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Heart of Darkness

Heart of Darkness is a novella by Polish-British novelist Joseph Conrad about a narrated voyage up the Congo River into the Congo Free State in the Heart of Africa. Charles Marlow, the narrator, tells his story to friends aboard a boat anchored on the River Thames; this setting provides the frame for Marlow's story of his obsession with the successful ivory trader Kurtz. Conrad offers parallels between Africa as places of darkness. Central to Conrad's work is the idea that there is little difference between "civilised people" and those described as "savages." Heart of Darkness implicitly comments on racism. Issued as a three-part serial story in Blackwood's Magazine to celebrate the thousandth edition of the magazine, Heart of Darkness has been re-published and translated into many languages, it provided the inspiration for Francis Ford Coppola's 1979 film Apocalypse Now. In 1998, the Modern Library ranked Heart of Darkness 67th on their list of the 100 best novels in English of the twentieth century.

In 1890, at the age of 32, Conrad was appointed by a Belgian trading company to serve on one of its steamers. While sailing up the Congo River from one station to another, the captain became ill and Conrad assumed command, he guided the ship up the tributary Lualaba River to the trading company's innermost station, Kindu, in Eastern Kongo. When Conrad began to write the novella, eight years after returning from Africa, he drew inspiration from his travel journals, he described Heart of Darkness as "a wild story" of a journalist who becomes manager of a station in the interior and makes himself worshipped by a tribe of savages. The tale was first published as a three-part serial, in February and April 1899, in Blackwood's Magazine. In 1902 Heart of Darkness was included in the book Youth: a Narrative, Two Other Stories, published on 13 November 1902 by William Blackwood; the volume consisted of Youth: a Narrative, Heart of Darkness and The End of the Tether in that order. In 1917, for future editions of the book, Conrad wrote an "Author's Note" where he, after denying any "unity of artistic purpose" underlying the collection, discusses each of the three stories and makes light commentary on Marlow, the narrator of the tales within the first two stories.

He said. On 31 May 1902, in a letter to William Blackwood, Conrad remarked, I call your own kind self to witness... the last pages of Heart of Darkness where the interview of the man and the girl locks in—as it were—the whole 30000 words of narrative description into one suggestive view of a whole phase of life and makes of that story something quite on another plane than an anecdote of a man who went mad in the Centre of Africa. There have been many proposed sources for the character of Kurtz. Georges-Antoine Klein, an agent who became ill and died aboard Conrad's steamer, is proposed by scholars and literary critics as a basis for Kurtz; the principal figures involved in the disastrous "rear column" of the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition have been identified as sources, including column leader Edmund Musgrave Barttelot, slave trader Tippu Tip and the expedition leader, Welsh explorer Henry Morton Stanley. Conrad's biographer Norman Sherry judged that Arthur Hodister, a Belgian solitary but successful trader, who spoke three Congolese languages and was venerated by the Congolese villagers among whom he worked to the point of deification, served as the main model, while scholars have refuted this hypothesis.

Adam Hochschild, in King Leopold's Ghost, believes that the Belgian soldier Léon Rom influenced the character. Peter Firchow mentions the possibility that Kurtz is a composite, modelled on various figures present in the Congo Free State at the time as well as on Conrad's imagining of what they might have had in common. Aboard the Nellie, anchored in the River Thames near Gravesend, Charles Marlow tells his fellow sailors how he became captain of a river steamboat for an ivory trading company; as a child, Marlow had been fascinated by "the blank spaces" on maps by the biggest, which by the time he had grown up was no longer blank but turned into "a place of darkness". Yet there remained a big river, "resembling an immense snake uncoiled, with its head in the sea, its body at rest curving afar over a vast country and its tail lost in the depths of the land"; the image of this river on the map fascinated Marlow "as a snake would a bird". Feeling as though "instead of going to the centre of a continent I were about to set off for the centre of the earth", Marlow takes passage on a French steamer bound for the African coast and into the interior.

After more than thirty days the ship anchors off the seat of government near the mouth of the big river. Marlow, with 200 mi to go yet, takes passage on a little sea-going steamer captained by a Swede, he departs some 30 mi up the river. Work on the railway is going on. Marlow enters a narrow ravine to stroll in the shade under the trees, finds himself in "the gloomy circle of some Inferno": the place is full of diseased Africans who worked on the railroad and now lay sick and gaunt, awaiting death. Marlow witnesses the scene "horror-struck." Marlow must wait for ten days in the company's Outer Station. He sleeps in a hut. At this station, which strikes Marlow as a scene of devastation, he meets the company's impeccably dressed chief accountant who tells him of a Mr. Kurtz, in charge of a important trading-post, a respected, first-class agent, a "'very remarkable person'" who "'Sends

