The Mishneh Torah, subtitled Sefer Yad ha-Hazaka, is a code of Jewish religious law authored by Maimonides, one of historys foremost rabbis. The Mishneh Torah was compiled between 1170 and 1180, while Maimonides was living in Egypt, and is regarded as Maimonides magnum opus, sources simply refer to the work as Maimon, Maimonides or RaMBaM, although Maimonides composed other works. Mishneh Torah consists of fourteen books, subdivided into sections, chapters and it is the only Medieval-era work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws that are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in existence, and remains an important work in Judaism. Maimonides intended to provide a statement of the Oral Law, so that a person who mastered first the Written Torah. Contemporary reaction was mixed, with strong and immediate opposition focusing on the absence of sources, Maimonides responded to these criticisms, and the Mishneh Torah endures as an influential work in Jewish religious thought.
Likewise, One must follow Maimonides even when the latter opposed his teachers, since he knew their views. He drew upon the Torah and the rest of Tanakh, both Talmuds and the halachic Midrashim, principally Sifra and Sifre. Some believe that he preferred rulings in certain Midrash collections to rulings in the Talmud, sources include the responsa of the Geonim. According to Maimonides, the Geonim were considered unintelligible in our days, there were even times when Maimonides disagreed with what was being taught in the name of the Geonim. Maimonides himself states a few times in his work that he possessed what he considered to be more accurate texts of the Talmud than what most people possessed at his time. The latter has confirmed to a certain extent by versions of the Talmud preserved by the Yemenite Jews as to the reason for what previously were thought to be rulings without any source. The Mishneh Torah is written in Hebrew in the style of the Mishnah, as he states in the preface, Maimonides was reluctant to write in Talmudic Aramaic, since it was not widely known.
His previous works had been written in Arabic, the Mishneh Torah never cites sources or arguments, and confines itself to stating the final decision on the law to be followed in each situation. There is no discussion of Talmudic interpretation or methodology, and the sequence of chapters follows the subject matter of the laws rather than the intellectual principle involved. Since intermarriage with non-Jews is forbidden, the laws of conversion to Judaism are included, major sources of contention were the absence of sources and the belief that the work appeared to be intended to supersede study of the Talmud. Some criticisms appear to have been less rational in nature, Maimonides quotes the Talmud in stating that one should study the Talmud for a third of ones study time. The most sincere but influential opponent, whose comments are printed parallel to all editions of the Mishneh Torah, was Rabbi Abraham ben David of Posquières. Yet despite all this, Maimonides remained certain that in the future the Mishneh Torah would find great influence and acceptance
Cochin Jews, called Malabar Jews, are the oldest group of Jews in India, with possible roots claimed to date to the time of King Solomon. The Cochin Jews settled in the Kingdom of Cochin in South India, as early as the 12th century, mention is made of the Black Jews in southern India. The Jewish traveler, Benjamin of Tudela, speaking of Kollam on the Malabar Coast, writes in his Itinerary. throughout the island, including all the towns thereof, the inhabitants are all black, and the Jews also. The latter are good and benevolent and they know the law of Moses and the prophets, and to a small extent the Talmud and Halacha. These people known as the Malabari Jews. They built synagogues in Kerala beginning in the 12th and 13th centuries and they are known to have developed Judeo-Malayalam, a dialect of Malayalam language. Following expulsion from Iberia in 1492 by the Alhambra Decree, a few families of Sephardic Jews eventually made their way to Cochin in the 16th century and they became known as Paradesi Jews.
The European Jews maintained some connections to Europe, and their language skills were useful. Although the Sephardim spoke Ladino, in India they learned Judeo-Malayalam from the Malabar Jews, the two communities retained their ethnic and cultural distinctions. In the late 19th century, a few Arabic-speaking Jews, who known as Baghdadi, immigrated to southern India. After India gained its independence in 1947 and Israel was established as a nation, most White Jews though preferred to migrate to Australia and other Commonwealth countries, as Anglo-Indians did. Most of their synagogues have been sold and adapted for other uses, the Paradesi synagogue still has a congregation and attracts tourists as a historic site. The synagogue at Chennamangalam was reconstructed in 2006, the one at Parur is currently being reconstructed. P. M. Jussay wrote that it was believed that the earliest Jews in India were sailors from King Solomons time and it has been claimed that following the destruction of the First Temple in the Siege of Jerusalem of 587 BC, some Jewish exiles came to India.
