Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the United Kingdom and the United States. With roots in blues rock, psychedelic rock, acid rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, overall loudness; the genre's lyrics and performance styles are sometimes associated with machismo. In 1968, three of the genre's most famous pioneers, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple were founded. Though they came to attract wide audiences, they were derided by critics. Following the blueprint laid down by Led Zeppelin and Black Sabbath, several American bands modified heavy metal into more accessible forms during the 1970s: the raw, sleazy sound and outrageous stage shows of Alice Cooper and Kiss. During the mid-1970s, Judas Priest helped spur the genre's evolution by discarding much of its blues influence. Beginning in the late 1970s, bands in the new wave of British heavy metal such as Iron Maiden and Def Leppard followed in a similar vein.
Before the end of the decade, heavy metal fans became known as "metalheads" or "headbangers". During the 1980s, glam metal became popular with groups such as Mötley Crüe. Underground scenes produced an array of more aggressive styles: thrash metal broke into the mainstream with bands such as Metallica, Slayer and Anthrax, while other extreme subgenres of heavy metal such as death metal and black metal remain subcultural phenomena. Since the mid-1990s popular styles have further expanded the definition of the genre; these include groove metal and nu metal, the latter of which incorporates elements of grunge and hip hop. Heavy metal is traditionally characterized by loud distorted guitars, emphatic rhythms, dense bass-and-drum sound, vigorous vocals. Heavy metal subgenres variously alter, or omit one or more of these attributes; the New York Times critic Jon Pareles writes, "In the taxonomy of popular music, heavy metal is a major subspecies of hard-rock—the breed with less syncopation, less blues, more showmanship and more brute force."
The typical band lineup includes a drummer, a bassist, a rhythm guitarist, a lead guitarist, a singer, who may or may not be an instrumentalist. Keyboard instruments are sometimes used to enhance the fullness of the sound. Deep Purple's Jon Lord played an overdriven Hammond organ. In 1970, John Paul Jones used a Moog synthesizer on Led Zeppelin III; the electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has been the key element in heavy metal. The heavy metal guitar sound comes from a combined use of heavy distortion. For classic heavy metal guitar tone, guitarists maintain gain at moderate levels, without excessive preamp or pedal distortion, to retain open spaces and air in the music. Thrash metal guitar tone has scooped mid-frequencies and compressed sound with lots of bass frequencies. Guitar solos are "an essential element of the heavy metal code... that underscores the significance of the guitar" to the genre. Most heavy metal songs "feature at least one guitar solo", "a primary means through which the heavy metal performer expresses virtuosity".
Some exceptions are nu grindcore bands, which tend to omit guitar solos. With rhythm guitar parts, the "heavy crunch sound in heavy metal... palm muting" the strings with the picking hand and using distortion. Palm muting creates a tighter, more precise sound and it emphasizes the low end; the lead role of the guitar in heavy metal collides with the traditional "frontman" or bandleader role of the vocalist, creating a musical tension as the two "contend for dominance" in a spirit of "affectionate rivalry". Heavy metal "demands the subordination of the voice" to the overall sound of the band. Reflecting metal's roots in the 1960s counterculture, an "explicit display of emotion" is required from the vocals as a sign of authenticity. Critic Simon Frith claims; the prominent role of the bass is key to the metal sound, the interplay of bass and guitar is a central element. The bass guitar provides the low-end sound crucial to making the music "heavy"; the bass plays a "more important role in heavy metal than in any other genre of rock".
Metal basslines vary in complexity, from holding down a low pedal point as a foundation to doubling complex riffs and licks along with the lead or rhythm guitars. Some bands feature the bass as a lead instrument, an approach popularized by Metallica's Cliff Burton with his heavy emphasis on bass guitar solos and use of chords while playing bass in the early 1980s. Lemmy of Motörhead played overdriven power chords in his bass lines; the essence of heavy metal drumming is creating a loud, constant beat for the band using the "trifecta of speed and precision". Heavy metal drumming "requires an exceptional amount of endurance", drummers have to develop "considerable speed and dexterity... to play the intricate patterns" used in heavy metal. A characteristic metal drumming technique is the cymbal choke, which consists of striking a cymbal and immediately silencing it by grabbing it with the other hand, producing a burst of sound; the metal drum setup is much larger than those e
Wolfgang P. Schleich is professor of theoretical physics and director of the quantum physics department at the University of Ulm. From 1980 to 1984, Wolfgang Schleich performed work on his diploma thesis and his Ph. D. with Marlan O. Scully at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, with an intermediate research visit at the Institute of Modern Optics, from 1982 to 1983. After completion of his Ph. D. he performed post-doctorate research with John Archibald Wheeler at the Center for Theoretical Physics in Austin, Texas, USA. From 1986 to 1991, he worked as research scientist at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics in Garching under Herbert Walther. In 1991, Schleich was nominated professor of theoretical physics at the University of Ulm, he is editor of the journal Optics Communications. He is author of several books, including Quantum Optics in Phase Space and Elements of quantum information, his areas of research include the foundations of quantum physics, as well as quantum mechanics in relation to general relativity and to number theory.
