Heaton Chapel is an area in the northern part of Stockport, Greater Manchester, England. It borders the Manchester districts of Levenshulme to the north, the Stockport districts of Heaton Moor to the west and Heaton Norris to the east and Heaton Mersey to the west and south. Heaton Chapel and its neighbouring areas are collectively known as the Four Heatons. Before 1758, Heaton Chapel did not exist but was part of the Lancashire parish of Heaton Norris; the need for a chapel was identified in Parliamentary Commission "Lancashire and Cheshire church surveys" but it was a further hundred years before Mr A. Colier raised money by public subscription and Mr Sidebotham petitioned the bishop of Chester for a license to worship in 1758, it was dedicated 28 October 1758. It is speculated that the need for the chapel was stimulated by the preaching of Charles Wesley who visited Stockport in 1745; the Church was built on a field known as Yarn Croft of 1,712 square yards. The building was plain brick, with three rounded windows on the North side and three on the South side, a small projecting chancel, which served as a place for the communion table, lit by means of a long round-headed window, with two long rectangular windows on each side.
The church is'miswent'. In 2015, the Diocese of Manchester changed the official address of the church from Heaton Norris to Heaton Chapel - 250 years after its establishment; the principal road from Manchester to Stockport and the south ran through Heaton Chapel along the line of the present Manchester Road. It was turnpiked in 1724. There was a toll gate opposite the church, it entered Stockport down Lancashire Hill. In 1826 a new turnpike was built. In 1837 Parliamentary approval was given for the railway to be built by the Manchester and Birmingham Railway, the first section from Heaton Norris to Manchester Travis Street opened in 1841, but a viaduct needed to be built at Stockport; the London and North Western Railway completed the Crewe to Manchester Line from Manchester, London Road to Crewe, the rector, Mr Jackson used personal influence, to have a station built in 1851, close to the rectory in Heaton Moor Road. The Station was built in a cutting. There was a Heaton Norris station,so the new station was named Heaton Chapel.
The subsequent growth of the Heaton Moor area led to a temporary change of the railway station name, Heaton Chapel for Heaton Moor Heaton Chapel AND Heaton Moor - but it has again returned to Heaton Chapel. This line was electrified in 1959. A second line passes. In the inter-war years there was a tram service along Wellington Road operated jointly by Manchester and Stockport corporation. Stockport used 460v DC and Manchester 400 volts so the Manchester trams would need another resistance in the circuit; the Stockport trams would have been able to manage without swapping, they would just be on a lower voltage. The trams stopped at the Levenshulme/ Heaton Chapel border so the resistances could be changed and the collectors manually changed from one set of wires to the others. A number of mansions were built close to the border with Heaton Moor during the early 20th century; this part of Heaton Chapel today has some of the most palatial and expensive housing in Greater Manchester. Though the SK4 postcode which includes Heaton Chapel is together regarded as rich.
Heaton Chapel was in 2018 ranked by The Times, higher than Didsbury. A large biscuit works was opened in 1918 by McVitie and Price McVitie's, part of United Biscuits. In this location chocolate covered biscuits such as Penguin biscuits and Jaffa Cakes are manufactured. Crossley Bros. Ltd commenced motor car production in 1906 after several years experience of building engines and by the end of 1916 had supplied large numbers of tenders to the Royal Flying Corps. In addition, production of Beardmore and Bentley Aero engines was undertaken. Wartime expansion of production had led to the acquisition of premises at Heaton Chapel; this subsequently was renamed Crossley Road, marked the spot where Stockport became Manchester. In 1917 the factory was adapted to produce De Havilland DH.9 single-engined and DH.10 twin-engined bombers. It was known as the National Aircraft Factory No. 2, employed 2,500 people and was managed by Crossley Motors Limited. About 450 DH9s and seven DH10s were completed before production ceased after the Armistice.