Only after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE are records found that attest to numerous Jewish settlers arriving at Cranganore, now transliterated as Kodungallur, but known under other names, is a city of legendary importance to this community. Fernandes writes, it is a substitute Jerusalem in India and Goldberg note the symbolic intertwining of the two cities. In 1768, a certain Tobias Boas of Amsterdam had posed eleven questions to Rabbi Yehezkel Rachbi of Cochin, the first of these questions addressed to the said Rabbi concerned the origins of the Jews of Cochin and the duration of their settlement in India. Most were in Cranganore, which is called Mago dera Patinas, St. Thomas, one of the disciples of Jesus, is believed to have visited India while proselytising
Jewish philosophy includes all philosophy carried out by Jews, or in relation to the religion of Judaism. With their acceptance into society, Jews with secular educations embraced or developed entirely new philosophies to meet the demands of the world in which they now found themselves. Medieval re-discovery of ancient Greek philosophy among the Geonim of 10th century Babylonian academies brought rationalist philosophy into Biblical-Talmudic Judaism, the philosophy was generally in competition with Kabbalah. Both schools would become part of classic Rabbinic literature, though the decline of scholastic rationalism coincided with events which drew Jews to the Kabbalistic approach. For Ashkenazi Jews and encounter with secular thought from the 18th-century onwards altered how philosophy was viewed and Sephardi communities had more ambivalent interaction with secular culture than in Western Europe. In the varied responses to modernity, Jewish philosophical ideas were developed across the range of emerging religious movements, Rabbinic literature sometimes views Abraham as a philosopher.
Some have suggested that Abraham introduced a philosophy learned from Melchizedek, a midrash describes how Abraham understood this world to have a creator and director by comparing this world to a house with a light in it, what is now called the argument from design. Psalms contains invitations to admire the wisdom of God through his works, from this, some scholars suggest, Judaism harbors a Philosophical under-current. Ecclesiastes is often considered to be the only genuine philosophical work in the Hebrew Bible, its author seeks to understand the place of human beings in the world, Philo attempted to fuse and harmonize Greek and Jewish philosophy through allegory, which he learned from Jewish exegesis and Stoicism. Philo attempted to make his philosophy the means of defending and justifying Jewish religious truths and these truths he regarded as fixed and determinate, and philosophy was used as an aid to truth, and a means of arriving at it. To this end Philo chose from philosophical tenets of Greeks, refusing those that did not harmonize with Judaism such as Aristotles doctrine of the eternity and indestructibility of the world.
Dr. Philosophical speculation was not a part of Rabbinic Judaism. Rabbi Akiva has been viewed as a figure, his statements include 1. )How favored is man, for he was created after an image for in an image, Elokim made man,2. )Everything is foreseen. But the divine decision is made by the preponderance of the good or bad in ones actions, after the Bar Kokhba revolt, Rabbinic scholars gathered in Tiberias and Safed to re-assemble and re-assess Judaism, its laws, liturgy and leadership structure. In 219 CE, the Sura Academy was founded by Abba Arika, for the next five centuries, Talmudic academies focused upon reconstituting Judaism and little, if any, philosophic investigation was pursued. These investigations triggered new ideas and intellectual exchange among Jewish and Islamic scholars in the areas of jurisprudence, astronomy, Jewish scholars influenced Islamic scholars and Islamic scholars influenced Jewish scholars. Around 733 CE, Mar Natronai ben Habibai moves to Kairouan, to Spain, borrowing from the Mutakallamin of Basra, the Karaites were the first Jewish group to subject Judaism to Muʿtazila.
