A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space. Spacecraft are used for a variety of purposes, including communications, earth observation, navigation, space colonization, planetary exploration, transportation of humans and cargo. All spacecraft except single-stage-to-orbit vehicles cannot get into space on their own, require a launch vehicle. On a sub-orbital spaceflight, a space vehicle enters space and returns to the surface, without having gained sufficient energy or velocity to make a full orbit of the Earth. For orbital spaceflights, spacecraft enter closed orbits around the Earth or around other celestial bodies. Spacecraft used for human spaceflight carry people on board as crew or passengers from start or on orbit only, whereas those used for robotic space missions operate either autonomously or telerobotically. Robotic spacecraft used to support scientific research are space probes. Robotic spacecraft that remain in orbit around a planetary body are artificial satellites.
To date, only a handful of interstellar probes, such as Pioneer 10 and 11, Voyager 1 and 2, New Horizons, are on trajectories that leave the Solar System. Orbital spacecraft may be recoverable or not. Most are not. Recoverable spacecraft may be subdivided by method of reentry to Earth into non-winged space capsules and winged spaceplanes. Humanity has achieved space flight but only a few nations have the technology for orbital launches: Russia, the United States, the member states of the European Space Agency, China, Taiwan (National Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology, Taiwan National Space Organization, Israel and North Korea. A German V-2 became the first spacecraft when it reached an altitude of 189 km in June 1944 in Peenemünde, Germany. Sputnik 1 was the first artificial satellite, it was launched into an elliptical low Earth orbit by the Soviet Union on 4 October 1957. The launch ushered in new political, military and scientific developments. Apart from its value as a technological first, Sputnik 1 helped to identify the upper atmospheric layer's density, through measuring the satellite's orbital changes.
It provided data on radio-signal distribution in the ionosphere. Pressurized nitrogen in the satellite's false body provided the first opportunity for meteoroid detection. Sputnik 1 was launched during the International Geophysical Year from Site No.1/5, at the 5th Tyuratam range, in Kazakh SSR. The satellite travelled at 29,000 kilometers per hour, taking 96.2 minutes to complete an orbit, emitted radio signals at 20.005 and 40.002 MHz While Sputnik 1 was the first spacecraft to orbit the Earth, other man-made objects had reached an altitude of 100 km, the height required by the international organization Fédération Aéronautique Internationale to count as a spaceflight. This altitude is called the Kármán line. In particular, in the 1940s there were several test launches of the V-2 rocket, some of which reached altitudes well over 100 km; as of 2016, only three nations have flown crewed spacecraft: USSR/Russia, USA, China. The first crewed spacecraft was Vostok 1, which carried Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin into space in 1961, completed a full Earth orbit.
There were five other crewed missions. The second crewed spacecraft was named Freedom 7, it performed a sub-orbital spaceflight in 1961 carrying American astronaut Alan Shepard to an altitude of just over 187 kilometers. There were five other crewed missions using Mercury spacecraft. Other Soviet crewed spacecraft include the Voskhod, flown uncrewed as Zond/L1, L3, TKS, the Salyut and Mir crewed space stations. Other American crewed spacecraft include the Gemini spacecraft, Apollo spacecraft, the Skylab space station, the Space Shuttle with undetached European Spacelab and private US Spacehab space stations-modules. China developed, but did not fly Shuguang, is using Shenzhou. Except for the Space Shuttle, all of the recoverable crewed orbital spacecraft were space capsules. Crewed space capsules The International Space Station, crewed since November 2000, is a joint venture between Russia, the United States and several other countries; some reusable vehicles have been designed only for crewed spaceflight, these are called spaceplanes.