1972–73 Huddersfield Town A.F.C. season

Huddersfield Town's 1972–73 campaign saw Town get relegated for the second season in a row, which saw them drop into the 3rd Division for the first time in their history. Despite the 17 goals of new signing Alan Gowling from Manchester United, Town were relegated by goal average from Cardiff City, who were beaten by Town to the 1st Division title in 1924. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Following the relegation of Town from 1st Division at the end of the previous season, Town's three most experienced players, Trevor Cherry, Roy Ellam and Frank Worthington all left for pastures new, but the money received from their transfers was used to sign the experience of Alan Gowling from Manchester United and Graham Pugh from Sheffield Wednesday. However, a rise back up to Division 1 had a bad start, with Town drawing most of their opening matches and not making any realistic ground on any of the promotion chasing teams such as Burnley and Queens Park Rangers.

Town had only 7 wins in the league by the end of the season, with Town needing to win the last game of the season at home to Portsmouth to have any chance of Town avoiding the unthinkable drop to Division 3. Town beat Pompey 2–0 thanks to goals from Mick Fairclough and new signing Phil Summerill gave Town the needed win, but they had to wait on other results to go their way. Cardiff City got their needed result from their game in hand, it was revenge on Town, who pipped Cardiff to the 1st Division title in 1924. They finished 21st with 33 points, getting relegated to Division 3 with Hove Albion. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality

Santa Cristina al Tiverone Altarpiece

Santa Cristina al Tiverone Altarpiece is a painting by the Italian Renaissance painter Lorenzo Lotto, executed around 1504–1506. It is still housed in its original location, the parish church of Santa Cristina in Quinto di Treviso, a frazione of Treviso, northern Italy. Measuring 90x179 cm and 177x162 cm, it is signed "Laurentius / Lotus / P." at the base of the throne. It was commissioned around 1505 by bishop Bernardo de' Rossi, in whose court Lotto worked at the time, it was released on 14 May 1507. The main panel, of rectangular shape, shows a sacred conversation with Madonna and Child sitting on a large throne. Around her are the saints Peter, Christine and Jerome, all enclosed within a classical style architecture; the composition derives from Giovanni Bellini's San Zaccaria Altarpiece, as testified by the niche in the throne with Byzantine mosaics, the oriental carpet at Mary's feet. Inspired by Giorgione's Castelfranco Madonna is the figure of Liberalis, the patron saint of Treviso, as a knight holding a model of the city in a hand.

The baby Jesus holds an allegory of his future Passion. The right side opens on an external wall covered by grass; the lunette shows instead a Pietà based on Bellini, with the dead Christ supported by two angels. Pirovano, Carlo. Lotto. Milan: Electa. Page at the museum website

Gualtieri di San Lazzaro

Gualtieri di San Lazzaro was an Italian author and art publisher. For the majority of his life, he resided in Paris where he published monographs focusing on the work of contemporary French and Italian artists, he was the founder of the periodical XXe Siècle. Gualtieri di San Lazzaro was born Giuseppe Papa in Catania in 1904 and was raised in Venice by his father, he assumed the pseudonym ‘Gualtieri di San Lazzaro’ when he launched his professional career in Rome in the early 1920s. In 1924 San Lazzaro moved to Paris. After having edited Les Chroniques du Jour, San Lazzaro established his own publishing house éditions des Chroniques du Jour. In 1928 he published Les Maîtres Nouveaux, which focussed on French and Italian painters and, to be the first of two series of monographs on contemporary artists; the second series of monographs, XXe Siècle was introduced in 1929. The first volume was dedicated to Henri Matisse, authored by Florent Fels and co-published with Anton Zwemmer in London and E. Weyhe in New York.

A volume on Pablo Picasso by Eugenio Ors was co-published and represents the largest print run in the series at 650 copies in English and 550 in French. San Lazzaro launched the illustrated periodical XXe Siècle in 1938. Featuring high quality reproductions of varied visual imagery including Western paintings and Far-Eastern prints, the inclusion of original prints by contemporary artists in every issue was its defining feature. Artists who contributed to the periodical include Wassily Kandinsky, Hans Arp, Giorgio de Chirico and Joan Miró; the periodical was not published between 1939 and 1951. After its relaunch in 1951, XXe Siècle engaged with more specific thematic, material-based issues such as mark making and concepts of space and concentrated on the formation of an international dialogue between Italian and French artists including Marino Marini; the periodical was distributed in Italy by Carlo Gadazzo, the owner of the Naviglio Gallery in Milan, which became the site for San Lazarro’s exhibitions of the work of contemporary French artists.

