Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for innumerable purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details commonly used classification schemes in use worldwide, vehicles can be categorized in numerous ways. Regulatory agencies may establish a vehicle classification system for determining a tax amount, in the United Kingdom, a vehicle is taxed according to the vehicles construction, weight, type of fuel and emissions, as well as the purpose for which it is used. Other jurisdictions may determine vehicle tax based upon environmental principles, such as the user pays principle, another standard for road vehicles of all types that is used internationally, is ISO 3833-1977. In the United States, since 2010 the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety uses a scheme it has developed that takes into account a combination of both shadow and weight. The United States Federal Highway Administration has developed a scheme used for automatically calculating road use tolls.
There are two categories depending on whether the vehicle carries passengers or commodities. Vehicles that carry commodities are further subdivided by number of axles and number of units, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a classification scheme used to compare fuel economy among similar vehicles. Passenger vehicles are classified based on a total interior passenger. Trucks are classified based upon their gross vehicle weight rating, heavy duty vehicles are not included within the EPA scheme. A similar set of classes is used by the Canadian EPA, in Australia, the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries publishes its own classifications. This is a table listing several different methods of vehicle classification. Straddling the boundary between car and motorbike, these vehicles have engines under 1.0 litre, typically only two passengers, and are sometimes unorthodox in construction. Some microcars are three-wheelers, while the majority have four wheels, microcars were popular in post-war Europe, where their appearance led them to be called Bubble cars.
More recent microcars are often electric powered, the size of ultracompact cars will be less than minicars, but have engine greater than 50cc displacement and able to transport 1 or 2 persons. Ultracompact cars cannot use standard, because of strict safety standards for minicars. The regulation about running capacity and safety performance of cars will be published in early autumn. Today, there are smaller than ultracompact cars, called category-1 motorized vehicles which it has 50cc displacement or less
Lincoln Motor Company
The Lincoln Motor Company is a division of the U. S. -based Ford Motor Company that sells luxury vehicles under the Lincoln brand. Founded in 1917 by Henry M. Leland, Lincoln has been a subsidiary of Ford since 1922, while currently sold primarily in North America, Ford introduced the Lincoln brand to China in 2014. Lincoln vehicles are sold in the Middle East and South Korea. The current Lincoln model range in North America consists of two sedans, three crossover utility vehicles, and a utility vehicle. Lincoln sells two vehicles specifically for use, both based on the MKT. The Lincoln Motor Company was founded in August 1917 by Henry Leland, an engineer, Henry Leland named his new automobile company after Abraham Lincoln, the first presidential candidate for whom he had cast a vote. Following the end of the war, the Lincoln factory was retooled entirely for automobile production, during the early 1920s, Lincoln suffered severe financial issues, balancing the loss of revenue of Liberty engine production with the obsolete design of the expensive Model L.
For Henry Ford, the purchase of Lincoln was a personal triumph, the company, renamed Cadillac in 1902 was purchased by General Motors in 1909, serving as the chief competitor to Lincoln. While Henry Ford had previously introduced Ford-branded luxury vehicles, the company found little acceptance, with the acquisition of Lincoln, the nameplate became a top-selling rival alongside Pierce-Arrow, Peerless and Packard. Although the chassis itself saw few changes, the body saw significant updates. At the direction of Henrys son Edsel, in 1923 several body styles were introduced, that included two- and three-window, four-door sedans and they offered a two-passenger roadster and a seven-passenger touring sedan and limousine, which was sold for $5,200. A sedan, limo and town car were offered by coachbuilders Fleetwood and Dietrich. Murphy and Waterhouse were added in the 1930s, in 1924 large touring sedans began to be used by police departments around the country. They were known as Police Flyers, which were equipped with four-wheel brakes, Police whistles were coupled to the exhaust system and gun racks were fitted to these vehicles.
