click links in text for more info


Hedeby was an important Danish Viking Age trading settlement near the southern end of the Jutland Peninsula, now in the Schleswig-Flensburg district of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is the most important archaeological site in Schleswig-Holstein; the settlement developed as a trading centre at the head of a narrow, navigable inlet known as the Schlei, which connects to the Baltic Sea. The location was favorable because there is a short portage of less than 15 km to the Treene River, which flows into the Eider with its North Sea estuary, making it a convenient place where goods and ships could be pulled on a corduroy road overland for an uninterrupted seaway between the Baltic and the North Sea and avoid a dangerous and time-consuming circumnavigation of Jutland, providing Hedeby with a role similar to Lübeck. Hedeby was the second largest Nordic town during the Viking Age, after Uppåkra in present-day southern Sweden, The city of Schleswig was founded on the other side of the Schlei. Hedeby was abandoned after its destruction in 1066.

Hedeby was rediscovered in the late 19th century and excavations began in 1900. The Haithabu Museum was opened next to the site in 1985; the Old Norse name Heiða-býr translates to "heath-settlement". The name is recorded in numerous spelling variants. Heiðabýr is the reconstructed name in standard Old Norse anglicized as Heithabyr; the Stone of Eric, a 10th-century Danish runestone with an inscription mentioning ᚼᛅᛁᚦᛅ᛭ᛒᚢ, found in 1796. Old English æt Hæðum, from Ohthere's account of his travels to Alfred the Great in the Old English Orosius. Hedeby, the modern Danish spelling most used in English. Haddeby is the Low German form the name of the administrative district formed in 1949 and named for the site. Haithabu is the modern German spelling used. Sources from the 9th and 10th century AD attest to the names Sliesthorp and Sliaswich, the town of Schleswig still exists 3 km north of Hedeby. However, Æthelweard claimed in his Latin translation of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle that the Saxons used Slesuuic and the Danes Haithaby to refer to the same town.

Hedeby is first mentioned in the Frankish chronicles of Einhard, in the service of Charlemagne, but was founded around 770. In 808 the Danish king Godfred destroyed a competing Slav trade centre named Reric, it is recorded in the Frankish chronicles that he moved the merchants from there to Hedeby; this may have provided the initial impetus for the town to develop. The same sources record that Godfred strengthened the Danevirke, an earthen wall that stretched across the south of the Jutland peninsula; the Danevirke joined the defensive walls of Hedeby to form an east-west barrier across the peninsula, from the marshes in the west to the Schlei inlet leading into the Baltic in the east. The town itself was surrounded on its three landward sides by earthworks. At the end of the 9th century the northern and southern parts of the town were abandoned for the central section. A 9-metre high semi-circular wall was erected to guard the western approaches to the town. On the eastern side, the town was bordered by the innermost part of the Schlei inlet and the bay of Haddebyer Noor.

Hedeby became a principal marketplace because of its geographical location on the major trade routes between the Frankish Empire and Scandinavia, between the Baltic and the North Sea. Between 800 and 1000 the growing economic power of the Vikings led to its dramatic expansion as a major trading centre. Along with Birka and Schleswig, Hedeby's prominence as a major international trading hub served as a foundation of the Hanseatic League that would emerge by the 12th century; the following indicate the importance achieved by the town: The town was described by visitors from England and the Mediterranean. Hedeby belonged to the Archbishopric of Hamburg and Bremen; the town minted its own coins. Adam of Bremen reports that ships were sent from this portus maritimus to Slavic lands, to Sweden and Greece. A Swedish dynasty founded by Olof the Brash is said to have ruled Hedeby during the last decades of the 9th century and the first part of the 10th century; this was told to Adam of Bremen by the Danish king Sweyn Estridsson, it is supported by three runestones found in Denmark.

Two of them were raised by the mother of Olof's grandson Sigtrygg Gnupasson. The third runestone, discovered in 1796, is from the Stone of Eric, it is inscribed with Norwegian-Swedish runes. It is, possible that Danes occasionally wrote with this version of the younger futhark. Life was crowded in Hedeby; the small houses were clustered together in a grid, with the east-west streets leading down to jetties in the harbour. People lived beyond 30 or 40, archaeological research shows that their years were painful due to crippling diseases such as tuberculosis, yet make-up for men and rights for women provide surprises to the modern understanding. Al-Tartushi, a late 10th-centur


BrooklynVegan is a music blog founded in 2004 focusing on music related news and events taking place in and around New York City. BrooklynVegan began in 2004 as a blog that covered vegan food options in Brooklyn, before the founder and editor in chief known as Dave, shifted his focus to more documenting live music in the area; the blog is known for its efforts to expose upcoming artists, such as their installment in the Artist Discovery Series of blogs hosted by Austin City Limits and Lollapalooza, their program on Sirius-XM. The blog showcases artists at SXSW and at CMJ, an annual music festival in New York, when in the summer of 2007 they invited the self-released Justin Vernon of Bon Iver to play the Bowery Ballroom. In 2011 BrooklynVegan expanded its locale with two new blogs devoted to Chicago. In 2013, BrooklynVegan acquired a long-running heavy metal blog. Official website

Henry Murphy (politician)

Henry Joseph Murphy was a Liberal party member of the House of Commons of Canada. He was born in Moncton, New Brunswick and became a barrister by career after attending the law program at the University of New Brunswick, he was first elected at the Westmorland riding in the 1953 general election. Murphy was re-elected for a second term in 1957 defeated in the 1958 election by William Creaghan of the Progressive Conservative party. Murphy served in municipal politics from 1951 to 1953 as both a city alderman for Moncton City Council and a regional councillor for Westmorland County. In 1960, Murphy was appointed as a provincial judge by New Brunswick premier Louis Robichaud. Murphy had earlier competed against Robichaud for the role of provincial Liberal leader, he had four children. Upon his retirement from the bench Murphy was counsel with his son Henry's law firm Murphy Collette Murphy. One of Murphy's nephews, Brian Murphy, became a Member of Parliament for Moncton—Riverview—Dieppe in 2006, his son Michael B. Murphy is a prominent New Brunswick trial lawyer and was Minister of Health and Attorney General, before resigning in January 2010 to return to the practice of law.

In 2012, he followed in his father's footsteps to seek the leadership of the provincial Liberal Party but was defeated by a young francophone lawyer from Kent County. Henry MurphyParliament of Canada biography

Robert Nunnemacher

Robert Nunnemacher was a member of one of Milwaukee's pioneer families of Swiss origin. In the 1890s through the turn of the century, Mr. Nunnemacher was among the twenty most successful and wealthiest businessmen in America, expanding on his father's business empire and joined by the likes of Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller. Robert Nunnemacher is best known for the system of malting drum he developed, it involved a rotating drum and humidified air between a central duct, other periphery ducts to condition germinating grain. He was president and secretary of the Kraus Merkel Malting company of Milwaukee, went on to be founder and president of the Galland Henning Pneumatic Malting Drum Manufacturing Company of Milwaukee, known today as Galland Henning Nopak, Inc. Now in its 132nd year of operation, the company remains family-owned with fourth-generation member Heath A. Nunnemacher serving as Chairman of the Board; the company name stemmed from Mr. Nunnemacher's acquisition of the American manufacturing rights to equipment that originated from Nicholas Galland, a Frenchman, a German named Julius Henning.

He was a member of the board of directors for First National Bank, the Milwaukee Mechanic's Insurance Company, the Prospect Hill Land Company, board of trustees of the Milwaukee Public Museum. He was affiliated with the Merchants Exchange Bank and the American Malting Company in the 1890s. Nunnemacher purchased Milwaukee and Superior Mining Company at a sheriff sale, located in the Gogebic Range, he was director of Twin Buttes Smelting located in Twin Buttes, Arizona. His Milwaukee residence was located at 2409 N. Wahl Avenue in 1906, it was in a symmetrical Jacobethan style, brick with stone quoins designed by Alexander C. Eschweiler and was added to the NRHP in 2000; the Nunnemacher Summer Clubhouse was in Pauline's Woods on Pine Lake, in Chenequa, Wisconsin

28th Illinois Infantry Regiment

The 28th Regiment Illinois Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War, commanded by Colonel Amory K. Johnson and by Lieutenant Colonel Richard Ritter; the 28th Illinois Infantry was organized at Camp Butler, Illinois seven miles northeast of Springfield, which had just been opened as a training camp for Illinois soldiers, was mustered into Federal service on August 15, 1861. Between that date and March 15, 1866, when the regiment was mustered out and discharged at Camp Butler on May 13, 1866, 290 fatalities were recorded, 184 of them from disease and 106 killed and mortally wounded; the 28th Illinois Infantry saw action at the Battle of Fort Henry, the momentous, bloody Battle of Shiloh, the Siege of Corinth, Mississippi. Grant's Central Mississippi campaign culminated in the Siege of Vicksburg, one of the most important Union victories of the war, it cut the Confederacy in half. The Vicksburg victory finished the Confederacy in the West, severing Texas and large parts of Louisiana from the remainder of the insurgent states.

Vicksburg's surrender was followed by the campaign against the Confederacy's 4th largest city, Alabama, which fell after the siege and capture of Spanish Fort and the Battle of Fort Blakely. The 28th Illinois Infantry completed assignments with the occupation of Brazos Santiago and Brownsville, Texas. List of Illinois Civil War Units Illinois in the American Civil War The Civil War Archive

Qader (missile)

The Qader is a medium-range anti-ship cruise missile developed by Iran. The missile called "Qader" is built indigenously by Iranian scientists and has a high destructive ability against coastal targets and warships; the missile, unveiled in August 2011, has a range of 300 km and is described by Iranian officials as "the most powerful and precise missile of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s Navy"On 10 February 2013, The head of Iran Aviation Industries Organization announced that an air-launched version of Qader and Nasr-1 will be tested in a week. Anti-ship cruise missile with a range of over 200 km A 200-kilogram warhead Anti-ship cruise missile flying at low altitude and deals with the enemy with low radar cross section Digital autopilot system High-precision navigation system The possibility of planning to shoot missiles Advanced radar and ability to deal with electronic warfare Quick preparation and reaction missile to attack coastal targets in addition to the target vessel The ability to launch from land and airManagement systems: active radar can fly at a height of 3 to 5 meters Military of Iran Iranian military industry Current Equipment of the Iranian Army