Rejecting the Talmud and Rabbinical tradition, Karaites took liberty to reinterpret the Tanakh and this meant abandoning foundational Jewish belief structures
Karaim is a Russian, Ukrainian and Polish name for the community. Turkic-speaking Karaites have lived in Crimea for centuries and their origin is a matter of great controversy. Some regard them as descendants of Karaite Jews who settled in Crimea, others view them as descendants of Khazar or Cuman, Kipchak converts to Karaite Judaism. Today many Karaim deny ethnic Semitic origins and identify as descendants of the Khazars, the tradition of Karaite Judaism ranks only the Tanakh as a holy book and does not recognize the Talmud, and Khazars disappeared in the 11th century. But, the first written mention of the Crimean Karaites was in the 14th century, some modern Karaim resist being identified as Jews, emphasizing their Turkic heritage and claiming they are Turkic practitioners of a Mosaic religion separate and distinct from Judaism. From the time of the Golden Horde onward, Karaites were present in towns and villages throughout Crimea. During the period of the Crimean Khanate, they had major communities in the towns of Çufut Qale, Kefe, According to most opinions, the upper stratum of the Khazar society converted to Judaism in the 8th–9th centuries CE.
The extent of conversion and its scope is not known. An archeological relic of this Khazar settlement was discovered in Transylvania in the 20th century, known as the Alsószentmihály Rovas inscription, it was transcribed by the archaeologist-historian Gábor Vékony. According to the transcription, the inscription means the following. Jüedi Kür Karaite. or Jüedi Kür the Karaite, scholars take this as evidence that at least a part of the Khazars were Karaites. According to Karaite tradition, Grand Duke Vytautas of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania relocated one branch of the Crimean Karaites to Lithuania, there they continued to speak their own language. But the Lithuanian dialect of the Karaim language differs significantly from the Crimean one, the Lithuanian Karaites settled primarily in Vilnius and Trakai, as well as in Biržai, Pasvalys and Upytė – smaller settlements throughout Lithuania proper. The Lithuanian Karaites settled in lands of modern Belarus and Ukraine, the Karaite communities emerged in Halicz and Kokizow in Galicia, as well as in Łuck and Derazhne in Volhynia.
Jews in Lithuanian territory were granted a measure of autonomy under Michel Ezofovich Seniors management, the Trakai Karaim refused to comply, citing differences in faith. Later all Jews, including Karaites, were submitted to Rabbinite Council of Four Lands, the Yiddish-speaking Rabbinites considered the Turkic-speaking Karaites to be apostates, and kept them in a subordinate and depressed position. In 1646 the Karaites gained expulsion of the Rabbinites from Trakai, despite such tensions, in 1680 Rabbinite community leaders defended the Karaites of Shaty against blood accusation. Representatives of both groups signed an agreement in 1714 to respect the privileges and resolve disputes without involving the Gentile administration
Epistle to the Hebrews
The Epistle to the Hebrews, or Letter to the Hebrews, or in the Greek manuscripts, simply To the Hebrews is one of the books of the New Testament. Scholars of Greek consider its writing to be polished and eloquent than any other book of the New Testament. The book has earned the reputation of being a masterpiece and it has been described as an intricate New Testament book. Scholars believe it was written for Jewish Christians who lived in Jerusalem and its purpose was to exhort Christians to persevere in the face of persecution. The theme of the epistle is the doctrine of the person of Christ, the epistle opens with an exaltation of Jesus as the radiance of Gods glory, the express image of his being, and upholding all things by his powerful word. The epistle presents Jesus with the pioneer or forerunner and Son of God, priest. The epistle casts Jesus as both exalted Son and high priest, a unique dual Christology, Hebrews uses Old Testament quotations interpreted in light of first century rabbinical Judaism.
Although the author of Hebrews was not directly influenced by Qumrans Messiah of Aaron, to conceive Jesus similarly as a priest making atonement and eternal intercession in the heavenly sanctuary. By the end of the first century there was not a consensus over the author’s identity, Clement of Rome, Paul the Apostle, and other names were proposed. Others suggested Luke the Evangelist and Priscilla as possible authors, though no author is named, the original King James Version of the Bible titled the work The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Hebrews. However, the KJVs attribution to Paul was only a guess and its vastly different style, different theological focus, different spiritual experience, different Greek vocabulary—all are believed to make Pauls authorship of Hebrews increasingly indefensible. At present, neither modern scholarship nor church teaching ascribes Hebrews to Paul, because of its anonymity, it had some trouble being accepted as part of the Christian canon, being classed with the Antilegomena.