Optional equipment was not necessarily an issue with Lincolns sold during the 1920s, however, a nickel-plated radiator shell could be installed for $25, varnished natural wood wheels were $15, or Rudge-Whitworth center-lock wire wheels for another $100. Disteel steel disc wheels were available for $60. Lincoln chose not to make yearly model changes, used as a tool of the time. Lincoln customers of the time were known to more than one Lincoln with different bodywork
A bier is a stand on which a corpse, coffin, or casket containing a corpse, is placed to lie in state or to be carried to the grave. In Christian burial, the bier is often placed in the centre of the nave with candles surrounding it, the bier is a flat frame, traditionally wooden but sometimes of other materials. In antiquity it was often a wooden board on which the dead were placed, covered with a shroud, in modern times, the corpse is rarely carried on the bier without being first placed in a coffin or casket, though the coffin or casket is sometimes kept open. A bier is often draped with cloth to lend dignity to the funeral service, the modern funeral industry uses a collapsible aluminium bier on wheels, known as a church truck to move the coffin to and from the church or funeral home for services. Biers are generally smaller than the coffin or casket they support for reasons of appearance, as a result, they are not particularly stable, and can tip over unless well-centered and undisturbed.
The Carmelite Priory at Mdina, has a colorful bier on display that was used to carry the monks or friars before they were buried without a coffin, caisson Catafalque Hearse The dictionary definition of bier at Wiktionary Media related to Biers at Wikimedia Commons
Mercedes-Benz is a global automobile manufacturer and a division of the German company Daimler AG. The brand is known for vehicles, coaches. The headquarters is in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, the slogan for the brand is the best or nothing and Mercedes-Benz was one of the top growing brands in 2014 with 18% growth. The Mercedes automobile was first marketed in 1901 by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft, emil Jellinek, an Austrian automobile entrepreneur who worked with DMG created the trademark in 1902, naming the 1901 Mercedes 35 hp after his daughter Mercedes Jellinek. The first Mercedes-Benz brand name vehicles were produced in 1926, following the merger of Karl Benzs, on 28 June 1926, Mercedes Benz was formed with the merger of Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimlers two companies. Gottlieb Daimler was born on 17 March 1834 in Schorndorf, after training as a gunsmith and working in France, he attended the Polytechnic School in Stuttgart from 1857 to 1859. After completing various activities in France and England, he started work as a draftsman in Geislingen in 1862.
At the end of 1863, he was appointed inspector in a machine tool factory in Reutlingen. Throughout the 1930s, Mercedes-Benz produced the 770 model, a car that was popular during Germanys Nazi period, Adolf Hitler was known to have driven these cars during his time in power, with bulletproof windshields. Most of the models have been sold at auctions to private buyers. One of them is currently on display at the War Museum in Ottawa, the pontiffs Popemobile has often been sourced from Mercedes-Benz. In 1944,46,000 forced laborers were used in Daimler-Benzs factories to bolster Nazi war efforts, the company paid $12 million in reparations to the laborers families. Mercedes-Benz has introduced many technological and safety innovations that became common in other vehicles. Mercedes-Benz is one of the best-known and established automotive brands in the world, for information relating to the famous three-pointed star, see under the title Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft including the merger into Daimler-Benz.
As part of the Daimler AG company, the Mercedes-Benz Cars division includes Mercedes-Benz, mercedes-AMG became a majority owned division of Mercedes-Benz in 1999. The company was integrated into DaimlerChrysler in 1999, and became Mercedes-Benz AMG beginning on 1 January 1999, Daimlers ultra-luxury brand Maybach was under Mercedes-Benz cars division until 2013, when the production stopped due to poor sales volumes. It now exists under the Mercedes-Maybach name, with the models being ultra-luxury versions of Mercedes cars, Daimler coorporates with BYD Auto to make and sell a battery-electric car called Denza in China. In 2016, Daimler announced plans to sell Mercedes-Benz branded all-electric battery cars in China, beside its native Germany, Mercedes-Benz vehicles are manufactured or assembled in, Since its inception, Mercedes-Benz had maintained a reputation for its quality and durability
A coachbuilder is a manufacturer of bodies for automobiles or a manufacturer of complete horse-drawn vehicles. Coachwork is the body of a vehicle, a horse-drawn coach or carriage, or, by extension. The term is reserved for bodies built on a separate chassis. With reference to motor vehicles, auto body is the term in North American English. Coachbuilders are, carrossiers in French, carrozzeria in Italian, karosseriebauer in German, a British trade association the Worshipful Company of Coachmakers and Coach Harness Makers, was incorporated in 1630. Some British coachmaking firms operating in the 20th century were established even earlier, rippon was active in the time of Queen Elizabeth I, Barker founded in 1710 by an officer in Queen Annes Guards, Brewster a relative newcomer, formed in 1810. This chassis would be delivered by the manufacturer to the coachbuilder of the buyers choice, the chassis would be a rolling chassis which included the chassis frame, brakes, complete steering system including the wheel, radiator and dashboard.