In 1934 the factory was acquired by Mr Richard Fairey, who wanted additional factory space to produce aircraft ordered under the UK's re-armament programme. Thus Fairey Aviation was based on Crossley Road next to the railway line; the factory manufactured 14 Fairey Hendon, 1,154 Battle, 600 Fulmar and 675 Barracuda aircraft and reconditioned Swordfishes. Fairey's built, under sub-contract, over 660 Handley Page Halifaxes and nearly 500 Bristol Beaufighters. Heaton Chapel had manufacturing capacity. Assembly was at Barton Aerodrome for a short period at RAF Ringway from June 1937 onwards. In 1951 the FD1, Fairey Delta 1, was built here. On 10 March 1956, the Fairey Delta 2, with Heaton Chapel components, broke the World Air Speed Record at 1820 km/h. From 1954, the Gannet was built here although production of the 338 aircraft was shared with the company's other factory at Hayes, Middlesex. In 1946 the company diversified into the Nuclear industry. In 1986 Fairey Engineering was taken over by Williams Holdings and became Williams Fairey Engineering Ltd.
It is now known as WFEL. The Air Portable Ferry Bridge is a lightweight 40 metre bridge that can be transported to site in a C130 aircraft, erected by 8 engineers in 90 mi
Northern (train operating company)
Northern is a train operating company in Northern England. A subsidiary of Arriva UK Trains, it began operating the Northern franchise on 1 April 2016 and inherited units from the previous operator Northern Rail. Central to franchise commitments will be the introduction of 101 new-built units – the Class 195 and 331; these will be the first new-build trains for the Northern franchise since the introduction of the Class 333 in 2000 and the new rolling stock will enable all 102 Pacer trains in service with Northern to be retired by the end of 2019. Additionally, it is planned that a franchise sub-brand, known as Northern Connect, will provide inter-urban services between major cities and towns in Northern England, as well as serving a number of major commuting stations; however since the franchise began in April 2016, it has been beset by falling punctuality, poor customer service, regular industrial action by staff and delays in introducing new rolling stock due to issues encountered during testing.
Despite passenger growth at the vast majority of train operating companies in the United Kingdom and the Northern franchise operating more services, the number of passengers carried since the franchise commenced in 2016 has declined and has been attributed to worsening performance. The franchise will run to 2025 with an option for an additional year, dependent on performance. In August 2014, the Department for Transport announced that Abellio and Govia had been shortlisted to bid for the next Northern franchise; the franchise was awarded to Arriva in December 2015. In May 2016, the Competition and Markets Authority launched an investigation into the transport department's decision to award the Northern network to Arriva. Arriva operated the CrossCountry franchise and owned many bus companies in the Northern trains operating area in which'a significant overlap occurs without competition from other service providers.'In April 2018, a penalty fare scheme under the Railways Regulations 2018 commenced to encourage passengers to purchase a ticket before boarding trains.
Although this scheme is not wholly enforced across the Northern network, passengers are liable to paying a £20 penalty fare if they are deemed to have travelled without a valid ticket and had the ability to purchase a ticket prior to boarding the train at the station of origin. Customers who need to purchase a ticket at the station of origin with cash may do so by collecting a'Promise to Pay' notice prior to boarding from a ticket machine as these are not capable of accepting cash; these notices can be exchanged with the on-board conductor or with a member of railway staff at the destination station for a paid ticket. Section 6 of the Railways Regulations 2018 covers a number of scenarios that prohibit penalty fares being issued such'no facilities in operation for the sale of a travel ticket for that passenger’s journey'; the franchise was criticised for implementing a new timetable in May 2018 which resulted in widespread delays and cancellations. Network Rail and Northern announced an independent inquiry to learn lessons and identify route alterations in readiness for the next timetable change in December 2018.
In an attempt to counter operational problems, Northern implemented an emergency timetable on 4 June 2018 – it stemmed some delays and cancellations but was still problematic compared with performance before the timetable change. Punctuality was bad in the North West due to the delay in the Blackpool-Preston electrification scheme and the number of trains per hour through Manchester increased with more services utilising the Ordsall Chord which became operational in December 2017. Network Rail only informed train operating companies in January 2018 that the electrification scheme would be delayed until November – Northern had planned for the scheme to be complete as scheduled by May and had trained drivers to operate new routes with electric rolling stock. An alternative timetable had to be drafted up and many train drivers were not sufficiently trained to drive the existing diesel rolling stock which resulted in widespread cancellations. Furthermore, the additional services through the Manchester corridor resulted in increased congestion and which had a knock-on effect.