Eventually it was accepted as scripture because of its theology, eloquent presentation. In antiquity, certain circles began to ascribe it to Paul in an attempt to provide the work an explicit apostolic pedigree. Scholars argued that in the 13th Chapter of Hebrews, Timothy is referred to as a companion, Timothy was Pauls missionary companion in the same way Jesus sent disciples out in pairs of two. Also, the states that he wrote the letter from Italy. The difference in style is explained as simply an adjustment to a distinct audience, many scholars now believe that the author was one of Pauls pupils or associates, citing stylistic differences between Hebrews and the other Pauline epistles. Recent scholarship has favored the idea that the author was probably a leader of a predominantly Jewish congregation to whom he or she was writing
A synagogue, spelled synagog, is a Jewish house of prayer. Synagogues have a hall for prayer, and may have smaller rooms for study and sometimes a social hall. Some have a room for Torah study, called the beith midrash beis medrash —בית מדרש. Synagogues are consecrated spaces used for the purpose of prayer, Tanakh reading and assembly, halakha holds that communal Jewish worship can be carried out wherever ten Jews assemble. Worship can be carried out alone or with fewer than ten people assembled together, halakha considers certain prayers as communal prayers and therefore they may be recited only by a minyan. The synagogue does not replace the long-since destroyed Temple in Jerusalem, israelis use the Hebrew term beyt knesset. Jews of Ashkenazi descent have traditionally used the Yiddish term shul in everyday speech, Sephardi Jews and Romaniote Jews generally use the term kal. Spanish Jews call the synagogue a sinagoga and Portuguese Jews call it an esnoga, persian Jews and some Karaite Jews use the non-Hebrew term kenesa, which is derived from Aramaic, and some Arab Jews use kenis.
Reform and some Conservative Jews use the word temple, the Greek word synagogue is used in English, to cover the preceding possibilities. The all-day Yom Kippur service, in fact, was an event in which the congregation both observed the movements of the kohen gadol as he offered the days sacrifices and prayed for his success. During the Babylonian captivity the Men of the Great Assembly formalized and standardized the language of the Jewish prayers, prior to that people prayed as they saw fit, with each individual praying in his or her own way, and there were no standard prayers that were recited. Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai, one of the leaders at the end of the Second Temple era and this contributed to the continuity of the Jewish people by maintaining a unique identity and a portable way of worship despite the destruction of the Temple, according to many historians. A synagogue dating from between 75 and 50 BCE has been uncovered at a Hasmonean-era winter palace near Jericho, more than a dozen Second Temple era synagogues have been identified by archaeologists.
Any Jew or group of Jews can build a synagogue, there is no set blueprint for synagogues and the architectural shapes and interior designs of synagogues vary greatly. In fact, the influence from local religious buildings can often be seen in synagogue arches, domes. Historically, synagogues were built in the architectural style of their time. Thus, the synagogue in Kaifeng, China looked very like Chinese temples of that region and era, with its outer wall, the styles of the earliest synagogues resembled the temples of other sects of the eastern Roman Empire. The surviving synagogues of medieval Spain are embellished with mudéjar plasterwork, the surviving medieval synagogues in Budapest and Prague are typical Gothic structures
It is based on the Hebrew word meaning righteousness, fairness or justice, and it is related to the Hebrew word Tzadik meaning righteous as an adjective. In Judaism, tzedakah refers to the obligation to do what is right and just. Tzedakah is considered to be one of the three acts that can annul a less than favorable heavenly decree. The term is synonymous with Sadaqah or Saddka, an Islamic term meaning voluntary charity, the Hebrew Bible teaches the obligation to aid those in need, but does not employ one single term for this obligation. The term tzedekah occurs 157 times in the Masoretic Text, typically in relation to righteousness per se, usually in the singular, in the Septuagint this was sometimes translated eleemosyne, almsgiving. Giving tzedakah anonymously to an unknown recipient via a person which is trustworthy, giving tzedakah anonymously to a known recipient. Giving tzedakah publicly to an unknown recipient, giving in sadness, It is thought that Maimonides was referring to giving because of the sad feelings one might have in seeing people in need.
