Heather Joan Graham is an American actress and writer. After appearing in television commercials, her first starring role in a feature film came with the teen comedy License to Drive, followed by the critically acclaimed film Drugstore Cowboy, which gained her initial industry notice, she played supporting roles in films such as Shout, Six Degrees of Separation, Swingers and on the television series Twin Peaks and its prequel film Fire Walk with Me, before gaining critical praise for starring in Paul Thomas Anderson's Boogie Nights as porn starlet Brandy / Rollergirl. In 1999, she co-starred in Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged Me. In the 2000s, Graham starred in films Committed, Say It Isn't So, Gray Matters, The Hangover and its sequel, The Hangover Part III, she had a role on the television series Scrubs in 2004, before playing the title character on the short-lived series Emily's Reasons Why Not in 2006. She had recurring roles on Showtime's Californication and Netflix's Flaked. Noted for portraying characters with sex appeal, she appears in magazine lists of "Most Beautiful" and "Sexiest" women.
Graham is a public advocate for Children International, supported the climate change campaign Global Cool in 2007. Graham was born in Wisconsin, at St. Michaels Hospital, the older of two children, her family is of "three-quarters Irish" descent, with her father's side from County Cork. Her younger sister, Aimee Graham, is an actress, writer, her mother, Joan, is a teacher and author of children's books and her father, James Graham, is a retired FBI agent. She is non-practicing, her family relocated before moving to Agoura Hills, when she was 9 years old. She was introduced to acting during a school production of The Wizard of Oz. After high school, Graham enrolled in extension classes at the University of California, Los Angeles where she studied English for two years. Despite her parents' objections, Graham withdrew from UCLA to pursue acting full-time. Graham's first film appearance was an uncredited cameo in Mrs. Soffel, her first credited film appearance was in the television film Student Exchange.
In 1986, she appeared on a special "Teen Week" episode of the NBC game show Scrabble. She appeared in numerous television commercials, an episode of the sitcom Growing Pains in 1987, her first high-profile starring role came in the Corey Haim/Corey Feldman vehicle License to Drive, as a popular girl named Mercedes Lane, who serves as the love interest of Haim's character. Her efforts won her a Young Artist Award nomination in the Best Young Actress in a Motion Picture Comedy or Fantasy category, her strict parents forbade her to accept a role in the black comedy Heathers, which had an expletive-rich script. The same year, she had an uncredited appearance as Danny DeVito and Arnold Schwarzenegger's mother in Twins. In 1989, Graham was featured in Gus Van Sant's Drugstore Cowboy as Nadine, a young drug-addicted accomplice of the two main characters, her performance gave her career an initial boost and earned her a nomination for the Independent Spirit Award for Best Supporting Actress. She rejected a steady role in a soap opera and a three-picture deal with a major studio because she thought it would be too restrictive.
After Drugstore Cowboy she appeared in Lawrence Kasdan's dark comedy I Love You to Death, alongside William Hurt and Keanu Reeves and the rock-and-roll coming-of-age film Shout, for which she received a nomination for the Young Artist Award for Best Actress Starring in a Motion Picture. After co-starring with Benicio del Toro in a Calvin Klein commercial directed by David Lynch, the director cast her as Annie Blackburn in Twin Peaks, where she appeared in the final six episodes. Following the show's cancellation, Graham reprised the role of Blackburn in the 1992 prequel film Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me, she featured alongside James Woods. The same year she co-starred as Mary Kennedy Taylor in the Vicious Circle. In 1995 she starred as Jackie in the poorly received Desert Winds and guest-starred in an episode of the television series Fallen Angels, she had a small but important role in Swingers, where she played Lorraine, Jon Favreau's love interest. She played a small role as Maggie Bowen in Entertaining Angels: The Dorothy Day Story.
Graham's popularity increased after she appeared as Brandi, a young porn star, nicknamed Rollergirl, in Paul Thomas Anderson's critically acclaimed, award-winning Boogie Nights. The cast received a nomination for the Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture; the same year, she starred in the Gregg Araki film Nowhere, had a cameo in the horror hit Scream 2. She was subsequently cast in Two Girls and a Guy, a film based upon dialogue between the characters, shot in 11 days, which co-starred Robert Downey Jr. and Natasha Gregson. The cast was signed on for sequels, she starred as Felicity Shagwell in the sequel Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged
The MMRV vaccine combines the attenuated virus MMR vaccine with the addition of the chickenpox vaccine or varicella vaccine. The MMRV vaccine is given to children between one and two years of age. Several companies supply MMRV vaccines. ProQuad is marketed by Merck and was approved in 2005, for use in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration for children ages twelve months through twelve years. An MMRV vaccine called Priorix Tetra by GlaxoSmithKline has been approved in Australia; the World Health Organization recommends vaccinating against measles, mumps and varicella because the risks of these diseases far outweigh the risks of vaccinating against them. In particular, the World Health Organization recommends varicella vaccination in countries where the vaccine is affordable, the disease is a important problem, high and sustained vaccine coverage can be achieved; the United States and a few other countries have implemented this. MMR and varicella vaccine are given at the same time and a booster injection is recommended for both.