The first example of such was the North American X-15 spaceplane, which conducted two crewed flights which reached an altitude of over 100 km in the 1960s. The first reusable spacecraft, the X-15, was air-launched on a suborbital trajectory on July 19, 1963; the first reusable orbital spacecraft, a winged non-capsule, the Space Shuttle, was launched by the USA on the 20th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's flight, on April 12, 1981. During the Shuttle era, six orbiters were built, all of which have flown in the atmosphere and five of which have flown in space. Enterprise was used only for approach and landing tests, launching from the back of a Boeing 747 SCA and gliding to deadstick landings at Edwards AFB, California; the first Space Shuttle to fly into space was Columbia, followed by Challenger, Discovery and Endeavour. Endeavour was built to replace Challenger when it was lost in January 1986. Columbia broke up during reentry in February 2003; the first automatic reusable spacecraft was the Buran-class shuttle, launched by the USSR on November 15, 1988, although it made only one flight and this was uncrewed.
This spaceplane was designed for a crew and resembled the U
Carbon fibers or carbon fibres are fibers about 5–10 micrometres in diameter and composed of carbon atoms. Carbon fibers have several advantages including high stiffness, high tensile strength, low weight, high chemical resistance, high temperature tolerance and low thermal expansion; these properties have made carbon fiber popular in aerospace, civil engineering and motorsports, along with other competition sports. However, they are expensive when compared with similar fibers, such as glass fibers or plastic fibers. To produce a carbon fiber, the carbon atoms are bonded together in crystals that are more or less aligned parallel to the long axis of the fiber as the crystal alignment gives the fiber high strength-to-volume ratio. Several thousand carbon fibers are bundled together to form a tow, which may be used by itself or woven into a fabric. Carbon fibers are combined with other materials to form a composite; when impregnated with a plastic resin and baked it forms carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer which has a high strength-to-weight ratio, is rigid although somewhat brittle.
Carbon fibers are composited with other materials, such as graphite, to form reinforced carbon-carbon composites, which have a high heat tolerance. In 1860, Joseph Swan produced carbon fibers for use in light bulbs. In 1879, Thomas Edison baked cotton threads or bamboo slivers at high temperatures carbonizing them into an all-carbon fiber filament used in one of the first incandescent light bulbs to be heated by electricity. In 1880, Lewis Latimer developed a reliable carbon wire filament for the incandescent light bulb, heated by electricity. In 1958, Roger Bacon created high-performance carbon fibers at the Union Carbide Parma Technical Center located outside of Cleveland, Ohio; those fibers were manufactured by heating strands of rayon. This process proved to be inefficient, as the resulting fibers contained only about 20% carbon and had low strength and stiffness properties. In the early 1960s, a process was developed by Dr. Akio Shindo at Agency of Industrial Science and Technology of Japan, using polyacrylonitrile as a raw material.
This had produced a carbon fiber. In 1960 Richard Millington of H. I. Thompson Fiberglas Co. developed a process for producing a high carbon content fiber using rayon as a precursor. These carbon fibers had sufficient strength to be used as a reinforcement for composites having high strength to weight properties and for high temperature resistant applications; the high potential strength of carbon fiber was realized in 1963 in a process developed by W. Watt, L. N. Phillips, W. Johnson at the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough, Hampshire; the process was patented by the UK Ministry of Defence licensed by the British National Research Development Corporation to three companies: Rolls-Royce, who were making carbon fiber. Within a few years, after successful use in 1968 of a Hyfil carbon-fiber fan assembly in the Rolls-Royce Conway jet engines of the Vickers VC10, Rolls-Royce took advantage of the new material's properties to break into the American market with its RB-211 aero-engine with carbon-fiber compressor blades.