The manufacturer delivered the chassis with lighting system, spare wheel and rear mudguards, the very easily damaged honeycomb radiator and protected by a shell, became the main visual element identifying the chassis brand. The manufacturer retained an element of control over bodies, bodies not approved by the chassis manufacturer would lose the chassis manufacturers chassis warranties. Until the second World War it would not have been unusual to order the most popular cars as only a chassis and have a local coachbuilder put a body on it for you, the Austin 7s of the 1920s and 1930s were favourite subjects. For example, Fisher Body built all of Cadillacs closed bodies in the 1910s, though automobile manufacturers brought body building skills in-house, the practice of bespoke or custom coachbuilding remained in favour among the wealthy, who continued the habit of centuries past. All ultra-luxury vehicles sold as chassis only, for instance, when Duesenberg introduced their Model J, it was offered as chassis only, for $8,500.
Other examples include the Bugatti Type 57, Cadillac V-16, Ferrari 250, Isotta Fraschini Tipo 8, delahaye had no in-house coachworks, so all its chassis were bodied by independents, who created some of their most attractive designs on the Type 135. Most of the Delahayes were bodied by Chapron, Franay, Figoni & Falaschi, the advent of unibody construction, where the car body is unified with, and structurally integral to the chassis, made custom coachbuilding practically impossible. Hermann Graber Ramsauer & Cie, known as Worblaufen after the place they were built, mulliner Park Ward Mulliners Nu-Track Park Ward Harold Radford Salmons Swallow Tickford Tilbury, originators of the Tilbury carriage. Thrupp & Maberly Vanden Plas Vincent of Reading Windover Wingham Martin Walter Walter Alexander & Sons, now Alexander Dennis Ltd Wrightbus James Young Brewster & Co. Brunn Budd Company Derham Earl Automobile Works Fisher Fleetwood KEM Motorworks LeBaron Locke N2A motors Inc. a Langmesser Co. Murphy Rollston Willoughby
The Chicago L is the rapid transit system serving the city of Chicago and some of its surrounding suburbs in the U. S. state of Illinois. It is operated by the Chicago Transit Authority, Chicagos L provides 24-hour service on some portions of its network, being one of only five rapid transit systems in the United States to do so. The oldest sections of the Chicago L started operations in 1892, making it the second oldest rapid transit system in the Americas, the L has been credited with fostering the growth of Chicagos dense city core that is one of the citys distinguishing features. The L consists of eight rapid transit lines laid out in a spoke–hub distribution paradigm focusing transit towards the Loop. Although the L gained its name because large parts of the system are elevated, portions of the network are in subway tunnels, at grade level, or open cut. In 2014, the L had an average of 752,734 passenger boardings each weekday,486,267 each Saturday, over the next year service was extended to 63rd Street and Stony Island Avenue, the Transportation Building of the Worlds Columbian Exposition in Jackson Park.
In 1893, trains running on the Lake Street Elevated Railroad and in 1895 on the Metropolitan West Side Elevated, which had lines to Douglas Park, Garfield Park, Humboldt Park. Two years the South Side L introduced multiple-unit control, in which the operator can control all the cars in a train. Electrification and MU control remain standard features of most of the rapid transit systems. A drawback of early L service was none of the lines entered the central business district. The Union Loop opened in 1897 and greatly increased the rapid transit systems convenience, insull instituted many improvements, including free transfers and through routing, although he did not formally combine the original firms into the Chicago Rapid Transit Company until 1924. The construction of the Subway created the necessity to tunnel under the Chicago River, the State Street Subway opened on October 17,1943, the Dearborn Subway, on which work had been suspended during World War II, opened on February 25,1951. The subways were constructed with a purpose of serving as bomb shelters.