Performance statistics published by the Office of Rail and Road in October 2018 showed that from April to June 2018, the franchise recorded the lowest PPM – measured by train service departing within 5 minutes of its scheduled time – of any quarter since punctuality records began on the Northern franchise in 2009. Performance towards the latter half of the 2018 continued to be poor with many passengers protesting and the network beset by a reduced service on Saturdays due to industrial action. In October 2018 it was announced that Manchester Oxford Road station, the busiest station managed by Northern with over 8 million passengers, was the most delayed station in the United Kingdom in 2018 – this was attributed to the chaos following the May 2018 timetable. Between 14 October and 10 November 2018, Northern recorded the worst monthly performance on record with more trains late than on time. Less than 40% of services arrived on time and only 71.9% departed within 5 minutes of the scheduled departure time.
By November 2018, Arriva were re-evaluating their future involvement in the franchise due to a combination of declining passenger numbers as a result of the chaotic May 2018 timetable change and increasing compensation claims as a result of falling punctuality. Both have pushed the franchise into a loss-making entity and face a £282 million government subsidy shortfall, due to be passed onto the franchise. Since the franchise commenced in April 2016 and despite an increase
Buxton railway station
Buxton railway station serves the town of Buxton in Derbyshire, England. It is served by Northern; the station is 25 3⁄4 miles south east of Manchester Piccadilly and is the terminus of the Buxton Line. The station is staffed, with the ticket office open on weekdays between 05:50 - 20:00, Saturdays 05:50 - 20:00 and Sundays 08:15 - 22:30. A self-service ticket machine is available for use outside these times and for collecting pre-paid tickets. A payphone, waiting room and toilets are all provided in the main building, whilst platform 1 has a waiting shelter and bench seating. Train running details are offered via automatic announcements, CIS displays and timetable poster boards. Step-free access is available to both platforms from the main entrance; until May 2018, there was an hourly service daily between Buxton and Manchester Piccadilly, taking about one hour. The service frequency was enhanced to about half-hourly in the evening peaks. A limited number of trains worked through beyond Manchester, with trains to/from Blackpool North, Barrow-in-Furness, Wigan North Western and Kirkby.
From 21 May 2018, two trains per hour started running between Manchester and Buxton all day, one of which omits certain stations en route. The evening and Sunday service remains hourly and there are no longer any through trains to/from destinations north of Manchester. Platform 2 is the main platform for departures. Platform 1 is a departure platform by shunt move, used in early mornings by the first trains of the day which have been stabled overnight or when attachment/detachment of a unit to/from a formation is required. Network Rail has proposed, in their North West RUS, installing a facing cross-over which will allow platform 1 to become operational as an arrival and departure platform. Doing this will reduce the number of shunt moves. Two railways arrived in Buxton simultaneously in 1863; the Stockport and Whaley Bridge Railway promoted by the LNWR, built its line from Manchester to Whaley Bridge and extended it to Buxton. Meanwhile, the Midland Railway extended the Manchester, Buxton and Midlands Junction Railway from Rowsley.
When the Midland extended its main line to New Mills in 1867, to bypass the LNWR, Buxton became a branch line from Millers Dale. The stations were side by side, with identical frontages designed by J. Smith with guidance from Joseph Paxton, each having a wrought iron glazed train shed; the Midland station closed in 1967, along with the line to Rowsley, the site is now a roadway. However, the line through Dove Holes Tunnel from Chinley is still used for freight, such as limestone from Tunstead, along with the old Midland branch into Buxton and part of the old Ashbourne Line, which remains in use to serve a lime works at Dowlow and the quarry at Hindlow; these both join the main line just outside the station, where there a number of sidings to allow trains to reverse. The bay platform used by Ashbourne line trains and the connecting curve from it towards Dowlow have been removed, though it is still possible to trace its route; the LNWR station now handles local trains into Manchester, using its line through Dove Holes and Chapel-en-le-Frith.