The blades proved vulnerable to damage from bird impact. This problem and others caused Rolls-Royce such setbacks that the company was nationalized in 1971; the carbon-fiber production plant was sold off to form Bristol Composites. In the late 1960s, the Japanese took the lead in manufacturing PAN-based carbon fibers. A 1970 joint technology agreement allowed Union Carbide to manufacture the Japan’s Toray Industries product. Morganite decided that carbon-fiber production was peripheral to its core business, leaving Courtaulds as the only big UK manufacturer. Courtelle's water-based inorganic process made the product susceptible to impurities that did not affect the organic process used by other carbon-fiber manufacturers, leading Courtaulds ceasing carbon-fiber production in 1991. During the 1960s, experimental work to find alternative raw materials led to the introduction of carbon fibers made from a petroleum pitch derived from oil processing; these fibers had excellent flexural strength. During this period, the Japanese Government supported carbon fiber development at home and several Japanese companies such as Toray, Nippon Carbon, Toho Rayon and Mitsubishi started their own development and production.
Since the late 1970s, further types of carbon fiber yarn entered the global market, offering higher tensile strength and higher elastic modulus. For example, T400 from Toray with a tensile strength of 4,000 MPa and M40, a modulus of 400 GPa. Intermediate carbon fibers, such as IM 600 from Toho Rayon with up to 6,000 MPa were developed. Carbon fibers from Toray and Akzo found their way to aerospace application from secondary to primary parts first in military and in civil aircraft as in McDonnell Douglas, Boeing and United Aircraft Corporation planes. Carbon fiber is supplied in the form of a continuous tow wound onto a reel; the tow is a bundle of thousands of continuous individual carbon filaments held together and protected by an organic coating, or size, such as polyethylene oxide or polyvinyl alcohol. The tow can be conveniently unwound from the reel for use; each carbon filament in the tow is a continuous cylinder with a diameter of 5–10 micrometers and consists exclusively of carbon. The earliest generation had diameters of 16
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant, massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals. The term planet is ancient, with ties to history, science and religion. Five planets in the Solar System are visible to the naked eye; these were regarded by many early cultures as emissaries of deities. As scientific knowledge advanced, human perception of the planets changed, incorporating a number of disparate objects. In 2006, the International Astronomical Union adopted a resolution defining planets within the Solar System; this definition is controversial because it excludes many objects of planetary mass based on where or what they orbit. Although eight of the planetary bodies discovered before 1950 remain "planets" under the modern definition, some celestial bodies, such as Ceres, Pallas and Vesta, Pluto, that were once considered planets by the scientific community, are no longer viewed as such.
The planets were thought by Ptolemy to orbit Earth in epicycle motions. Although the idea that the planets orbited the Sun had been suggested many times, it was not until the 17th century that this view was supported by evidence from the first telescopic astronomical observations, performed by Galileo Galilei. About the same time, by careful analysis of pre-telescopic observational data collected by Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler found the planets' orbits were elliptical rather than circular; as observational tools improved, astronomers saw that, like Earth, each of the planets rotated around an axis tilted with respect to its orbital pole, some shared such features as ice caps and seasons. Since the dawn of the Space Age, close observation by space probes has found that Earth and the other planets share characteristics such as volcanism, hurricanes and hydrology. Planets are divided into two main types: large low-density giant planets, smaller rocky terrestrials. There are eight planets in the Solar System.
In order of increasing distance from the Sun, they are the four terrestrials, Venus and Mars the four giant planets, Saturn and Neptune. Six of the planets are orbited by one or more natural satellites. Several thousands of planets around other stars have been discovered in the Milky Way; as of 1 April 2019, 4,023 known extrasolar planets in 3,005 planetary systems, ranging in size from just above the size of the Moon to gas giants about twice as large as Jupiter have been discovered, out of which more than 100 planets are the same size as Earth, nine of which are at the same relative distance from their star as Earth from the Sun, i.e. in the circumstellar habitable zone. On December 20, 2011, the Kepler Space Telescope team reported the discovery of the first Earth-sized extrasolar planets, Kepler-20e and Kepler-20f, orbiting a Sun-like star, Kepler-20. A 2012 study, analyzing gravitational microlensing data, estimates an average of at least 1.6 bound planets for every star in the Milky Way.