Traditional Jews commonly practice maaser kesafim, tithing 10% of their income to support those in need. Nevertheless, in modern Israel, rabbis of Orthodox Judaism insist that Jews allow gleanings to be consumed by the poor and by strangers, in addition, one must be very careful about how one gives out tzedakah money. It is taught that Tzedakah money was never yours to begin with, rather, it belongs to God. Hence it is obligation to ensure that it is received by those deserving of it. There are many examples of Tzedakah funds that operate according to Maimonides principles above, including Hands on Tzedakah, paamonim is a nonprofit organization in Israel that operates according to Maimonides first principle. Gaon of Vilna considered about giving Tzedaqah to all householders in our city with tax-benefit, charity Gleaning Sadaqah and Zakat Social justice Qard al-Hassan Rabbi Wayne Dossick, Living Judaism, The Complete Guide to Jewish Belief and Practice. Brother, Can You Spare a Dime, The Treatment of Beggars According to Jewish Tradition, A Case in Point
Crypto-Judaism is the secret adherence to Judaism while publicly professing to be of another faith, practitioners are referred to as crypto-Jews. The term crypto-Jew is used to describe descendants of Jews who maintain some Jewish traditions of their ancestors while publicly adhering to other faiths, the term is especially applied historically to European Jews who—outwardly or forcedly—professed Catholicism, who were known as Anusim or Marrano. The phenomenon is associated with renaissance Spain, following the June 6,1391, Anti-Jewish pogroms. Later under its Blood Purity Laws, Spain restricted explorers and settlers in the New World to Old Christians of three generations or more, Jews who converted in Spain in the 14th and 15th centuries were known as Cristianos Nuevos, but were commonly called conversos. Spain and Portugal passed legislation restricting their rights in the countries and colonies. Despite the dangers of the Inquisition, many continued to secretly and discreetly practice Jewish rituals.
They are among the most widely known and documented crypto-Jews, in Greece, Romaniote Jews have been present for a little more than two thousand years. Greek Jews played an important role in the development of Christianity. During World War II, their community suffered devastation in the Holocaust after Greece was conquered and occupied by the Axis powers, in the aftermath of the war, a large percentage of the surviving community emigrated to Israel or the United States. Greek Jews today largely live side by side in harmony with Christian Greeks and they continue to work with other Greeks, and Jews worldwide, to combat the anti-Semitism in Greece. Crypto-Judaism existed in earlier periods, whenever Jews were forced or pressured to convert to the majority religion by the rulers of places where they resided, some of the Jewish followers of Sabbatai Zevi formally converted to Islam. Later followers of Jacob Frank formally converted to Christianity, but maintained aspects of practice of their versions of Messianic Judaism, Crypto-Jews persisted in Russia and Eastern European countries influenced by the Soviet Union after the rise of Communism with the Russian Revolution of 1917.
The government, which included secular Communist Jews, did not force Jews to convert to the Russian Orthodox Church, some faiths were allowed to continue under strict supervision by the regime. Since the end of Communism, many people in former Soviet states, the Belmonte Jews of Portugal, dating from the 12th century, maintained strong secret traditions for centuries. A whole community survived in secrecy by maintaining a tradition of endogamous marriage and they and their practices were discovered only in the 20th century. Their rich Sephardic tradition of Crypto-Judaism is unique, some now profess Orthodox Judaism, although many still retain their centuries-old traditions. He excoriated one writer who advocated martyrdom for long-winded foolish babbling and nonsense, how much greater then, he argues, will be the reward of the Jews who despite the exigencies of forced conversion perform commandments secretly. Maimonides championed rationalism over the practice of martyrdom when facing religious adversity
Jewish views on marriage
In traditional Judaism, marriage is viewed as a contractual bond commanded by God in which a man and a woman come together to create a relationship in which God is directly involved. Though procreation is not the purpose, a Jewish marriage is traditionally expected to fulfill the commandment to have children. However, some Jewish denominations such as Reconstructionist and Conservative Judaism recognize same-sex marriage and deemphasize procreation, this is seen not as an alternate interpretation but as a diversion from the Law of Judaism. In Jewish law, an engagement is a contract between a man and a woman where they mutually promise to each other at some future time. The promise may be made by the parties or by their respective parents or other relatives on their behalf. The promise is formalized in a document known as the Shtar Tenaim, the Document of Conditions, after this reading, the mothers of the future bride and groom break a plate. Today, some sign the contract on the day of the wedding, some do it as an earlier ceremony, the young couple is not forced to marry if either does not accept the other.