The surviving LNWR fan window has been restored and the external stonework cleaned. A runaway limestone train demolished the boiler room and gents toilet and damaged the porters' room in 1897, killing a passenger and injuring a porter. A LNWR Class B boiler blew up in the station yard in 1921, killing the fireman. Radford, B. Midland Though The Peak Unicorn Books Pevsner, Nikolaus; the Buildings of England: Derbyshire. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-071008-6 Train times and station information for Buxton railway station from National Rail English Heritage – Buxton station frontage
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
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In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
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Crewe railway station
Crewe railway station is a railway station in Crewe, England. The station was opened in 1837 and is one of the most significant railway stations in the world. Crewe was chosen after Winsford, seven miles to the north, had rejected an earlier proposal, as had local landowners in neighbouring Nantwich, four miles away. Crewe is a major junction on the West Coast Main Line and serves as a rail gateway for North West England, it is 243 miles south of Glasgow Central. It is located at the point where the lines to Manchester Piccadilly and North Wales diverge from this route, is the last major station before the branch to Liverpool Lime Street diverges, it is served by lines to Stoke-on-Trent and Shrewsbury. Crewe railway station has twelve platforms and a modern passenger entrance containing a bookshop and ticket office. Passengers access the platforms via a footbridge and lifts; the platforms buildings dating from the 19th century contain two bookshops, bars and waiting rooms. The last major expenditure on the station was in 1985 when the track layout was remodelled and station facilities updated.
Crewe station was the first station to have its own adjacent railway hotel: The Crewe Arms, built in 1838, still in use. It was the first to be rebuilt owing to the need for expansion, it was the first to have independent rail lines built around it to ease traffic congestion. The station opened on 4 July 1837 on the Grand Junction Railway; the purpose was to link the four largest cities of England by joining the existing Liverpool and Manchester Railway with the projected London & Birmingham Railway. The first long-distance railway in the world, it ran from Curzon Street railway station in Birmingham to Dallam in Warrington, where it made an end-on junction with the Warrington and Newton Railway, a branch of the L&M; the station was built in the township of Crewe, which formed part of the ancient parish of Barthomley. The township became a civil parish in its own right, still, was renamed Crewe Green to avoid confusion with the town of Crewe, adjacent to it; the station was at the point where the line crossed the turnpike road linking the Trent and Mersey and the Shropshire Union Canals.
Since the land was bought from the Earl of Crewe, whose mansion stood nearby, it was located in the township of Crewe, the station was called Crewe. The railway station gave its name to the town of Crewe, situated in the ancient parish of Coppenhall. In 1936, the railway station was transferred from the civil parish of Crewe to the municipal borough of Crewe; as soon as the station opened the Chester and Crewe Railway was formed to build a branch line to Chester and this company was absorbed by the GJR shortly before it opened to traffic in 1840. A locomotive depot was built to serve the Chester line, to provide banking engines to assist trains southwards from Crewe up the Madeley Incline, a modest gradient, a challenge to the small engines of the day. By 1841, the Chester line was seen as a starting point for a new trunk line to the port of Holyhead, to provide the fastest route to Ireland, the importance of Crewe as a junction station began to be established; this was given further endorsement when the Manchester and Birmingham Railway, a separate undertaking which had hoped to build a wholly independent line linking the two cities, shorter than the GJR, decided that it would be uneconomical to compete with that line over the greater part of its length, decided to divert its own line to meet the GJR at Crewe.
Teething squabbles between the companies delayed the running of through services for a while, the M&B had to build a temporary station of their own, part of which survives today as an isolated platform next to the North Junction, at the start of the line to Manchester. In 1842 the GJR decided to move its locomotive works from Edge Hill in Liverpool to Crewe, siting the works to the north of the junction between the Warrington and Chester lines. To house the workforce and company management the town of Crewe was built by the company to the north of the works. In 1846 the GJR merged with the London and Birmingham to form the London and North Western Railway Company, which until its demise in 1923 was the largest company in the world; the new company extended the existing lines to Holyhead, the Warrington line to Lancaster and Carlisle, the Manchester line to Leeds, built the new Crewe and Shrewsbury Railway to Shrewsbury to join the joint GWR owned Shrewsbury and Hereford Railway, which provided connections to South Wales.
The North Staffordshire Railway built a line from Stoke-on-Trent, joining the LNWR from the South East. Crewe was the centre of a wide-ranging railway network, freight-handling facilities grew up to the south of the station. To cope with the increase of traffic, the station was rebuilt in 1867, the buildings facing each other on the present platforms 5 and 6 dating from this time, built under the supervision of William Baker; the listing by English Heritage describes them as: mirrored design with bowed projections for the platform inspectors’ offices, the ‘greybeard’ keystones and vivid polychromy... one of the best pieces of mid-C19 platform architecture designed anywhere on the LNWR network, as rare surviving examples nationally of buildings of a major junction station of this period. At the same time the works was redeveloped and enlarged and the town enlarged under the leadership of John Ramsbottom, a Stockport man who had become Locomotive Superintendent. Locomotive construction, hitherto divided with Wolverton was concentrated at Crewe.