His recent work includes elaborations on the role of the Wigner function in terms of quantum optics. 1983: Otto Hahn Medal 1991: Physics Award of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft 1993: Ernst Abbe Medal 1995: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize 2002: Max Planck Research Award 2007: First Class Medal of the Czech Technical University in Prague 2008: Willis E. Lamb Award for Laser Science and Quantum Optics 2008: Distinguished Professor at the University of North Texas Wolfgang P. Schleich, H. Walther: Elements of quantum information, Wiley-VCH, 2007, ISBN 978-3527407255 Wolfgang P. Schleich: Quantum optics in phase space, Wiley-VCH, 2001, ISBN 978-3527294350 Wolfgang P. Schleich: Ode to a Quantum Physicist: A Festschrift in Honor of Marlan O. Scully, Elsevier Science & Technology, 2000, ISBN 978-0444505385 Wolfgang Schleich: Optische Tests der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie, Universität München / Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, 1984 Wolfgang Schleich: Quantenfluktuationen in Ringlaser-Gyroskopen, Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, 1981 Schleich, Wolfgang P.
Institut für Quantenphysik, Universität Ulm Prof. Dr. Wolfgang P. Schleich, Integrated Quantum Systems and Technology Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Schleich, Universität Ulm
John Stevens Jr. was a prominent colonial American landowner and politician. Stevens was born in 1715 at Perth Amboy in the Province of New Jersey in what was British America, he was the son of his wife Ann Campbell. With his brother Richard, he owned mercantile vessels and commanded them on voyages to Madeira and the Caribbean between 1739 and 1743, he settled in Perth Amboy, where he was a vestryman at St. Peter's Church from 1749 to 1752, he was a large landowner in the New Jersey counties of Hunterdon and Somerset, he owned a copper mine at Rocky Hill, abandoned. Stevens was a member of the New Jersey General Assembly in 1751, he served as paymaster of the 1st New Jersey Regiment under Colonel Peter Schuyler from 1756 to 1760. In 1758, he was appointed by the Assembly of New Jersey to serve as a commissioner to the state's Indian tribes. In 1762, he was named a member of the New Jersey Provincial Council, a position that he resigned in 1770. Stevens was a vocal opponent of the Stamp Act; when the act went into effect in 1765, he was one of a committee of four to prevent the issue of stamps in New York City.
In 1770, he was appointed a commissioner, along with Walter Rutherfurd, to establish the partition line between New York and New Jersey. In 1776, after the Provincial Congress had become the New Jersey Legislature under the state's first Constitution, Stevens was elected Vice-President of Council of New Jersey, holding the office of chairman of the joint meetings of the legislature until 1782, representing Hunterdon County, he was a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1784. He was president of the convention of New Jersey when the state ratified the United States Constitution on December 18, 1787. In 1748, he married Elizabeth Alexander, daughter of James Alexander, Surveyor General of New Jersey and New York and counsel for Peter Zenger, Mary Spratt Alexander, a merchant in her own right. Together, they were the parents of two children: John Stevens III, who married Rachel Cox, a descendant of the Langeveldts who settled New Brunswick, New Jersey. Rachel was the daughter of John Cox, Esq. of Bloomsbury, New Jersey, the sister of Elizabeth Cox, who married Horace Binney.
Mary Stevens, who married Chancellor Robert R. Livingston, negotiator of the Louisiana Purchase, his years were spent with his son at Hoboken, where he died in May 1792. He was buried at the Frame Meeting House in Hunterdon County, New Jersey. Through his son John, he was the grandfather of thirteen grandchildren, including John Cox Stevens, first commodore of the New York Yacht Club, Robert Livingston Stevens, the president of Camden and Amboy Railroad, James Alexander Stevens, Richard Stevens, Francis Bowes Stevens, Edwin Augustus Stevens, founder of Stevens Institute of Technology, Elizabeth Juliana Stevens, Mary Stevens, the first wife of Rear Admiral Joshua R. Sands, Harriet Stevens, the second wife of Joshua R. Sands, Esther Bowes Stevens, Catherine Sophia Van Cortlandt Stevens. Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress