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Hecate

Hecate or Hekate is a goddess in ancient Greek religion and mythology, most shown holding a pair of torches or a key and in periods depicted in triple form. She is variously associated with crossroads, entrance-ways, magic, knowledge of herbs and poisonous plants, ghosts and sorcery, she appears in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter and in Hesiod's Theogony, where she is promoted as a great goddess. The place of origin of her following is uncertain, but it is thought that she had popular followings in Thrace. Hecate was one of the main deities worshiped in Athenian households as a protective goddess and one who bestowed prosperity and daily blessings on the family. In the post-Christian writings of the Chaldean Oracles she was regarded with rulership over earth and sky, as well as a more universal role as Savior, Mother of Angels and the Cosmic World Soul. Regarding the nature of her cult, it has been remarked, "she is more at home on the fringes than in the center of Greek polytheism. Intrinsically ambivalent and polymorphous, she straddles conventional boundaries and eludes definition."

The origin of the name Hecate and the original country of her worship are both unknown, though several theories have been proposed. Whether or not Hecate's worship originated in Greece, some scholars have suggested that the name derives from a Greek root, several potential source words have been identified. For example, ἑκών "willing", may be related to the name Hecate. However, no sources suggested list will or willingness as a major attribute of Hecate, which makes this possibility unlikely. Another Greek word suggested as the origin of the name Hecate is Ἑκατός Hekatos, an obscure epithet of Apollo interpreted as "the far reaching one" or "the far-darter"; this has been suggested in comparison with the attributes of the goddess Artemis associated with Apollo and equated with Hecate in the classical world. Supporters of this etymology suggest that Hecate was considered an aspect of Artemis prior to the latter's adoption into the Olympian pantheon. Artemis would have, at that point, become more associated with purity and maidenhood, on the one hand, while her darker attributes like her association with magic, the souls of the dead, the night would have continued to be worshiped separately under her title Hecate.

Though considered the most Greek origin of the name, the Ἑκατός theory does not account for her worship in Asia Minor, where her association with Artemis seems to have been a late development, the competing theories that the attribution of darker aspects and magic to Hecate were themselves not part of her cult. R. S. P. Beekes suggested a Pre-Greek origin. A possibility for foreign origin of the name may be Heqet, name of an Egyptian goddess of fertility and childbirth, like Hecate, was associated with magic—'heka' means'magic' in Egyptian. Hecate originated among the Carians of Anatolia, the region where most theophoric names invoking Hecate, such as Hecataeus or Hecatomnus, the father of Mausolus, are attested, where Hecate remained a Great Goddess into historical times, at her unrivaled cult site in Lagina. While many researchers favor the idea that she has Anatolian origins, it has been argued that "Hecate must have been a Greek goddess." The monuments to Hecate in Phrygia and Caria are numerous but of late date.

William Berg observes, "Since children are not called after spooks, it is safe to assume that Carian theophoric names involving hekat- refer to a major deity free from the dark and unsavory ties to the underworld and to witchcraft associated with the Hecate of classical Athens." In particular, there is some evidence that she might be derived from the local sun goddesses, based on similar attributes. If Hecate's cult spread from Anatolia into Greece, it is possible it presented a conflict, as her role was filled by other more prominent deities in the Greek pantheon, above all by Artemis and Selene; this line of reasoning lies behind the accepted hypothesis that she was a foreign deity, incorporated into the Greek pantheon. Other than in the Theogony, the Greek sources do not offer a consistent story of her parentage, or of her relations in the Greek pantheon: sometimes Hecate is related as a Titaness, a mighty helper and protector of humans. In Early Modern English, the name was pronounced disyllabically and sometimes spelled Hecat.

It remained common practice in English to pronounce her name in two syllables when spelled with final e, well into the 19th century. The spelling Hecat is due to Arthur Golding's 1567 translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses, this spelling without the final E appears in plays of the Elizabethan-Jacobean period. Webster's Dictionary of 1866 credits the influence of Shakespeare for the then-predominant disyllabic pronunciation of the name. Hecate was represented as three-formed, though the earliest known images of the goddess are singular, her earliest known representation is a small terracotta statue found in Athens. An inscription on the statue is a dedication to Hecate, in writing of the style of the 6th century, but it otherwise lacks any other symbols associated with the goddess, she is seated with a chaplet around her head. Farnell states: "The evidence of the monuments as to the character and significance of Hecate is as full as that of to express her manifold and mystic nature." A 6th century fragment of pottery from Boetia depicts a goddess which may be Hecate in a mat

Taylor Dayne discography

This is the discography page for American singer Taylor Dayne. Envy - Ain't It a Sin - Backing Vocals: Atco Records – 90605-1 One Moment in Time: 1988 Summer Olympics Album - song: "Willpower" Fried Green Tomatoes soundtrack - song: "Danger, Heartbreak Dead Ahead" The Shadow soundtrack - song: "Original Sin" Saxtress Pamela Williams - song: "The Secret Garden" Searching For Jimi Hendrix - song: "The Wind Cries Mary" Flawless soundtrack - song: "Planet Love" Circuit soundtrack - song: "How Many" The Lizzie McGuire Movie soundtrack - song: "Supermodel" Overtime Lee Ritenour - songs: "Papa Was a Rollin' Stone", "Is It You" Butch Queen RuPaul - song: "Be Someone" "Taylor Dayne". Taylor Dayne. 2014-07-29. Retrieved 2017-04-17. "Taylor Dayne Discography". Discogs.com. Retrieved 2017-04-17

Lesya Ukrainka

Lesya Ukrainka (born Larysa Petrivna Kosach-Kvitka is one of Ukrainian literature's foremost writers, best known for her poems and plays. She was an active political and feminist activist. Among her most well-known works are the collections of poems On the wings of songs and Dreams, the epic poem Ancient fairy tale, One word, plays Princess, Cassandra, In the Catacombs, Forest song. Ukrainka was born in 1871 in the town of Novohrad-Volynskyi of Ukraine, she was the second child of Ukrainian writer and publisher Olha Drahomanova-Kosach, better known under her literary pseudonym Olena Pchilka. Ukrainka's father was Petro Antonovych Kosach, head of the district assembly of conciliators, who came from the northern part of Chernihiv province. After completing high school in Chernihiv Gymnasium, Kosach studied mathematics at the University of Petersburg. Two years he moved to Kiev University and graduated with a degree in law. In 1868 he married Olha Drahomaniv, the sister of his friend Mykhaylo Petrovych Drahomanov, a well-known Ukrainian scientist, philosopher and public figure.

Kosach, her father, was devoted to the advancement of Ukrainian culture and financially supported Ukrainian publishing ventures. Lesya Ukrainka had three younger sisters, Olha and Isydora, a younger brother, Mykola. Ukrainka was close to her uncle Drahomanov, her spiritual mentor and teacher, as well as her brother Mykhaylo, known under the pseudonym Mykhaylo Obachny, whom she called "Mysholosie." Lesya inherited her father's features, eyes and build. Like her father, she was principled, they both held the dignity of the individual in high regard. Despite their many similarities and her father were different in that her father had a gift for mathematics, but no gift for languages. Lesya's mother, a poet, wrote poetry and short stories for children in Ukrainian, she was active in the women's movement and published a feminist almanac. Ukrainka's mother played a significant role in her upbringing; the Ukrainian language was the only language used in the household, to enforce this practice, the children were educated by Ukrainian tutors at home, in order to avoid schools that taught Russian as the primary language.

Ukrainka learned how to read at the age of four, she and her brother Mykhaylo could read foreign languages well enough to read literature in the original. By the time she was eight, Ukrainka wrote her first poem, "Hope,", composed in reaction to the arrest and exile of her aunt, Olena Kosach, for taking part in a political movement against the tsarist autocracy. In 1879, her entire family moved to Lutsk; that same year her father started building houses for the family in the nearby village of Kolodiazhne. It was at this time that her uncle, Mykhaylo Drahomanov, encouraged her to study Ukrainian folk songs, folk stories, history, as well to peruse the Bible for its inspired poetry and eternal themes, she was influenced by the well-known composer Mykola Lysenko, as well as the famous Ukrainian dramatist and poet Mykhailo Starytsky. At age thirteen, her first published poem, "Lily of the Valley," appeared in the magazine Zorya in Lviv, it was here that she first used her pseudonym, suggested by her mother because in the Russian Empire, publications in the Ukrainian language were forbidden.

Ukrainka's first collection of poetry had to be published secretly in western Ukraine and snuck into Kiev under her pseudonym. At this time, Ukrainka was well on her way of becoming a pianist, but due to tuberculosis of the bone, she did not attend any outside educational establishment. Writing was to be the main focus of her life; the poems and plays of Ukrainka are associated with her belief in her country's freedom and independence. Between 1895 and 1897, she became a member of the Literary and Artistic Society in Kiev, banned in 1905 because of its relations with revolutionary activists. In 1888, when Ukrainka was seventeen and her brother organized a literary circle called Pleyada, which they founded to promote the development of Ukrainian literature and translation of foreign classics into Ukrainian; the organization was based on the French school of the Pleiade. Their gatherings took place in different homes and were joined by Mykola Lysenko, P. Kosach, Kostiantyn Mykhalchuk, Mykhailo Starytsky, others.

One of the works they translated was Nikolai Gogol's Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka. Taras Shevchenko and Ivan Franko were the main inspiration of her early poetry, associated with the poet's loneliness, social isolation and adoration of the Ukrainian nation's freedom, her first collection of poetry, Na krylakh pisen', was published in 1893. Since Ukrainian publications were banned by the Russian Empire, this book was published in Western Ukraine, part of Austria-Hungary at the time, smuggled into Kiev. Ukrainka's illness made it necessary for her to travel to places where the climate was dry, and, as a result, she spent extended periods of time in Germany, Italy, Crimea, the Caucasus, Egypt, she loved experiencing other cultures, evident in many of her literary works, such as The Ancient History of Oriental Peoples written for her younger siblings. The book was published in L'viv, Ivan Franko was involved in its publication