The subways bypassed a number of curves and circuitous routings on the original elevated lines. In 1947, the Chicago Transit Authority acquired the assets of the Chicago Rapid Transit Company and the Chicago Surface Lines, operator of the citys streetcars. Over the next few years CTA modernized the L, replacing wooden cars with new ones and closing lightly used branch lines and stations. Later, after assuming control of the L, the CTA introduced a service known as the A/B skip-stop service. Under this service, trains were designated as either A or B trains, a trains would only stop at A or AB stations, and B trains would only stop at B or AB stations
A car is a wheeled, self-powered motor vehicle used for transportation and a product of the automotive industry. The year 1886 is regarded as the year of the modern car. In that year, German inventor Karl Benz built the Benz Patent-Motorwagen, cars did not become widely available until the early 20th century. One of the first cars that was accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were rapidly adopted in the United States of America, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, cars are equipped with controls used for driving, passenger comfort and safety, and controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, examples include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, and in car entertainment. Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by a combustion engine. Both fuels cause air pollution and are blamed for contributing to climate change.
Vehicles using alternative fuels such as ethanol flexible-fuel vehicles and natural gas vehicles are gaining popularity in some countries, electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are costs and benefits to car use, the costs of car usage include the cost of, acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and auto maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society of car use include, maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide. The benefits may include transportation, independence. The ability for humans to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies and it was estimated in 2010 that the number of cars had risen to over 1 billion vehicles, up from the 500 million of 1986. The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China, the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre.
In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, the Gaulish language was a branch of the Brythoic language which used the word Karr, the Brythonig language evolved into Welsh where Car llusg and car rhyfel still survive. It originally referred to any wheeled vehicle, such as a cart, carriage. Motor car is attested from 1895, and is the formal name for cars in British English. Autocar is a variant that is attested from 1895
The word is often associated with road going emergency ambulances which form part of an emergency medical service, administering emergency care to those with acute medical problems. The term ambulance does, extend to a range of vehicles other than those with flashing warning lights. The term ambulance comes from the Latin word ambulare as meaning to walk or move about which is a reference to medical care where patients were moved by lifting or wheeling. The word originally meant a hospital, which follows an army in its movements. Ambulances were first used for transport in 1487 by the Spanish forces during the siege of Málaga by the Catholic Monarchs against the Emirate of Granada. During the American Civil War vehicles for conveying the wounded off the field of battle were called ambulance wagons, there are other types of ambulance, with the most common being the patient transport ambulance. These vehicles are not usually equipped with equipment, and are usually crewed by staff with fewer qualifications than the crew of emergency ambulances.
Their purpose is simply to transport patients to, from or between places of treatment, in most countries, these are not equipped with flashing lights or sirens. In some jurisdictions there is a form of the ambulance used, that only carries one member of ambulance crew to the scene to provide care. In these cases a patient who requires transportation to hospital will require an ambulance to attend in addition to the first responder. The history of the ambulance begins in ancient times, with the use of carts to transport incurable patients by force, Ambulances were first used for emergency transport in 1487 by the Spanish, and civilian variants were put into operation during the 1830s. Advances in technology throughout the 19th and 20th centuries led to the modern self-powered ambulances, Ambulances can be grouped into types depending on whether or not they transport patients, and under what conditions. In some cases, ambulances may fulfil more than one function, Emergency ambulance – The most common type of ambulance, which provide care to patients with an acute illness or injury.
These can be road-going vans, helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft or even converted vehicles such as golf carts. Patient transport ambulance – A vehicle, which has the job of transporting patients to and these can be vans, buses or other vehicles. Response units may be backed up by an ambulance which can transport the patient, or may deal with the problem on scene. These can be a variety of vehicles, from standard cars, to modified vans, pedal cycles. These units can function as a vehicle for officers or supervisors, Fire & Rescue services in North America often staff EMTs or Paramedics to their apparatuses to provide medical care without the need to wait for an ambulance
Lincoln Town Car
The Lincoln Town Car is a model line of full-size luxury sedans that was marketed by the Lincoln division of the American automaker Ford Motor Company from 1980 to 2011. Deriving its name from a style of limousine, Town Car translated in French is the term Sedan de Ville, the Town Car nameplate first appeared as a sub-model of the Continental in 1959, becoming a trim line during the 1970s. For 1981, the Lincoln Town Car became a distinct product, with the exception of two-door sedans sold in 1980-81, the Town Car was produced in a single four-door body style. Following the 1996 discontinuation of the Cadillac Fleetwood, the Town Car became the longest mass-produced sedan assembled in the Western Hemisphere until 2003, marketed primarily in the United States and Canada, the Town Car saw exports worldwide. From 1980 to 2007, the Lincoln Town Car was assembled at Wixom Assembly, at Wixom, alongside the Lincoln Continental, Mark Series, and Lincoln LS. Following the closure of Wixom Assembly, production of the Town Car was moved to St.