In Jewish law, marriage consists of two acts, called erusin, which is the betrothal ceremony, and nissuin or chupah. Erusin changes the couples interpersonal status, while nissuin brings about the consequences of the change of status. Since the Middle Ages the two ceremonies have taken place as a ceremony performed in public. According to the Talmud, erusin involves the groom handing an object to the bride - either an object of such as a ring. In order to be valid, this must be done in the presence of two unrelated male witnesses, after erusin, the laws of adultery apply, and the marriage cannot be dissolved without a religious divorce. After nisuin, the couple may live together, marital harmony, known as shlom bayit, is valued in Jewish tradition. Similarly, a husband was expected to discuss with his wife any worldly matters that arise in his life. Tough love was frowned upon, the Talmud forbids a husband from being overbearing to his household and it was said of a wife that God counts her tears. A wife, was expected to be modest, even if the other person present with her was her husband.
Gods presence dwells in a pure and loving home, the obligations of the husband include providing for his wife. He is obligated to provide for her sustenance for her benefit, this is a right to the wife and she can release her husband of the obligation of sustaining her and she can keep her income exclusively for herself
Their distinct language was Judaeo-Greek, a Greek dialect, and is today modern Greek or the languages of their new home countries. They derived their name from the old name for the people of the Byzantine Empire, Romaioi. Large communities were located in Thebes, Chalcis, Arta, Volos, Corinth, and on the islands of Zakynthos, Chios, Samos and Cyprus, among others. The Romaniotes are historically distinct from the Sephardim, who settled in Ottoman Greece after the 1492 expulsion of the Jews from Spain, a majority of the Jewish population of Greece was killed in the Holocaust after Axis powers occupied Greece during World War II. They deported most of the Jews to Nazi concentration camps, after the war, a majority of the survivors emigrated to Israel, the United States, and Western Europe. Today there are still functioning Romaniote Synagogues in Chalkis which represents the oldest Jewish congregation on European ground, in Ioannina, New York and Israel. The name Romaniote refers to the medieval Eastern Roman Empire, which included the territory of modern Greece, the Empire was commonly referred to as Rhomania and its citizens Romans.
The earliest reference to a Greek Jew is an inscription dated c, 300-250 BCE, found in Oropos, a small coastal town between Athens and Boeotia, which refers to Moschos, son of Moschion the Jew, who may have been a slave. On the Island Aegina a Hellenistic Jewish synagogue was discovered in 1829 in the capital of the Island, the synagogue was originally discovered by the German historian Ludwig Ross, from the royal court of Otto. The floor was covered in order to be protected and was studied again by Thiersch in 1901, Furtwängler in 1904, E. Sukenik in 1928, the studies were completed by the National Archaeological Service. Based on the quality of the mosaic, the building is believed to have been constructed in the 4th century CE and was used until the 7th century CE. The mosaic floor of the synagogue still survives and is made up of multi-colored tesserae, two Greek inscriptions were found in front of the synagogues entrance, on the western side of the building. Today, only part of the mosaic floor is extant.
A Romaniote oral tradition tells that the first Jews arrived in Ioannina shortly after the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE. Before the migration of the Ashkenazi and the Sephardi Jews into the Balkans and Eastern Europe, the Sefer Yosippon was written down in the 10th century in Byzantine Southern Italy by the Greek-speaking Jewish community there. Judah Leon ben Moses Mosconi, a Romaniote Jew from Achrida edited and expanded the Sefer Josippon later, the Jews of Southern Italy continued to be Greek-speakers until the 15th century. In the 12th century, Benjamin of Tudela recorded details about communities of Jews in Corfu, Aphilon, Corinth, Chalkis, the largest community in Greece at that time was in Thebes, where he found about 2000 Jews. They were engaged mostly in cloth dyeing, weaving, in producing of silverware, at the time, they were already known as Romaniotes
The brit milah is a Jewish religious male circumcision ceremony performed by a mohel on the eighth day of a male infants life. The brit milah is followed by a celebratory meal,11 And ye shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskin, and it shall be a token of a covenant betwixt Me and you. 12 And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every male throughout your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any foreigner, that is not of thy seed. 13 He that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised, and My covenant shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covenant. 14 And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, Leviticus 12,3 provides, And in the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised. The word arel is employed for impermeable, it is applied to the first three years fruit of a tree, which is forbidden. However, the Israelites born in the wilderness after the Exodus from Egypt were not circumcised, Joshua 5, 2-9, all the people that came out of Egypt were circumcised, but those born in the wilderness were not.
