevi, Embu-Guaçu etc... The Portuguese village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga was marked by the founding of the Colégio de São Paulo de Piratininga on January 25, 1554; the Jesuit college of twelve priests included Spanish priest José de Anchieta. They built a mission on top of a steep hill between the Tamanduateí rivers, they first had a small structure built of rammed earth, made by American Indian workers in their traditional style. The priests wanted to evangelize – teach the Indians who lived in the Plateau region of Piratininga and convert them to Christianity.
The site was separated from the coast by the Serra do Mar, called by the Indians Serra Paranapiacaba. The college was named for a Christian saint and its founding on the feast day of the celebration of the conversion of the Apostle Paul of Tarsus. Father José de Anchieta wrote this account in a letter to the Society of Jesus: The settlement of the region's Courtyard of the College began in 1560. During the visit of Mem de Sá, Governor-General of Brazil, the Captaincy of São Vicente, he ordered the transfer of the population of the Village of Santo André da Borda do Campo to the vicinity of the college, it was named "College of St. Paul Piratininga"; the new location was on a steep hill adjacent to a large wetland, the lowland do Carmo. It offered better protection from attacks by local Indian groups, it was renamed belonging to the Captaincy of São Vicente. For the next two centuries, São Paulo developed as a poor and isolated village that survived through the cultivation of subsistence crops by the labor of natives.
For a long time, São Paulo was the only village in Brazil's interior, as travel was too difficult for many to reach the area. Mem de Sá forbade colonists to use the "Path Pir
Brazilians are citizens of Brazil. A Brazilian can be a person born abroad to a Brazilian parent or legal guardian as well as a persons who acquired Brazilian citizenship. Brazil is a multiethnic society, which means that it is home to people of many different ethnic origins; as a result, majority of Brazilians do not equate their nationality with their ethnicity embracing and espousing both simultaneously. In the period after the colonization of the Brazilian territory by Portugal, during much of the XVI century, the word "Brazilian" was given to the Portuguese merchants of Brazilwood, designating the name of such profession, since the inhabitants of the land were, in most of them, indigenous or Portuguese born in Portugal, or in the territory now called Brazil. However, long before the independence of Brazil, in 1822, both in Brazil and in Portugal, it was common to attribute the Brazilian gentile to a person of clear Portuguese descent, resident or whose family resided in the State of Brazil, belonging to the Portuguese Empire.
During the lifetime of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, there was confusion about the nomenclature. According to the Constitution of Brazil, a Brazilian citizen is: Anyone born in Brazil if to foreign born parents. However, if the foreign parents were at the service of a foreign State, the child is not Brazilian. A person born abroad to a Brazilian father or a Brazilian mother, not registered but who, after turning 18 years old, went to live in Brazil. According to the Constitution, all people who hold Brazilian citizenship are equal, regardless of race, gender or religion. A foreigner can apply for Brazilian citizenship after living for four uninterrupted years in Brazil and being able to speak Portuguese. A native person from an official Portuguese language country can request the Brazilian nationality after only 1 uninterrupted year living in Brazil. A foreign born person who holds Brazilian citizenship has the same rights and duties of the Brazilian citizen by birth, but cannot occupy some special public positions such as the Presidency of the Republic, Vice-presidency of the Republic, Minister of Defense, Presidency of the Senate, Presidency of the House of Representatives, Officer of the Armed Forces and Diplomat.
Brazilians are descendants of Portuguese settlers, post-colonial immigrant groups, Enslaved Africans and Brazil's indigenous peoples. Along with other immigrants of who arrived in Brazil, from the 1820s well into the 1970s, most of the settlers were Portuguese, Spaniards and Germans, with large numbers of Japanese, Gypsies, Poles and Levantine Arabs; the three principal groups were European colonizers and African labor. Brazil was inhabited by an estimated 2.4 million Amerindians before the first settlers arrived in the 16th century. They had been living there since the Pleistocene and still exist in many different tribes and ethnicities, amounting to the hundreds, giving them varying features and shades. There are different estimates for the Indigenous population around 1498, when the cohort commanded by Duarte Pacheco Pereira first set foot in Brazilian territory, followed by Pedro Álvares Cabral and Amerigo Vespucci in 1500 and 1502, with figures revolving between 2.4 million and 3.1 million.
