Heathrow Airport known as London Heathrow, is a major international airport in London, United Kingdom. Heathrow is the second busiest airport in the world by international passenger traffic, as well as the busiest airport in Europe by passenger traffic, the seventh busiest airport in the world by total passenger traffic, it is one of six international airports serving London region. In 2019, it handled a record 80.8 million passengers, a 0.9% increase from 2018 as well as 475,861 aircraft movements, a decrease of 1,743 from 2018. The airport facility is operated by Heathrow Airport Holdings. Heathrow lies 14 miles west of Central London, has two parallel east–west runways along with four operational terminals on a site that covers 12.27 square kilometres. The airport is the primary hub for British Airways and the primary operating base for Virgin Atlantic. In September 2012, the Government of the United Kingdom established the Airports Commission, an independent commission chaired by Sir Howard Davies to examine various options for increasing capacity at UK airports.
In July 2015, the commission backed a third runway at Heathrow, which the government approved in October 2016. However, the United Kingdom Court of Appeal rejected this plan for a third runway at Heathrow, due to concerns about climate change and the environmental impact of aviation. Heathrow is 14 mi west of central London, near the south end of Hillingdon, in London, England, on a parcel of land, designated part of the Metropolitan Green Belt; the airport is surrounded by the villages of Harlington and Longford to the north and by Hounslow and Hatton to the east. To the south lie Feltham and Stanwell while to the west Heathrow is separated from Wraysbury and Windsor in Berkshire by the M25 motorway. Heathrow falls under the Twickenham postcode area, with the postcode TW6; the airport is located within the Harlington parliamentary constituency. As the airport is located west of London and as its runways run east–west, an airliner's landing approach is directly over the conurbation of London when the wind is from the west, most of the time.
Along with Gatwick, Luton and London City, Heathrow is one of six airports with scheduled services serving the London area. Heathrow Airport originated in 1929 as a small airfield on land south-east of the hamlet of Heathrow from which the airport takes its name. At that time the land consisted of market gardens and orchards; this hamlet was along a country lane, which ran along the east and south edges of the present central terminals area. Development of the whole Heathrow area as a much larger airport began in 1944, it was stated to be for long-distance military aircraft bound for the Far East. The airport was opened on 25 March 1946 as London Airport and was renamed Heathrow Airport in 1966; the layout for the airport was designed by Sir Frederick Gibberd, who designed the original terminals and central area buildings, including the original control tower and the multi-faith Chapel of St George's. Heathrow Airport is used by over 80 airlines flying to 185 destinations in 84 countries; the airport is a base for Virgin Atlantic.
It has a cargo terminal. Of Heathrow's 78 million passengers in 2017, 94% were international travellers; the busiest single destination in passenger numbers is New York, with over 3 million passengers flying between Heathrow and JFK Airport in 2013. In the 1950s, Heathrow had six runways, arranged in three pairs at different angles in the shape of a hexagram with the permanent passenger terminal in the middle and the older terminal along the north edge of the field; as the required length for runways has grown, Heathrow now has only two parallel runways running east–west. These are extended versions of the two east–west runways from the original hexagram. From the air all of the original runways can still be seen, incorporated into the present system of taxiways. North of the northern runway and the former taxiway and aprons, now the site of extensive car parks, is the entrance to the access tunnel and the site of Heathrow's unofficial "gate guardian". For many years the home of a 40% scale model of a British Airways Concorde, G-CONC, the site has been occupied by a model of an Emirates Airbus A380 since 2008.
Heathrow Airport has Anglican, Free Church, Jewish and Sikh chaplains. There is a multi-faith prayer room and counselling room in each terminal, in addition to St. George's Interdenominational Chapel in an underground vault adjacent to the old control tower, where Christian services take place; the chaplains lead prayers at certain times in the prayer room. The airport has its own resident press corps, consisting of six photographers and one TV crew, serving all the major newspapers and television stations around the world. Most of Heathrow's internal roads are initial letter coded by area: N in the north, E in the east, S in the south, W in the west, C in the centre. Aircraft destined for Heathrow are routed to one of four holding points. Air traffic controllers at Heathrow Ap
Master X Master was a multiplayer online battle arena video game developed and published by NCsoft. MXM was a MOBA with third-person shooter characteristics; each player controlled two playable characters known as "Masters". There were 30 Masters as of January 2016; each had different styles of play. The Masters were characters from previous NCsoft-published games, as well as new characters; the player could switch between two Masters throughout the game, where the unused Master could regenerate its health. There was a cooldown associated with switching, as well as death; the player in MXM used the WASD keys and computer mouse to move and point the character, though the game provided the option for the player to move the character with the mouse. Switching the Masters used the mouse wheel; each Master had four special abilities, with one ability a more-powerful move, each of these abilities had a cooldown. Uncharacteristically, the game allowed player characters to jump and dodge enemy attacks. Using the mouse to aim, many of the game's abilities were based on projectiles and skill shots.