Around one in five Sun-like stars is thought to have an Earth-sized planet in its habitable zone. The idea of planets has evolved over its history, from the divine lights of antiquity to the earthly objects of the scientific age; the concept has expanded to include worlds not only in the Solar System, but in hundreds of other extrasolar systems. The ambiguities inherent in defining planets have led to much scientific controversy; the five classical planets, being visible to the naked eye, have been known since ancient times and have had a significant impact on mythology, religious cosmology, ancient astronomy. In ancient times, astronomers noted how certain lights moved across the sky, as opposed to the "fixed stars", which maintained a constant relative position in the sky. Ancient Greeks called these lights πλάνητες ἀστέρες or πλανῆται, from which today's word "planet" was derived. In ancient Greece, China and indeed all pre-modern civilizations, it was universally believed that Earth was the center of the Universe and that all the "planets" circled Earth.
The reasons for this perception were that stars and planets appeared to revolve around Earth each day and the common-sense perceptions that Earth was solid and stable and that it was not moving but at rest. The first civilization known to have a functional theory of the planets were the Babylonians, who lived in Mesopotamia in the first and second millennia BC; the oldest surviving planetary astronomical text is the Babylonian Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa, a 7th-century BC copy of a list of observations of the motions of the planet Venus, that dates as early as the second millennium BC. The MUL. APIN is a pair of cuneiform tablets dating from the 7th century BC that lays out the motions of the Sun and planets over the course of the year; the Babylonian astrologers laid the foundations of what would become Western astrology. The Enuma anu enlil, written during the Neo-Assyrian period in the 7th century BC, comprises a list of omens and their relationships with various celestial phenomena including the motions of the planets.
Venus and the outer planets Mars and Saturn were all identified by Babylonian astronomers. These would remain the only known planets until the invention of the telescope in early modern times; the ancient Greeks did not attach as much significance to the planets as the Babylonians. The Pythagoreans, in the 6th and 5t
The Space Shuttle was a reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U. S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the Space Shuttle program, its official program name was Space Transportation System, taken from a 1969 plan for a system of reusable spacecraft of which it was the only item funded for development. The first of four orbital test flights occurred in 1981, leading to operational flights beginning in 1982. In addition to the prototype whose completion was cancelled, five complete Shuttle systems were built and used on a total of 135 missions from 1981 to 2011, launched from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Operational missions launched numerous satellites, interplanetary probes, the Hubble Space Telescope; the Shuttle fleet's total mission time was 19 hours, 21 minutes and 23 seconds. Shuttle components included the Orbiter Vehicle with three clustered Rocketdyne RS-25 main engines, a pair of recoverable solid rocket boosters, the expendable external tank containing liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen.
The Space Shuttle was launched vertically, like a conventional rocket, with the two SRBs operating in parallel with the OV's three main engines, which were fueled from the ET. The SRBs were jettisoned before the vehicle reached orbit, the ET was jettisoned just before orbit insertion, which used the orbiter's two Orbital Maneuvering System engines. At the conclusion of the mission, the orbiter fired its OMS to re-enter the atmosphere; the orbiter glided as a spaceplane to a runway landing to the Shuttle Landing Facility at Kennedy Space Center, Florida or Rogers Dry Lake in Edwards Air Force Base, California. After landing at Edwards, the orbiter was flown back to the KSC on the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, a specially modified Boeing 747; the first orbiter, was built in 1976, used in Approach and Landing Tests and had no orbital capability. Four operational orbiters were built: Columbia, Challenger and Atlantis. Of these, two were lost in mission accidents: Challenger in 1986 and Columbia in 2003, with a total of fourteen astronauts killed.