Thomas Assembly in Southwold, Canada, alongside the Ford Crown Victoria and Mercury Grand Marquis. In 2011, production of all three Panther-platform vehicles ended as the St. Thomas facility ended production in September 2011, in the 1920s, a town car was a type of limousine that gained popularity among automobile buyers. The design featured an open chauffeurs compartment with either a fixed or convertible roof for the rear passengers, in 1922, Edsel Ford purchased a custom-built Lincoln L-Series town car as a personal vehicle for his father, Henry Ford. In the 1950s, Cadillac and Lincoln would introduce the de Ville/Town Car nameplates, while Cadillac styled the de Ville series as a hardtop coupe and sedan, in 1959, the Town Car was introduced as a limousine variant of the Continental Mark IV four-door sedan. In place of the reverse-slant roofline of the standard Mark IV the Town Car was given a profile to its roofline with a padded vinyl top. Due to its nature, all Continental Town Cars were sold in black.
In addition to the styling, the roofline was designed for the ability to add rear legroom without further extending the wheelbase. As only 214 Continental Town Cars were sold from 1959 to 1960, the nameplate went dormant for a decade, becoming an option for 1969, in place of a sub-model, the Town Car returned as a trim package. As part of the 1970 redesign of the Lincoln Continental, the Lincoln Continental Town Car trim made its return, as an option package, the Continental Town Car featured additional standard equipment and an extra plush interior. On nearly all 1970-1979 Lincoln Continental Town Cars, the roof covered half the roof. To suggest a partition, a raised molding sweeping over the roof was added, as an option, some models of the Town Car featured a full-length padded roof. From 1973 to 1981, two-door Lincoln Continentals were available with an option called the Lincoln Continental Town Coupe. After lagging behind rival Cadillac since 1977, Lincoln became the final American luxury brand to market downsized full-size cars for the 1980 model year
Death and state funeral of Ronald Reagan
On June 5,2004, Ronald Reagan, the 40th President of the United States, died after having suffered from Alzheimers disease for nearly a decade. After Reagans death, his body was taken from his Bel Air, Los Angeles home to the Gates and Gates Funeral Home in Santa Monica and his death occurred on the 36th anniversary of the assassination of Robert F. Kennedy. Later that day, after the service, Reagans casket was transported back to California for interment at the Reagan Presidential Library, the state funeral was executed by the Military District of Washington and was the first since that of Lyndon B. Johnson in 1973. Richard Nixon, who presided over Johnsons funeral, declined to have a funeral in 1994. Reagan was the first U. S. former president to die in the 21st century, on the morning of June 5,2004, there were reports that Reagans health had significantly deteriorated, following nine years of Alzheimers disease. He died of pneumonia at his home at 13,09 PDT, President George W. Bush was in Paris when Reagan died and acknowledged the death in a press conference.
This is a sad hour in the life of America, a great American life has come to an end. I have just spoken to Nancy Reagan, on behalf of our whole nation, Laura and I offered her and the Reagan family our prayers and our condolences. Ronald Reagan won Americas respect with his greatness, and won its love with his goodness and he had the confidence that comes with conviction, the strength that comes with character, the grace that comes with humility, and the humor that comes with wisdom. He leaves behind a nation he restored and a world he helped save, during the years of President Reagan, America laid to rest an era of division and self-doubt. And because of his leadership, the world laid to rest an era of fear, now, in laying our leader to rest, we say thank you. He always told us that for America, the best was yet to come and we comfort ourselves in the knowledge that this is true for him, too. His work is done, and now a shining city awaits him, in the announcement of Reagans death, Bush declared June 11 as a National Day of Mourning. S.