NCsoft planned to restrict gameplay on the large maps to the genre-standard two teams of five players, while smaller teams would have smaller maps, which would force player interaction. Both large and small maps will have three lanes with, it was played in matches between two teams. The game had a science fiction setting; the game provided player versus environment missions, uncharacteristic to the genre, as well as the characteristic player versus player game mode. There were other game modes: team deathmatch, point control, AOS, arena; the PvE mode was co-operative, meaning it allowed up to four players an action role-playing game experience: The player and his/her group selected characters to play through a number of stages against computer-controlled enemies, ending each stage with a battle against a level boss. In this mode, the character progression was permanent. In the "Titan" mode of gameplay, a variant of point control, completing an objective would allow a team to summon a temporary super-creature called a Titan to their side to attack the enemy base.
GameZone reported that the objective was defeating multiple enemies, while IGN reported that capturing and holding control points would cause the Titan to spawn. To end a game in this mode, the team must either have the most points at the end of the timed match, or must reach a point threshold. NCsoft was beta testing the game in South Korea in October 2014, was NCsoft's first internally-developed MOBA. Engadget did not know of a release or localization date at that time, but reported a month that NCsoft planned to release a mobile version of the game. In mid-2015, NCsoft planned to release the game in a beta version globally in early 2016, with a full-release of the game the same year; the game was still in beta test only in South Korea. In January 2016, NCsoft announced the launch of the game for personal computer in the second half of 2016 for Europe and North America. NCsoft did not announce a pay model. In June 2016, NCsoft provided free game keys for a brief alpha playtest on personal computer, which focused on PvP interactions and some PvE content.
Both Polygon and VideoGamer cooperated with NCsoft to provide keys to their readers. The game was developed for cloud technology; the game's design philosophy was based on team work. NCsoft said; the PvE in the game was designed to teach players their heroes. The matches were designed to last ten minutes; the game was free-to-play. GameZone was overall "impressed". IGN thought; the game was compared to Heroes of the Storm, Diablo, Van Helsing, Torchlight. IGN commented on the crowd of MOBAs with which MXM would need to compete, noting that "standing out" would be challenging. Engadget suggested "it might be different enough from its contemporaries to pique your interest", while IGN thought the publisher's experience with world-building helped to differentiate the gameplay modes. GameZone praised the aesthetics, he praised the level design. IGN thought some of the characters were generic, but was impressed with the detail of the character design, was expectant for future releases. IGN called the action "over the top" and said.
GameZone was surprised at the length of the time the player needed to wait before respawning. GameZone called the two-Master aspect the most unique aspect of the game, while IGN called it "an inventive system that adds a whole new layer of strategy to battle". Previewers at both GameZone and IGN thought the swapping difficult at-first but adjusted. IGN wasn't sure. GameZone thought. IGN called the control scheme easy to use, "unorthodox", "unique", which "gave the combat more of an arcade feel"; the IGN previewer "felt like he had more opportunities to cut loose, rather than staing focused and determined at all times in other titles" due to the controls. GameZone thought the game was "easier to grasp than other MOBA's". IGN thought the most interesting aspect was the player versus environment mode, fleshed out; the previewer thought this was refreshing since other genre titles overlook the plot. IGN called the Titan game mode "a cool take on faction battles", which "offered the most intense and pure gameplay in MXM".
Nickel Queen is a 1971 Australian comedy film starring Googie Withers and directed by her husband John McCallum. The story was loosely based on the Poseidon bubble, a nickel boom in Western Australia in the late 1960s, tells of an outback pub owner who stakes a claim and finds herself an overnight millionaire. Meg Blake is the widowed owner of a pub in a small desert town in Western Australia. Corrupt American mining executive Ed Benson starts the rumour of a nickel discovery to sell shares to gullible investors. Meg heads stakes the first claim. Benson promotes her as the "Nickel Queen". Hippie Claude Fitzherbert becomes her lover. Benson is exposed as a fraud, Fitzherbert deserts Meg and runs off with Benson's wife and Meg is reunited with an old suitor from her hometown. Googie Withers as Meg Blake John Laws as Claude Fitzherbert Alfred Sandor as Ed Benson Ed Devereaux as Harry Phillips Peter Gwynne as Andy Kyle Doreen Warburton as Betsy Benson Tom Oliver as Roy Olding Joanna McCallum as Jenny Blake Ross Thompson as Arthur Eileen Colocott as Beatrice Whittaker Maurice Ogden as Ernest Whittaker Sir David Brand as himself Sir Charles Court as himself Arthur Griffith as himself The original story was co-written by Henry James, an Australian journalist who had worked in England since the 1930s.
It was inspired by the recent Poseidon nickel boom in Western Australia. British film producer Sydney Box who had retired to Perth sent a copy of the script to John McCallum who had just finished making the TV series Barrier Reef and was interesting in moving back into features. Finance was raised from a Perth syndicate, which included the local Channel Seven and Fauna Productions in Sydney. Shooting took place in Perth and in the mining town of Broad Arrow; the film was full of plugs for companies which helped finance the film and cameos from West Australian politicians, including Premier Sir David Brand and Minister for Development Charles Court. Radio personality John Laws was cast in the lead after impressing John McCallum with his performance in an episode of the TV series Skippy the Bush Kangaroo. Alfred Sandor came out to Australia to play opposite Googie Withers in Plaza Suite and decided to stay; the film was popular in Perth, running for six months. It did less well in the eastern states.