A fifth operational orbiter, was built in 1991 to replace Challenger. The Space Shuttle was retired from service upon the conclusion of Atlantis's final flight on July 21, 2011; the U. S. has since relied on the Russian Soyuz spacecraft to transport astronauts to the International Space Station, pending the Commercial Crew Development and Space Launch System programs on schedule for first flights in 2019 and 2020. The Space Shuttle was a reusable human spaceflight vehicle capable of reaching low Earth orbit and operated by the U. S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration from 1981 to 2011, it resulted from shuttle design studies conducted by NASA and the U. S. Air Force in the 1960s and was first proposed for development as part of an ambitious second-generation Space Transportation System of space vehicles to follow the Apollo program in a September 1969 report of a Space Task Group headed by Vice President Spiro Agnew to President Richard Nixon. Nixon's post-Apollo NASA budgeting withdrew support of all system components except the Shuttle, to which NASA applied the STS name.
The vehicle consisted of a spaceplane for orbit and re-entry, fueled from an expendable External Tank containing liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, with two reusable strap-on solid rocket boosters. The first of four orbital test flights occurred in 1981, leading to operational flights beginning in 1982, all launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida; the system was retired from service in 2011 after 135 missions, with Atlantis making the final launch of the three-decade Shuttle program on July 8, 2011. The program ended after Atlantis landed at the Kennedy Space Center on July 21, 2011. Major missions included launching numerous satellites and interplanetary probes, conducting space science experiments, servicing and construction of space stations; the first orbiter vehicle, named Enterprise, was used in the initial Approach and Landing Tests phase but installation of engines, heat shielding, other equipment necessary for orbital flight was cancelled. A total of five operational orbiters were built, of these, two were destroyed in accidents.
It was used for orbital space missions by NASA, the U. S. Department of Defense, the European Space Agency and Germany; the United States funded Shuttle development and operations except for the Spacelab modules used on D1 and D2—sponsored by Germany. SL-J was funded by Japan. At launch, it consisted of the "stack", including the dark orange external tank; some payloads were launched into higher orbits with either of two different upper stages developed for the STS. The Space Shuttle was stacked in the Vehicle Assembly Building, the stack mounted on a mobile launch platform held down by four frangible nuts on each SRB, which were detonated at launch; the Shuttle stack launched vertically like a conventional rocket. It lifted off under the power of its two SRBs and three main engines, which were fueled by liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen from the ET; the Space Shuttle had a two-stage ascent. The SRBs provided additional thrust during first-stage flight. About two minutes after liftoff, frangible nuts were fired, releasing the SRBs, which parachuted into the ocean, to
Lockheed Martin X-33
The Lockheed Martin X-33 was an unmanned, sub-scale technology demonstrator suborbital spaceplane developed in the 1990s under the U. S. government-funded Space Launch Initiative program. The X-33 was a technology demonstrator for the VentureStar orbital spaceplane, planned to be a next-generation, commercially operated reusable launch vehicle; the X-33 would flight-test a range of technologies that NASA believed it needed for single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicles, such as metallic thermal protection systems, composite cryogenic fuel tanks for liquid hydrogen, the aerospike engine, autonomous flight control, rapid flight turn-around times through streamlined operations, its lifting body aerodynamics. Failures of its 21-meter wingspan and multi-lobed, composite material fuel tank during pressure testing led to the withdrawal of federal support for the program in early 2001. Lockheed Martin has conducted unrelated testing, has had a single success after a string of failures as as 2009 using a 2-meter scale model.
In 1994 NASA initiated the Reusable Launch Vehicle program, which among other things lead to the development of the X-33 within a few years. Another important vehicle in this program was the Orbital Sciences X-34, developed concurrently with the X-33 by 1996. Goals of the RLV program: To "demonstrate technologies leading to a new generation of space boosters capable of delivering payloads at lower cost" To "provide a technology base for development of advanced commercial launch systems that will make U. S. aerospace manufacturers more competitive in the global market."The proposals for the X-33 included designs from: Rockwell Lockheed Martin McDonnell DouglasThe X-33 contract was awarded to LM in 1996, $1 billion was spent through 1999 with about 80 percent coming from NASA and additional money contributed by private companies. The goals was to have a first flight by 1999, operating space vehicle by 2005... to build a vehicle that takes days, not months, to turn around. Our goal is a reusable launch vehicle that will cut the cost of getting a pound of payload to orbit from $10,000 to $1,000.
There were three design proposals submitted for the X-33, the L. M. version was further developed. The Lockheed Martin proposal was chosen on July 2, 1996. However, the X-33 program was cancelled in early 2001 after the project had problems with a carbon composite hydrogen fuel tank; the program was managed by the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Several years after it was cancelled the problems with hydrogen fuel tank were resolved by aerospace companies. Through the use of the lifting body shape, composite multi-lobed liquid fuel tanks, the aerospike engine, NASA and Lockheed Martin hoped to test fly a craft that would demonstrate the viability of a single-stage-to-orbit design. A spacecraft capable of reaching orbit in a single stage would not require external fuel tanks or boosters to reach low Earth orbit. Doing away with the need for "staging" with launch vehicles, such as with the Shuttle and the Apollo rockets, would lead to an inherently more reliable and safer space launch vehicle.
While the X-33 would not approach airplane-like safety, the X-33 would attempt to demonstrate 0.997 reliability, or 3 mishaps out of 1,000 launches, which would be an order of magnitude more reliable than the Space Shuttle. The 15 planned experimental X-33 flights could only begin this statistical evaluation; the unmanned craft would have been launched vertically from a specially designed facility constructed on Edwards Air Force Base, landed horizontally on a runway at the end of its mission. Initial sub-orbital test flights were planned from Edwards AFB to Dugway Proving Grounds southwest of Salt Lake City, Utah. Once those test flights were completed, further flight tests were to be conducted from Edwards AFB to Malmstrom AFB in Great Falls, Montana, to gather more complete data on aircraft heating and engine performance at higher speeds and altitudes. On July 2, 1996, NASA selected Lockheed Martin Skunk Works of Palmdale, California, to design and test the X-33 experimental vehicle for the RLV program.
Lockheed Martin's design concept for the X-33 was selected over competing designs from Boeing and McDonnell Douglas. Boeing featured a Space Shuttle-derived design, McDonnell Douglas featured a design based on its vertical takeoff and landing DC-XA test vehicle; the unmanned X-33 was slated to fly 15 suborbital hops to near 75.8 km altitude. It was to be launched upright like a rocket and rather than having a straight flight path it would fly diagonally up for half the flight, reaching high altitudes, for the rest of the flight glide back down to a runway; the X-33 was never intended to fly higher than an altitude of 100 km, nor faster than one-half of orbital velocity. Had any successful tests occurred, extrapolation would have been necessary to apply the results to a proposed orbital vehicle; the decision to design and build the X-33 grew out of an internal NASA study titled "Access to Space". Unlike other space transport studies, "Access to Space" was to result in the design and construction of a vehicle.
Based on the X-33 experience shared with NASA, Lockheed Martin hoped to make the business case for a full-scale SSTO RLV, called VentureStar, that would be developed and operated through commercial means. The intention was that rather than operate space transport systems as it has with the Space Shuttle, NASA would instead look to private industry to operate the reusable launch vehicle and NASA would purchase launch services from the commercial launch provider. Thus, the X-33 was not only about honing space flight tech
An airplane or aeroplane is a powered, fixed-wing aircraft, propelled forward by thrust from a jet engine, propeller or rocket engine. Airplanes come in a variety of sizes and wing configurations; the broad spectrum of uses for airplanes includes recreation, transportation of goods and people and research. Worldwide, commercial aviation transports more than four billion passengers annually on airliners and transports more than 200 billion tonne-kilometres of cargo annually, less than 1% of the world's cargo movement. Most airplanes are flown by a pilot on board the aircraft, but some are designed to be remotely or computer-controlled; the Wright brothers invented and flew the first airplane in 1903, recognized as "the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight". They built on the works of George Cayley dating from 1799, when he set forth the concept of the modern airplane. Between 1867 and 1896, the German pioneer of human aviation Otto Lilienthal studied heavier-than-air flight.
