Heavy water is a form of water that contains a larger than normal amount of the hydrogen isotope deuterium, rather than the common hydrogen-1 isotope that makes up most of the hydrogen in normal water. The presence of deuterium gives the water different nuclear properties, the increase of mass gives it different physical and chemical properties when compared to normal water. Deuterium is a hydrogen isotope with a nucleus containing a proton; the additional neutron makes a deuterium atom twice as heavy as a protium atom. A molecule of heavy water has two deuterium atoms in place of the two protium atoms of ordinary "light" water; the weight of a heavy water molecule, however, is not different from that of a normal water molecule, because about 89% of the molecular weight of water comes from the single oxygen atom rather than the two hydrogen atoms. The colloquial term'heavy water' refers to a enriched water mixture that contains deuterium oxide D2O, but some hydrogen-deuterium oxide and a smaller amount of ordinary hydrogen oxide H2O.
For instance, the heavy water used in CANDU reactors is 99.75% enriched by hydrogen atom-fraction—meaning that 99.75% of the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy type. For comparison, ordinary water contains only about 156 deuterium atoms per million hydrogen atoms, meaning that 0.0156% of the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy type. Heavy water is not radioactive. In its pure form, it has a density about 11% greater than water, but is otherwise physically and chemically similar; the various differences in deuterium-containing water are larger than in any other occurring isotope-substituted compound because deuterium is unique among heavy stable isotopes in being twice as heavy as the lightest isotope. This difference increases the strength of water's hydrogen-oxygen bonds, this in turn is enough to cause differences that are important to some biochemical reactions; the human body contains deuterium equivalent to about five grams of heavy water, harmless. When a large fraction of water in higher organisms is replaced by heavy water, the result is cell dysfunction and death.
Heavy water was first produced in a few months after the discovery of deuterium. With the discovery of nuclear fission in late 1938, the need for a neutron moderator that captured few neutrons, heavy water became a component of early nuclear energy research. Since heavy water has been an essential component in some types of reactors, both those that generate power and those designed to produce isotopes for nuclear weapons; these heavy water reactors have the advantage of being able to run on natural uranium without using graphite moderators that pose radiological and dust explosion hazards in the decommissioning phase. Most modern reactors use enriched uranium with ordinary water as the moderator. Semiheavy water, HDO, exists whenever there is water with light deuterium in the mix; this is because hydrogen atoms are exchanged between water molecules. Water containing 50% H and 50% D in its hydrogen contains about 50% HDO and 25% each of H2O and D2O, in dynamic equilibrium. In normal water, about 1 molecule in 3,200 is HDO, heavy water molecules only occur in a proportion of about 1 molecule in 41 million.
Thus semiheavy water molecules are far more common than "pure" heavy water molecules. Water enriched in the heavier oxygen isotopes 17O and 18O is commercially available, e.g. for use as a non-radioactive isotopic tracer. It is "heavy water" as it is denser than normal water —but is called heavy water, since it does not contain the deuterium that gives D2O its unusual nuclear and biological properties, it is more expensive than D2O due to the more difficult separation of 17O and 18O. H218O is used for production of fluorine-18 for radiopharmaceuticals and radiotracers and for positron emission tomography. Tritiated water contains tritium in place of protium or deuterium, therefore it is radioactive; the physical properties of water and heavy water differ in several respects. Heavy water is less dissociated than light water at given temperature, the true concentration of D+ ions is less than H+ ions would be for a light water sample at the same temperature; the same is true of OD OH − ions. For heavy water Kw D2O = 1.35 × 10−15, must equal for neutral water.