The MMRV vaccine, a combined MMR and varicella vaccine, simplifies administration of the vaccines. For individuals who are moderately or ill, it is recommended that they wait until after recovery before getting ProQuad. No such precautions are recommended for minor illnesses, such as a cold, it is recommended that aspirin or aspirin containing products be avoided for at least six weeks after receiving ProQuad vaccine. A serious condition called Reye's syndrome has been reported in patients with chicken pox and influenza. Individuals should not receive ProQuad without first consulting their doctor if there is a history of a life-threatening allergic reaction to gelatin, the antibiotic neomycin, or a previous MMR or chicken pox vaccine. Doctors are advised to be aware of whether or not a patient has HIV/AIDS or another disease that affects the immune system, is taking a medication that affects the immune system, has cancer, a fever or active untreated tuberculosis, is receiving cancer treatment, or has had a low platelet count.
Rare but serious adverse events reported following ProQuad vaccination include allergic reactions, including swelling of the lips, tongue, or face. For children age two and younger, the MMRV vaccine is associated with more adverse events compared to separate administration of MMR and varicella vaccinations on the same day. There are 4.3 additional febrile seizures per 10,000 vaccinated children, 7.5 additional mild fever episodes per 100 vaccinated children and 1.1 additional measles-like rash per 100 children. Febrile seizures caused by the MMRV vaccine occur 7 to 10 days after vaccination. In children age 4–6, there is no evidence for an increased risk in febrile seizures after MMRV compared to the separate administration of MMR and Varicella vaccines. Measles vaccine MMR vaccine Mumps vaccine Rubella vaccine Varicella vaccine Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Notice to Readers: Licensure of a Combined Live Attenuated Measles, Mumps and Varicella Vaccine". MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 54: 1212–14.
Ma SJ, Li X, Xiong YQ, Yao AL, Chen Q. "Combination Measles-Mumps-Rubella-Varicella Vaccine in Healthy Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Immunogenicity and Safety". Medicine. 94: e1721. Doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000001721. PMC 4915870. PMID 26554769. "MMRV Vaccine Information Statement". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Proquad". U. S. Food and Drug Administration. STN: 125108
Jean Robin, was a French botanist. Robin was the gardener of the French kings Henry III, Henry IV and Louis XIII, he was described as "simplicist" or "arborist". He sowed in 1601 the first Robinia introduced in Europe, either in his garden, where is now the place Dauphine, either in the garden of the School of Medicine, which included the current square René-Viviani. According to other sources, Robin has sown a Robinia in each of these two gardens. In 1636, his son Vespasien Robin planted another copy of Robinia in the King's Garden, now Jardin des plantes de Paris, where it always exists. Robin published several books, the first one in 1601 was a catalog of the 1,300 native and exotic species he cultivated. Robin was responsible for several gardens, including the one that Catherine de' Medici created for the Tuileries Palace; the small botanical garden of the School of Medicine was entrusted to him from its creation in 1597. This garden closed in 1617. J. Robin had brought many onions of exotic plants from Holland, which he refused to share.
When the Royal Garden of Medicinal Plants was created in 1626, Guy de La Brosse made Vespasien Robin his sub-demonstrator: he thus obtained that the father gave to the garden "more than twelve hundred species, which formed the first stock of the School of Botany " Catalogus stirpium tam indigenarum quam exoticarum qua Lutetiae coluntur, Paris, 1601 Le jardin du roy très chrétien Henry IV, roy de France et de Navarre, dédié à La Royne, 1608 Histoire de plantes aromatiques augmentée de plusieurs plantes venues des Indes lesquelles ont été prises & cultivées au Jardin de M. Robin, arboriste du Roi, Macé, 1619, in-16, 16 pages; the garden of King Louis XIII, 1623 Enchiridion isagogicum ad facilem notitiam Stirpium tam indigenarum quam exoticarum qua coluntur in horto D. D. Joannis. & Vespasiani Robin (=Manual for easy identification of the local and exotic plants growing in the gardens of Jean et Vesapasien Robin, Paris, P. de Bresche, 1624, in-12, 71 pages. The standard author abbreviation J. Robin is used to indicate this person as the author.