In 1968 Léon Amiel assumed control of XXe Siècle and in 1970 Amiel purchased the XXe Siècle Company. Until his death in 1974 San Lazzaro continued to publish books and albums of prints including the Homage to Marino Marini. Following his death two exhibitions were dedicated to San Lazzaro: ‘Ommagio a XXe Siècle’ and ‘San Lazarro et ses Amis’. Parigi era morta, Garzanti, 1947 Parigi era viva, Garzanti, 1948 Valerie Holman ‘Promoting Original Prints: The Role of Gualtieri di San Lazzaro and XXe Siècle’, Print Quarterly, Volume XXXIII, No. 2, pp. 159–67 Luca Pietro Nicoletti, Gualtieri di San Lazzaro: Scritti e incontri di un editore d’arte a Parigi, Quodlibet, 2014

Azalea Park, San Diego

The Azalea Park neighborhood is a community within City Heights in the greater San Diego, California area. It is located on top of a plateau 3 miles east of San Diego Bay, with an elevation of around 300 feet, it is bordered to the north by Manzanita Canyon Fairmount Avenue to the east, Interstate 805 to the west, Hollywood Park to the south. Azalea Park Neighborhood enjoys a moderate climate, avoiding the overcast conditions along the coast and the extreme heat of the inland areas. A strong "ocean" breeze helps to keep Azalea Park cool in the summer due to its location at the edge of the plateau. Azalea Park was once, still is "officially" known as Lexington Park. Azalea Park was a real estate subdivision, in the mid-1980s the Lexington Park Neighborhood Association decided to begin using Azalea Park to refer to themselves; the Lexington Park Neighborhood Association soon disbanded due to members moving, dying, or otherwise losing interest. In 1993, the newly formed Azalea Park Neighborhood Association began a decades-long campaign to recruit LGBT residents to Azalea Park to begin the transformation of the area from a crime-ridden area filled with drug houses and gangs into a family-friendly neighborhood.

Many residents have been in the community for 50 years or more. A large percentage of the homes in Azalea Park are owner-occupied. New arrivals have improved both the physical appearance and the community spirit here. "Project Clean leader Linda Pennington and her husband, moved to Azalea Park a decade ago from the Hillcrest neighborhood, the center of San Diego's gay community. The Penningtons had watched the gentrification that occurred in Hillcrest when gays and lesbians began buying homes.'The gays rescued Hillcrest, we hope they can help do the same far Azalea Park,' said Mark Pennington, a computer program administrator for AT&T.'We know that gays are good neighbors, they take care of their property and they're community minded.'" "In 1994, resident activist Linda Pennington sat on her porch after a Saturday of painting over graffiti with her husband and a few neighbors and remarked how great it would be if members of the San Diego gay community would move in. She had observed that Hillcrest, a neighborhood in San Diego popular with homosexual couples, seemed to prosper and thrive.

That was the start of an effort to target market a group of potential homeowners that has been'wildly successful,' said Pennington, whose efforts sent her and other residents to Gay Pride marches to set up booths and recruit homosexuals to move to Azalea Park. They made a match between having not-so-great schools but a good housing stock and the thought that if they offered an environment, welcoming to this particular population — households with no children and reasonably high incomes — it could have a revitalizing effect on the neighborhood."The target marketing worked. Since 1994, the gay population of Azalea Park has increased occupying 100 of the 800 housing units. Jim Doolittle, an unemployed bill collector and nine-year resident, said: "Gays take care of their homes, there's no other way to put it, they keep up their yards and they tend to be community active. We don't care about their sexual orientation at all."To spread the message of Azalea Park, Pennington and a dozen other residents marched in the city's annual Lesbian & Gay Pride Parade in Hillcrest under the banner "Azalea Park.

An Affordable Canyon Neighborhood."There is a tradition of strong community involvement. In addition the residents join together for canyon clean-ups, neighborhood paint-outs, toy drives and other community related activities. Azalea Park has one of the largest and most active neighborhood associations in San Diego. Azalea Park is blossoming into the Azalea Park Arts District. Visitors can find sculptures, art installations and hand-painted signs to denote the flower-named streets; the Manzanita Gathering Place was built to be a creative refuge awash in art at the opening at Manzanita Canyon, with canopies and columns incorporating mosaic tiles made by Azalea Park residents. Local artists have moved their businesses to Azalea Park and see this neighborhood becoming a vibrant arts community. At the Azalea Community Park, local artists have created a unique oasis with the Water Conservation Garden, a collection of succulent plants and creative sculpture.