Thus pKw D2O = p + p = 7.44 + 7.44 = 14.87, the p of neutral heavy water at 25.0 °C is 7.44. The pD of heavy water is measured using pH electrodes giving a pH value, or pHa, at various temperatures a true acidic pD can be estimated from the directly pH meter measured pHa, such that pD+ = pHa + 0.41. The electrode correction for alkaline conditions is 0.456 for heavy water. The alkaline correction is pD+ = pHa + 0.456. These corrections are different from the differences in p and p of 0.44 from the corresponding ones in heavy water. Heavy water is 10.6% denser than ordinary water, heavy water's physically different properties can be seen without equipment if a frozen sample is dropped into normal water, as it will sink. If the water is ice-cold the higher melting tem
Number One Riverside is a multi-use public building in Rochdale, Greater Manchester, England. It incorporates Rochdale Metropolitan Borough Council civic offices and customer service centre, Rochdale Central Library as well as conference facilities for community use and office space for third parties; the publicly accessible ground floor has café spaces overlooking the River Roch. It was designed by FaulknerBrowns Architects and opened to the public in March 2013; the contemporary building has been designed to be energy efficient and incorporates renewable and low carbon technology including a biomass boiler, photo voltaic panels to generate electricity and solar panels to help heat water. Its green roof provide insulation, it replaces the municipal offices, which were demolished in 2014 along with the bus station and multi-storey car park to make way for the new Town Centre East retail and leisure development
Hsien of the Dead is a 2012 Singaporean horror-comedy film directed and written by Gary Ow for Monkeywrench, Genetix S Pte Ltd, Arte Associates. The film stars Ernest Seah, Vivienne Tseng, Moses San Juan, Nurhada Choo, Darrell Britt, it follows four unrelated Singaporeans escaping from a wave of animated corpses. Together they devise a plan to flee the zombie-infested city state. Released on 13 September 2012, the film is credited as "Singapore's first zombie movie". Ministry of Propaganda staff member Edward discovers. Without much struggle, he escapes the government building. Outside, he discovers that all of Singapore has been infected with a zombie virus, he teams up with martial arts practitioner Ah Huay, biker Hana, army enlistee Hsien and together they try to work out an escape plan from Singapore. The film is credited as "Singapore's first zombie movie". Ernest Seah played a civil servant in the army. Vivienne Tseng was cast as the protagonist female fighter. American actor Darrell Britt, who acted in The Matrix, appeared as terrorist "Mas Alamak" in the film.
Inspired by the British horror-comedy Shaun of the Dead, Hsien of the Dead was collaboratively produced by three companies – Monkeywrench, Genetix S, Arte Associates. Filmmaker Gary Ow signed on to direct and write the screenplay. Ow had been in charge of scripting the comedy play, Vampire Monologues; the film was "hot with a handheld Canon EOS 7D camera and wireless Sennheiser body microphones". Funded by Arte Associates, the film was made on an estimated budget of S$350,000, inclusive of promotion costs; the film first had a non-theatrical limited release in Singapore on 22 June 2012, followed by a three-day-run in cinemas from 13 September 2012 to 15 September 2012. Hsien of the Dead on IMDb
Elizabeth "Liz" Johnson is a British swimmer who has won gold medals in the Paralympic Games and International Paralympic Committee world championships. She has cerebral palsy. Johnson was born in Newport, South Wales, on 3 December 1985, she has cerebral palsy, and, at the age of three, was encouraged by her mother to join a group for disabled swimmers to strengthen and relax her muscles. She came to love the sport, competing as an S6 swimmer, was selected to swim for Team GB at the age of 14. Johnson attended Swansea University and in 2008, completed a degree in business management and finance, she lives in Bath and trains with the University of Bath training group, Team Bath. While Johnson was on the aeroplane to the 2008 Summer Paralympics in Beijing, her mother died after a long battle with cervical cancer, she decided to continue with the Games when she was told that the funeral could be held when she returned home. Johnson spends one day a week studying accountancy, is considering a career in that field when she retires from competitive swimming.
She has been in a relationship with Brazilian para-swimmer Phelipe Rodrigues since 2011. In July 2016, Johnson appeared in the eleventh series of Celebrity Masterchef on BBC One. After experience on Celebrity Masterchef she once set fire to a hotel, at a wedding, whilst cooking toast. Johnson is significant within the British Para Swimming Team. At the 2006 IPC Swimming World Championships in Durban South Africa, Johnson won an individual gold medal in the 100 metre breaststroke, two relay golds, she repeated her breaststroke success at the 2009 event, breaking the world record in the process, picked up two individual medley bronze medals. She won gold in the 100 metre breaststroke at the 2008 Summer Paralympics, eleven days after the death of her mother, dedicating the victory to her memory. Johnson's successes were recognised when, in April 2011, she was given the honour of laying the final tile in the competition pool at the London Aquatics Centre, she was selected as the Paralympic Oath taker for the 2012 Paralympic Games.
Johnson added to her Paralympic medal collection at London 2012 Paralympics, as she set a new Paralympic record en route. Johnson recorded a season's best time of 1:40.90, to take the bronze medal in the SB6 100 m backstroke. In the buildup towards her fourth Paralympics at Rio, Johnson underwent an operation for a hernia. While recovering, she found herself falling behind in her training, which impacted on her preparation for the 2016 Paralympic trials, her failure to make the trials resulted in her decision to retire from competitive swimming. In August 2018, Johnson announced starting "The Ability People" an organization, aimed at recruiting disabled people beside the able-bodied people without discrimination. In 2018, she was listed as one of BBC's 100 Women. Liz Johnson Twitter feed
Metaphysical solipsism is the variety of idealism which asserts that nothing exists externally to this one mind, since this mind is the whole of reality the "external world" was never anything more than an idea. It can be expressed by the assertion "there is nothing external to these present experiences", in other words, no reality exists beyond whatever is presently being sensed; the aforementioned definition of solipsism entails the non-existence of anything presently unperceived including the external world, other minds, the past or future, a subject of experience. Despite their ontological non-existence, these entities may nonetheless be said to "exist" as useful descriptions of the various experiences and thoughts that constitute'this' mind; the solipsistic self is described by Wittgenstein in the Tractatus: "The self of solipsism shrinks to a point without extension and there remains the reality co-ordinated with it". There are weaker versions of metaphysical solipsism, such as Caspar Hare's egocentric presentism, in which other persons are conscious but their experiences are not present.