Ramsbottom built a steelworks, the first in the world to m
Transport for Greater Manchester
Transport for Greater Manchester is the public body responsible for co-ordinating transport services throughout Greater Manchester in North West England. The organisation traces its origins to the Transport Act 1968, when the SELNEC Passenger Transport Executive was established to co-ordinate public transport in and around Manchester. Between 1974 and 2011, it was known as the Greater Manchester Passenger Transport Executive, until a reform of local government in Greater Manchester granted it more powers and prompted a corporate rebranding; the strategies and policies of Transport for Greater Manchester are set by the Greater Manchester Combined Authority and its Transport for Greater Manchester Committee. Transport for Greater Manchester is responsible for investments in improving transport services and facilities, it is the executive arm of the Transport for Greater Manchester Committee which funds and makes policies for TfGM. The authority is made up of 33 councillors appointed from the ten Greater Manchester districts.
The Manchester Metrolink light rail system launched in 1992. Subsidised by TfGM without a government grant and operated by KeolisAmey, it carries over 29 million passengers a year. With 93 stations it is the largest local transport network in the United Kingdom after the London Underground. Further expansion to Stockport is envisaged. Altrincham-Bury line Altrincham-Piccadilly line Bury-Ashton line East Didsbury-Rochdale line Eccles- Piccadilly line Manchester Airport-Cornbrook line MediaCity- Etihad Campus line Crumpsall - Trafford Park line Rail services are operated by CrossCountry, East Midlands Trains, TransPennine Express, Transport for Wales & Virgin Trains. TfGM subsidise fares on certain local services and fund station refurbishments on an ad hoc basis. Metroshuttle: launched 2002, free bus service around Manchester city centre. New services were provided in Bolton and Stockport after success of the service in Manchester. Bus services operated by private operators including Arriva North West, Bullocks Coaches, First Greater Manchester, First West Yorkshire, Go Goodwins, Manchester Community Transport, Rosso & Stagecoach Manchester Maintenance of bus shelters and stations including Shudehill Interchange Greater Manchester Urban Traffic Control Unit – responsibility for road management transferred to TfGM in 2009.
Entails installation and management of traffic signals, limited areas of road safety, incident response and event management via a traffic control centre. Cycling - promotion of the Greater Manchester Cycling Strategy and delivery of Cycle Hubs and regional cycle routes Subsidised fares on certain services System One travelcards Get me there Public transport maps and timetables Website Route Explorer application TfGM inherited the responsibilities of the Greater Manchester Passenger Transport Executive established in 1974. On 1 April 2011, the GMPTE became Transport for Greater Manchester, a new regional transport body for Greater Manchester that forms part of the new Greater Manchester Combined Authority; as a result, GMITA was abolished, replaced by the Transport for Greater Manchester Committee which reports to the Combined Authority. TfGMC and its subcommittees are made up of a nominated pool of 33 councillors from the ten metropolitan boroughs of Greater Manchester who manage TfGM and create transport policy in Greater Manchester.
Although it differs in certain structural forms, on the day of its inauguration TfGM became the second most powerful and influential transport organisation in England after Transport for London because it unites splintered governance over transport policy in the boroughs under one body. It elects its own Chair and Vice-Chair and assumes the functions performed by GMITA as well as the newly devolved transport powers and responsibilities from Government and the 10 Metropolitan Councils which make up the area; the 33 councillors have voting rights on most transport issues despite not being members of the GMCA: major decisions still require approval by the GMCA, but the functions that are referred to the TfGMC include making recommendations in relation to: The budget and transport levy Borrowing limit Major and strategic transport policies The local transport plan Operation of Greater Manchester Transport Fund and approval of new schemes Appointment of Director General/Chief Executive of TfGM TfGM uses a corporate identity designed by Hemisphere.
The black and white "M" logo is adapted from the GMPTE logo and is used on bus stops across Greater Manchester. Timeline of public passenger transport operations in Manchester Media related to SELNEC at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Transport for Greater Manchester at Wikimedia Commons www.tfgm.com, the website of Transport for Greater Manchester Greater Manchester Integrated Transport Authority Greater Manchester Transportation Unit SELNEC plans for urban rapid transport Greater Manchester Congestion Charge Proposals The SELNEC Preservation Society