What is more accurate is that about three quarters of them died from contracted diseases brought by colonizers and conflicts, while the remaining were pushed to the Amazon Basin, sometimes migrating beyond the borders with Hispanic provinces. It is important to mention that a strong assimilation by miscegenation with local populations occurred, where Natives living under Jesuit protection and having a monastic life decided to leave for the life in towns; the European diseases spread along the indigenous trade routes, whole tribes were annihilated without coming in direct contact with Europeans. Today, 517,000 Indigenous people live in reservations and 160 thousand speak assorted Native languages, whereas millions of Brazilians have at least some degree of Amerindian ancestry due to the mentioned interracial encounters; the country was discovered by Portugal in 1500 and received about 724,000 Portuguese colonizers males, who settled there until the end of Colonial Brazil. But other sources claim that the given numbers of total entrances were surpassed.
The Jesuits asked the Portuguese Crown to ship orphaned women under royal wardship for marriage with the settlers. Daughters of noblemen who died overseas administrating captaincies in the colonies or in battle for the king would marry settlers of higher rank. Bahia's port in the Northeast received one of the first groups of orphans in 1551. Portugal remained the only significant, but not an exclusive source of European immigration to Brazil until the early 19th century; these other people came from different nationalities - b
A document that presents information in an organized format for a specific audience and purpose. Although summaries of reports may be delivered orally, complete reports are always in the form of written documents. In modern business scenario, reports play a major role in the progress of business. Reports are the backbone to the thinking process of the establishment and they are responsible, to a great extent, in evolving an efficient or inefficient work environment; the significance of the reports includes: Reports present adequate information on various aspects of the business. All the skills and the knowledge of the professionals are communicated through reports. Reports help the top line in decision making. A rule and balanced report helps in problem solving. Reports communicate the planning and other matters regarding an organization to the masses. News reports balances on the establishment. One of the most common formats for presenting reports is IMRAD—introduction, methods and discussion; this structure, standard for the genre, mirrors traditional publication of scientific research and summons the ethos and credibility of that discipline.
Reports are not required to follow this pattern and may use alternative methods such as the problem-solution format, wherein the author first lists an issue and details what must be done to fix the problem. Transparency and a focus on quality are keys to writing a useful report. Accuracy is important. Faulty numbers in a financial report could lead to disastrous consequences. Reports use features such as tables, images, voice, or specialized vocabulary in order to persuade a specific audience to undertake an action or inform the reader of the subject at hand; some common elements of written reports include headings to indicate topics and help the reader locate relevant information and visual elements such as charts and figures, which are useful for breaking up large sections of text and making complex issues more accessible. Lengthy written reports will always contain a table of contents, appendices and references. A bibliography or list of references will appear at the end of any credible report and citations are included within the text itself.
Complex terms are explained within the body of the report or listed as footnotes in order to make the report easier to follow. A short summary of the report's contents, called an abstract, may appear in the beginning so that the audience knows what the report will cover. Online reports contain hyperlinks to internal or external sources as well. Verbal reports differ from written reports in the minutiae of their format, but they still educate or advocate for a course of action. Quality reports will be well researched and the speaker will list their sources if at all possible; some examples of reports are: Customer relationship management Data quality Decision support system Enterprise application integration Enterprise resource planning Global Reporting Initiative Grey Literature International Steering Committee – International guidelines for the production of scientific and technical reports Management information system Blicq, Ronald. "Technically-Write!". Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-114878-8. Gerson and Gerson, Steven.
Technical Writing: Process and Product. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-119664-2. Lannon, John. Technical Communication. Longman. ISBN 0-205-55957-3