Kalabaka is a town and a municipality in the Trikala regional unit, part of Thessaly in Greece. The population was 21,991 at the 2011 census; the Metéora monasteries are located in the town. Kalabaka is the northwestern terminal of the old Thessaly Railways, now part of OSE. A Greek inscription on the wall of one of the town's oldest churches testifies to the existence of an ancient Greek settlement under the name Aiginion. In the 10th century AD, it was known as a Byzantine fortress and bishopric. Of its medieval monuments, only the cathedral, the Church of the Dormition, survives, it was a late 11th- or early 12th-century building, built on the remains of an earlier, late antique church. Relics of an ancient Greek temple – of god Apollo – have been incorporated in the wall of the town's oldest and most renowned church, dedicated to Virgin Mary. Stagoi is first mentioned in Diatyposis written by the Byzantine Emperor Leo VI the Wise. In 1163 there was a reference to the castle of Stagoi. In 1204 Stagoi fell under the Despotate of Epirus.

At the end of the 13th century they fell under the Duchy of Neopatria. In 1334, they were taken over once more by the Despot of Epirus, John II Orsini, shortly thereafter they came once more under the control of the Byzantine Empire. In 1348, they were conquered by the Serbs of Stephen Dushan, they reached their peak under the rule of his brother, King Simeon Uroš. When the Ottomans conquered Thessaly, Kalabaka was placed under the administrative rule of the Pasha of Larisa and on of the Sanjak of Trikala, it was named "Kalabaka" seven centuries ago. It is of Turkish origin and means "powerful fortress", it has been Anglicized variously as Kalambaka or Kalabaki. From the beginning of the 10th century, Stagoi was referred to as an episcopal see, thereby enjoying privileges and donations from the Byzantine emperors throughout the Middle Ages, it had dependent farmers in neighboring settlements. Besides the fields of northwest Thessaly, its territory included an extensive mountainous zone in Asia and central Pindos.

The bishopric of Stagoi, a suffragan of the Metropolis of Larissa, was maintained, with some small intermissions, up to 1900 when it was merged with the bishopric of Tricca to form the Metropolis of Tricca and Stagoi with the town of Trikala as its seat. It was reestablished in 1991, has been operating since as the Metropolis of "Stagoi and Meteora" with its seat in the town of Kalabaka; the province of Kalabaka was one of the provinces of the Trikala Prefecture. It had the same territory as the present municipality, it was abolished in 2006. The city is served by Kalambaka station on the Palaiofarsalos-Kalambaka line; the town is situated at the foot of the Meteora peaks. Along with the local native Byzantine Greeks, Kalabaka had been settled and inhabited by an important community of Aromanians who being influenced by the locals, became Hellenized, converted to the Greek Orthodox faith and attended the Meteora monasteries; the municipality Kalabaka was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 8 former municipalities, that became municipal units: Aspropotamos Chasia Kalabaka Kastania Kleino Malakasi Tymfaia VasilikiThe municipality has an area of 1,658.280 km2, the municipal unit 277.087 km2.

The municipal unit Kalabaka consists of the following communities: Avra Diava Kalabaka Kastraki Krya Vrysi Megali Kerasea Orthovouni Sarakina Vlachava Kalampaka has two twin towns: Schwabach, Germany Le Haillan, France Kalabaka was voted as one of the most beautiful places in Greece by the Skai TV show I LOVE GR. Kostas Fortounis, professional footballer, born in nearby Trikala but he and his family are from Kalabaka. Christos Almpanis, professional footballer, born in the town. Richard Stillwell, William L. MacDonald, Marian Holland McAllister, Richard, MacDonald, William L. McAlister, Marian Holland, Aiginion, in The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites. A. Avramea, I Vyzantini Thessalia mechri tou 1204, doctoral dissertation, Athens 1974, EKPA-Vivliothiki Sofias N. Saripolou 27, Athens 1974, pp. 158–161. V. Spanos, Istoria-Prosopographia tis BD. Thessalias to B' miso tou ID' aiona. Larisa 1995 I. Vogiatzidis, To chronikon ton Meteoron, Yearbook of Society for Byzantine Studies 2, pp. 149–162.

D. Sofianos, Acta Stagorum, Ta yper tis Thessalikis episkopis Stagon palaia vyzantina eggrafa [Acta Stagorum: the Byzantine documents for the Thessalic diocese of Stagai, Trikalina 13, pp. 7–67. St. Aristarchis, "Ekthesis epi ton diagonismaton Thessalias kai Epirou", O en Konstantinoupolei Ellinikos Filologikos Syllogos 13-15, pp. 31–39 L. Heuzey – H. Daumet, Mission arhéologique de Macédoine, Paris 1876, pp. 452–454, L. Heuzey, Odoiporiko stin Tourkokratoumeni Thessalia to 1858, transl. Ch. Dimitropoulos, publ. Afoi Kyriakidi, Thessaloniki 1991, pp. 152–157 F. Dölger, Regesten der kaiserurkunden des oströmischen reiches von 565-1453,Verlag, München-Berlin 1960,pp. 159–160. P. Sustal, Hellas und Thessalia, ed Η. Hunger. Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften