Health physics

Health physics referred to as the science of radiation protection, is the profession devoted to protecting people and their environment from potential radiation hazards, while making it possible to enjoy the beneficial uses of radiation. Health physicists require a four-year bachelor’s degree and qualifying experience that demonstrates a professional knowledge of the theory and application of radiation protection principles and related sciences. Health physicists principally work at facilities where radionuclides or other sources of ionizing radiation are used or produced. There are many sub-specialties in the field of health physics, including Ionising radiation instrumentation and measurement Internal dosimetry and external dosimetry Radioactive waste management Radioactive contamination and decommissioning Radiological engineering Environmental assessment, radiation monitoring and radon evaluation Operational radiation protection/health physics Particle accelerator physics Radiological emergency response/planning - Industrial uses of radioactive material Medical health physics Public information and communication involving radioactive materials Biological effects/radiation biology Radiation standards Radiation risk analysis Nuclear power Radioactive materials and homeland security Radiation protection Nanotechnology The subfield of operational health physics called applied health physics in older sources, focuses on field work and the practical application of health physics knowledge to real-world situations, rather than basic research.

The field of Health Physics is related to the field of medical physics and they are similar to each other in that practitioners rely on much of the same fundamental science in both fields. Health physicists, focus on the evaluation and protection of human health from radiation, whereas medical health physicists and medical physicists support the use of radiation and other physics-based technologies by medical practitioners for the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Practical ionising radiation measurement is essential for health physics, it enables the evaluation of protection measures, the assessment of the radiation dose or received by individuals. The provision of such instruments is controlled by law. In the UK it is the Ionising Radiation Regulations 1999; the measuring instruments for radiation protection are both portable. Installed instruments are fixed in positions which are known to be important in assessing the general radiation hazard in an area. Examples are installed "area" radiation monitors, Gamma interlock monitors, personnel exit monitors, airborne contamination monitors.

The area monitor will measure the ambient radiation X-Ray, Gamma or neutrons. Interlock monitors are used in applications to prevent inadvertent exposure of workers to an excess dose by preventing personnel access to an area when a high radiation level is present. Airborne contamination monitors measure the concentration of radioactive particles in the atmosphere to guard against radioactive particles being deposited in the lungs of personnel. Personnel exit monitors are used to monitor workers who are exiting a "contamination controlled" or contaminated area; these can be in the form of clothing frisk probes, or whole body monitors. These monitor the surface of the workers body and clothing to check if any radioactive contamination has been deposited; these measure alpha or beta or gamma, or combinations of these. The UK National Physical Laboratory has published a good practice guide through its Ionising Radiation Metrology Forum concerning the provision of such equipment and the methodology of calculating the alarm levels to be used.

Portable instruments are transportable. The hand-held instrument is used as a survey meter to check an object or person in detail, or assess an area where no installed instrumentation exists, they can be used for personnel exit monitoring or personnel contamination checks in the field. These measure alpha, beta or gamma, or combinations of these. Transportable instruments are instruments that would have been permanently installed, but are temporarily placed in an area to provide continuous monitoring where it is there will be a hazard; such instruments are installed on trolleys to allow easy deployment, are associated with temporary operational situations. A number of used detection instruments are listed below. Ionization chambers proportional counters Geiger counters Semiconductor detectors Scintillation detectorsThe links should be followed for a fuller description of each. In the United Kingdom the HSE has issued a user guidance note on selecting the correct radiation measurement instrument for the application concerned.

This covers all ionising radiation instrument technologies, is a useful comparative guide. Dosimeters are devices worn by the user. Common types of wearable dosimeters for ionizing radiation include: Quartz fiber dosimeter Film badge dosimeter Thermoluminescent dos

José Bódalo

José Bódalo Zúffoli was an Argentine born Spanish film actor. Bódalo was born in Córdoba, the son of Rome-born actress Eugenia Zúffoli and actor and singer José Bódalo, Sr, he moved to Spain, he made over 120 film and TV appearances between 1930 and his death in 1985. From the mid to late 1960s he prolifically appeared in Spaghetti Western films which were Spanish and Italian co produced, he played the role of General Hugo Rodriguez in the 1966 film Django opposite Franco Nero. He appeared in many comedy or drama films in Spain but appeared in many television series after 1970 such as Novela from 1969–1977 and Estudio 1 in the early 1980s, he died on 24 July 1985. José Bódalo on IMDb José Bódalo at Find a Grave

Derek Oldham

Derek Oldham was an English singer and actor, best known for his performances in the tenor roles of the Savoy Operas with the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company. After performing in concerts as a boy soprano and working as a bank clerk, Oldham began a professional performing career in 1914. With the outbreak of World War I, he joined the Scots Guards. After the war, he joined the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company, singing the tenor leads in the Gilbert and Sullivan operas for three years, he starred in musicals and operettas in the West End in the 1920s, including Madame Pompadour, The Merry Widow, Rose-Marie and The Vagabond King. He returned to the D'Oyly Carte for brief periods from 1929 to 1937. Oldham continued singing and acting through the 1940s appearing in several films, he concentrated on legitimate theatre in the 1950s, acting until the age of 70. He maintained a lifelong interest in Gilbert and Sullivan, serving as an officer of the Gilbert and Sullivan Society, he retired to Hampshire during the last ten years of his life.

Oldham was born John Stephens Oldham in Accrington, the son of Thomas Oldham and his wife Harriett, née Stephens. He had an elder brother, a sister; as a child, Oldham was a boy soprano in demand for over five years in oratorios and pantomimes. As a young man, he sang in amateur operatic societies, he debuted on the professional adult stage in 1914, as Julien in The Daring of Diane, an operetta by Alfred Anderson and Heinrich Reinhardt, presented at the London Pavilion. He made an immediate mark: The Observer said that he "has an exceptionally charming tenor voice, uses it with fine art, acts with engaging simplicity and sincerity." That year, at the Lyric Theatre, he played Bumerli in The Chocolate Soldier, in which he won excellent notices. At the end of that year, after the outbreak of World War I, he joined the Scots Guards, a year was commissioned in the East Lancashire Regiment and was awarded the Military Cross for gallantry in Macedonia in 1918. During the war, he formed a concert group to entertain his fellow servicemen producing The Chocolate Soldier not far from enemy lines.

Oldham was demobilised in July 1919 and joined the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company the following month, when the company opened its first London season in over a decade. He assumed the leading Gilbert and Sullivan tenor roles of Alexis in The Sorcerer, Lord Tolloller in Iolanthe, Cyril in Princess Ida, Nanki-Poo in The Mikado, Colonel Fairfax in The Yeomen of the Guard, Marco in The Gondoliers; the following year, he took on the roles of Ralph Rackstraw in H. M. S. Pinafore, Frederic in The Pirates of Penzance, Richard Dauntless in Ruddigore. In 1921 he exchanged Cyril for Prince Hilarion in Princess Ida. Oldham left the D'Oyly Carte company in 1922 to star in a great number of musicals and operettas during the 1920s at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane and other West End theatres, his first musical was Whirled into Happiness at the Lyric Theatre, as Horace Wiggs, where his leading lady was his future wife, Winnie Melville. They married in 1923, she joined the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company as a principal soprano.

Oldham wrote, "The sheltered student life of the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company gave place to the hard glitter and luxury of the West End theatre – a world of restaurants, supper parties, all the trappings that went with London theatrical life between the two wars". Other musicals in which Oldham starred included Madame Pompadour, The Merry Widow, Rose-Marie. In 1927, Oldham and Melville starred together in the European première of The Vagabond King, he as François Villon, she as Katherine de Vaucelles, they separated in 1933 and divorced, she died in 1937. Oldham returned several times to D'Oyly Carte, appearing in the 1929–30 season and on tour in his old roles of Ralph, Tolloller, Nanki-Poo and Marco. In the 1934–35 season, he played these roles on the company's first major American tour in the 20th century. In 1936, during the company's season at Sadler's Wells, he played Hilarion, he was leading tenor in the 1936–37 season, which included another long American tour. Oldham's presence was a condition demanded by the American promoters.

During this tour he and Sylvia Cecil were excused by the company for one night to sing a program of classical and popular favorites, including "Prithee, pretty maiden" from Patience, the evening before President Roosevelt's 2nd inauguration, at a party at the White House. Oldham played in many musicals and plays, including The Song of the Drum at Drury Lane, as Captain Anthony Darrell, he appeared at the Royal Albert Hall as Chibiabos in Hiawatha in 1938, conducted by Malcolm Sargent. After 1948 he developed a career as a Lieder singer and lecture-recitalist and as a character actor in non-musical plays, his last role in London was Dr. Stoner in the Agatha Christie play Verdict. Between 1934 and 1957, he appeared in several films. In 1940, on 29 February, the character Frederic came of age, as described in The Pirates of Penzance, Act II; this was a significant date for any G&S tenor. In New York, the Gilbert and Sullivan Society journal, "The Palace Peeper", marked the event by publishing an original ode to Frederic, in which Oldham was honoured as the archetype of the romantic Frederic.

A member of the Gilbert and Sullivan Society in London from 1924, Oldham was elected Vice-President of the Society in 1947. During his last decade, Oldham lived in retirement in Hayling Island, Hampshir