Therefore, before the celebration of the Passover, had them circumcised at Gilgal specifically before they entered Canaan, too, was circumcised when he moved into Canaan. The prophetic tradition emphasizes that God expects people to be good as well as pious, and that non-Jews will be judged based on their ethical behavior, see Noahide Law. Thus, Jeremiah 9, 25-26 says that circumcised and uncircumcised will be punished alike by the Lord, for all the nations are uncircumcised, the penalty of non-observance is kareth, as noted in Genesis 17, 1-14. Conversion to Judaism for non-Israelites in Biblical times necessitated circumcision, otherwise one could not partake in the Passover offering, today, as in the time of Abraham, it is required of converts in Orthodox and Reform Judaism. The Talmud, when discussing the importance of Milah, compares it to being equal to all other mitzvot based on the gematria for brit of 612. Covenants in ancient times were sometimes sealed by severing an animal, in Hebrew, the verb meaning to seal a covenant translates literally as to cut.
It is presumed by Jewish scholars that the removal of the foreskin symbolically represents such a sealing of the covenant, memory of this tradition has been preserved in traditional Christian churches according to the Gospel of Luke. In Orthodox Christian tradition, children are named on the eighth day after birth with special naming prayers. Significantly, the tradition of baptism universally replaced circumcision amongst Christians as the rite of passage as found in Pauls Epistle to the Colossians. A mohel is a Jew trained in the practice of brit milah, most streams of non-Orthodox Judaism allow female mohels, called mohalot, without restriction. In 1984, Dr. Deborah Cohen became the first certified Reform mohelet and it is customary for the brit to be held in a synagogue, but it can be held at home or any other suitable location
Certain terms are used very commonly for groups of holidays. These include the first and seventh days of Passover, Shavuot, by extension, outside the Land of Israel, the second-day holidays known under the rubric Yom tov sheni shel galuyot are included in this grouping. Colloquially, Yom Kippur, a Biblically-mandated date on which even food preparation is prohibited, is included in this grouping. The English-language term High Holy Days refers to Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur collectively, the term Three Pilgrimage Festivals refers to Passover and Sukkot. Within this grouping Sukkot normally includes Shemini Atzeret and Simchat Torah, certain terminology is used in referring to different categories of holidays, depending on their source and their nature, Shabbat, or Sabbath, is referred to by that name exclusively. Similarly, Rosh Chodesh is referred to by that name exclusively, plural moadim, refers to any of the Three Pilgrimage Festivals of Passover and Sukkot. When used in comparison to Yom Tov, it refers to Chol HaMoed, Ḥag or chag, plural chagim, can be used whenever yom tov or moed is.
It is used to describe Hanukkah and Purim, as well as Yom Haatzmaut, Taanit, or, less commonly, refers to a fast. These terms are used to describe the rabbinic fasts, although tzom is used liturgically to refer to Yom Kippur as well. The most notable feature of Shabbat and the Biblical festivals is the requirement to refrain from melacha on these days. Melacha is most commonly translated as work, perhaps a translation is creative-constructive work. Strictly speaking, Melacha is defined in Jewish law by 39 categories of labor that were used in constructing the Tabernacle while the Jews wandered in the desert, as understood traditionally and in Orthodox Judaism, On Shabbat and Yom Kippur all melacha is prohibited. On a Yom Tov which falls on a weekday, not Shabbat, some melacha related to preparation of food is permitted. On weekdays during Chol HaMoed, melacha is not prohibited per se, melacha should be limited to that required either to enhance the enjoyment of the remainder of the festival or to avoid great financial loss.
On other days, there are no restrictions on melacha, in principle, Conservative Judaism understands the requirement to refrain from melacha in the same way as Orthodox Judaism. In practice, Conservative rabbis frequently rule on prohibitions around melacha differently from Orthodox authorities, there are a number of Conservative/Masorti communities around the world where Sabbath and Festival observance fairly closely resembles Orthodox observance. However, many, if not most, lay members of Conservative congregations in North America do not consider themselves Sabbath-observant, at the same time, adherents of Reform Judaism and Reconstructionist Judaism do not accept halacha, and therefore restrictions on melacha, as binding at all. Jews fitting any of these descriptions refrain from melacha in practice only as they see fit