J. J. Valberg develops a concept of one's personal horizon and discusses how it is in a sense the horizon, stating that "we are all solipsists" in his sense of solipsism; the argument in favor of solipsism: The only thing one has direct access to is the contents of one's own mind. What one knows most are one's mental states – one's thoughts, emotions, so on. Just because one sees an object does not mean. One could be hallucinating. There is no direct conceptual or logically necessary link between the physical; the experiences of a given person are private to that person. The contents of one's mind are the only things. One cannot get ‘outside’ of one's mind to encounter any other objects including other persons. Other minds are more removed; the basic form of the argument: Person's mental states are the only things. One cannot conclude the existence of anything outside of their mental states. Therefore, only their mental states exist. Similar philosophy is found in namely drishti-srishti-vada. In teachings of Ramana Maharshi there are two cues on solipsism: "Jiva is called so because he sees the world.
A dreamer sees many jivas in a dream. The dreamer alone exists and he sees all. So it is with the world. There is the creed of only one Self, called the creed of only one jiva, it says that the jiva is the only one who sees the whole world and the lives therein." It is important to say that Drishti -Srishti Vada is not Solipsism in a western oriented thinking because the Solipsist never doubts the existence of his'I',the Ego sense, as distinct and apart from what he sees. The Drishti-Srishti Vada dismisses the'I', The Ego sense along with the'seen'. Please see this important distinction. One reason for the lack of support of this philosophical position is how strange it would be for a solipsist to preach solipsism – as if to convince everyone around them that they are purely a figment of the author's own imagination; the idea of communicating philosophical ideas would be arbitrary to a true solipsist, as according to them, there is no other mind with whom they would communicate their beliefs. Russell commented, on the same theme: "As against solipsism, it is to be said, in the first place, that it is psychologically impossible to believe, is rejected in fact by those who mean to accept it.
I once received a letter from an eminent logician, Mrs. Christine Ladd-Franklin, saying that she was a solipsist, was surprised that there were no others. Coming from a logician, this surprised me; the fact that I cannot believe something does not prove that it is false, but it does prove that I am insincere and frivolous if I pretend to believe it.". The basic argument for solipsism suffers a logical error as well, it is argued that, because the mind can not conclude the existence of anything external, therefore nothing external exists. But this conclusion does not follow, only, it is just as logically consistent that there are external realities/minds/etc. as there are not when experience cannot be verified either true or false. Actual idealism Brain in a vat Cartesian skepticism Epistemological solipsism Methodological solipsism Solipsism Angeles, Peter A. Harper Collins Dictionary of Philosophy, 2nd edition, Harper Perennial, New York, NY. Runes, Dagobert D. Dictionary of Philosophy, Littlefield and Company, Totowa, NJ, 1962.
Double Agent 73 is a 1974 exploitation movie directed and produced by Doris Wishman and starring burlesque performer Chesty Morgan. Chesty Morgan, a woman whose bust is 73 inches in size, plays Jane Tennay, a large breasted secret agent, her agency wants her to assassinate, one by an organized crew of low grade heroin pushers. In order for her to prove her killings, they plant a tiny camera in her big left breast; each time she needs a photo taken, she clicks over her left breast. Unlike the previous film, there's no smothering and only one death sequence involves her monstrous breasts. In it, she ties up a guy's girlfriend in their bathroom, she rubs poison over her own breasts and climbs into the guy's bed. Though the light is on and disregarding the huge difference in breasts' size, the sleepy guy thinks it's his girlfriend, he soon after dies from the poison. It turns out the agency planted a time triggered bomb inside the camera, as an insurance policy in case she is captured. Just in the nick of time Jane has all the photos she is rushed to the hospital.
The camera is removed and the photos reveal Jane's love interest is the head criminal. When they meet up, he asks her to marry him. Jane responds by proceeding to her next mission. Double Agent 73 is an ostensible sequel to Deadly Weapons directed by Doris Wishman. Thompson, Nathaniel. DVD Delirium: The International Guide to Weird and Wonderful Films on DVD. Godalming, England: FAB Press. P. 230. ISBN 1-903254-39-6. List of American films of 1974 Double Agent 73 on IMDb Double Agent 73 at AllMovie