Following its limited use in World War I, aircraft technology continued to develop. Airplanes had a presence in all the major battles of World War II; the first jet aircraft was the German Heinkel He 178 in 1939. The first jet airliner, the de Havilland Comet, was introduced in 1952; the Boeing 707, the first successful commercial jet, was in commercial service for more than 50 years, from 1958 to at least 2013. First attested in English in the late 19th century, the word airplane, like aeroplane, derives from the French aéroplane, which comes from the Greek ἀήρ, "air" and either Latin planus, "level", or Greek πλάνος, "wandering". "Aéroplane" referred just to the wing, as it is a plane moving through the air. In an example of synecdoche, the word for the wing came to refer to the entire aircraft. In the United States and Canada, the term "airplane" is used for powered fixed-wing aircraft. In the United Kingdom and most of the Commonwealth, the term "aeroplane" is applied to these aircraft. Many stories from antiquity involve flight, such as the Greek legend of Icarus and Daedalus, the Vimana in ancient Indian epics.
Around 400 BC in Greece, Archytas was reputed to have designed and built the first artificial, self-propelled flying device, a bird-shaped model propelled by a jet of what was steam, said to have flown some 200 m. This machine may have been suspended for its flight; some of the earliest recorded attempts with gliders were those by the 9th-century poet Abbas ibn Firnas and the 11th-century monk Eilmer of Malmesbury. Leonardo da Vinci researched the wing design of birds and designed a man-powered aircraft in his Codex on the Flight of Birds. In 1799, George Cayley set forth the concept of the modern airplane as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate systems for lift and control. Cayley was building and flying models of fixed-wing aircraft as early as 1803, he built a successful passenger-carrying glider in 1853. In 1856, Frenchman Jean-Marie Le Bris made the first powered flight, by having his glider "L'Albatros artificiel" pulled by a horse on a beach. Alexander F. Mozhaisky made some innovative designs.
In 1883, the American John J. Montgomery made a controlled flight in a glider. Other aviators who made similar flights at that time were Otto Lilienthal, Percy Pilcher, Octave Chanute. Sir Hiram Maxim built a craft that weighed 3.5 tons, with a 110-foot wingspan, powered by two 360-horsepower steam engines driving two propellers. In 1894, his machine was tested with overhead rails to prevent it from rising; the test showed. The craft was uncontrollable, which Maxim, it is presumed, because he subsequently abandoned work on it. In the 1890s, Lawrence Hargrave conducted research on wing structures and developed a box kite that lifted the weight of a man, his box kite designs were adopted. Although he developed a type of rotary aircraft engine, he did not create and fly a powered fixed-wing aircraft. Between 1867 and 1896, the German pioneer of human aviation Otto Lilienthal developed heavier-than-air flight, he was the first person to make well-documented, successful gliding flights. Clement Ader constructed his first of three flying machines in the Éole.
It was a bat-like design run by a lightweight steam engine of his own invention, with four cylinders developing 20 horsepower, driving a four-blade propeller. The engine weighed no more than 4 kg/kW; the wings had a span of 14 m. All-up weight was 300 kg. On 9 October 1890, Ader attempted to fly the Éole. Aviation historians give credit to this effort as a powered take-off and uncontrolled hop of 50 m at a height of 20 cm. Ader's two subsequent machines were not documented to have achieved flight; the Wright brothers flights in 1903 are recognized by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, the standard setting and record-keeping body for aeronautics, as "the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight". By 1905, the Wright Flyer III was capable of controllable, stable flight for substantial periods; the Wright brothers credited Otto Lilienthal as a major inspiration for their decision to pursue manned flight. In 1906, Alberto Santos-Dumont made what was claimed to be the first airplane flight unassisted by catapult and set the first world record recognized by the Aéro-Club de France by flying 220 meters in less than 22 seconds.
This flight was certified by the FAI. An ear