s National Day of Mourning. In Germany, Chancellor Gerhard Schröder ordered flags flown at half-staff above government buildings on the 11th as well, people marked Reagans death by leaving tributes and condolences at U. S. After Reagans death, campaigning for the ongoing U. S. presidential election was considered disrespectful during a time of mourning, and was suspended. On June 7, Reagans body was removed from the home and driven in a 20-mile-per-hour motorcade, by horse. Reagans casket, a Marsellus Masterpiece model, was carried by an honor guard representing all branches of the United States Armed Forces into the lobby of the library to lie in repose. There, a family service was conducted by the Reverend Dr. Michael H. Wenning, former pastor of Bel Air Church
A motorcycle is a two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycle design varies greatly to suit a range of different purposes, long travel, cruising, sport including racing. Motorcycling is riding a motorcycle and related social activity such as joining a motorcycle club, in 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, and the first to be called a motorcycle. In 2014, the three top motorcycle producers globally by volume were Honda and Hero MotoCorp, in developing countries, motorcycles are overwhelmingly utilitarian due to lower prices and greater fuel economy. Of all the motorcycles in the world, 58% are in the Asia-Pacific and Southern and Eastern Asia regions, according to the United States Department of Transportation the number of fatalities per vehicle mile traveled was 37 times higher for motorcycles than for cars. The term motorcycle has different legal definitions depending on jurisdiction, there are three major types of motorcycle, off-road, and dual purpose.
Within these types, there are many sub-types of motorcycles for different purposes, there is often a racing counterpart to each type, such as road racing and street bikes, or motocross and dirt bikes. Street bikes include cruisers, sportbikes and mopeds, off-road motorcycles include many types designed for dirt-oriented racing classes such as motocross and are not street legal in most areas. Dual purpose machines like the style are made to go off-road but include features to make them legal. Each configuration offers either specialised advantage or broad capability, and each design creates a different riding posture, the first internal combustion, petroleum fueled motorcycle was the Daimler Reitwagen. It was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt, instead, it relied on two outrigger wheels to remain upright while turning. The inventors called their invention the Reitwagen and it was designed as an expedient testbed for their new engine, rather than a true prototype vehicle.
The first commercial design for a cycle was a three-wheel design called the Butler Petrol Cycle. He exhibited his plans for the vehicle at the Stanley Cycle Show in London in 1884, the vehicle was built by the Merryweather Fire Engine company in Greenwich, in 1888. The engine was liquid-cooled, with a radiator over the driving wheel. Speed was controlled by means of a valve lever. No braking system was fitted, the vehicle was stopped by raising and lowering the rear driving wheel using a foot-operated lever, the driver was seated between the front wheels. It wasnt, however, a success, as Butler failed to find sufficient financial backing, many authorities have excluded steam powered, electric motorcycles or diesel-powered two-wheelers from the definition of a motorcycle, and credit the Daimler Reitwagen as the worlds first motorcycle
A pall is a cloth that covers a casket or coffin at funerals. The word comes from the Latin pallium, through Old English and it is a stiffened square card covered with white linen, usually embroidered with a cross or some other appropriate symbol. The purpose of the pall is to keep dust and insects from falling into the Eucharistic elements in a chalice, the derivation is the same, the cloth is named after the presumed cloth that covered Jesus. They were usually given to the Church to use for vestments or other decorations. The rules for the colour and use vary depending on religious. Commonly today palls are pure white, to symbolize the white clothes worn during baptism, the colour is not fixed and may vary with the liturgical season. Traditionally, it is common for the pall, as well as the vestments of the clergy to be black, the pall is placed on the casket or coffin as soon as it arrives at the church and will remain on the coffin during all of proceedings in the church. The pall will be removed at the graveside, just before the casket or coffin is lowered into the ground, if the remains are to be cremated, the pall-covered casket or coffin will go through a curtain, and the pall will be removed.
In the Eastern Orthodox Church the pall often bears a depiction of the cross, since Orthodox funerals are normally open casket, the pall comes up only to the chest of the deceased. When an Orthodox bishop dies, his mandyas is used as a pall, military funerals often use the nations flag as a pall. In the United Kingdom, members of the Royal Family or the peerage may use a flag bearing their arms as a pall, an exhibition of such palls was made in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London in 1927. Shroud Christian burial Media related to Funeral cloths at Wikimedia Commons Pall