Hefei is the capital and largest city of the Chinese province of Anhui. A prefecture-level city, it is the political and cultural center of Anhui, its population was 7,965,300 as of 2017 sampling and its built-up area made up of 5 urban districts plus Feidong and Changfeng counties being urbanized, was home to 6,173,000 inhabitants. Located in the central portion of the province, it borders Huainan to the north, Chuzhou to the northeast, Wuhu to the southeast, Tongling to the south, Anqing to the southwest and Lu'an to the west. A natural hub of communications, Hefei is situated to the north of Chao Lake stands on a low saddle crossing the northeastern extension of the Dabie Mountains, which form the divide between the Huai and Yangtze rivers; the present-day city dates from the Song dynasty. Before World War II, Hefei remained an administrative centre and the regional market for the fertile plain to the south, it has gone through a growth in infrastructure in recent years. Hefei is the location of Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak, an experimental superconducting tokamak magnetic fusion energy reactor.
From the 8th to the 6th centuries BC, Hefei was the site of many small states a part of the Chu kingdom. Many archaeological finds dating from this period have been made; the name'Hefei' was first given to the county set up in the area under the Han dynasty in the 2nd century BC. In the 3rd century AD, the Battle of Xiaoyao Ford was fought at Xiaoyao Ford in Hefei. Zhang Liao, a general of the Wei state, led 800 picked cavalry to defeat the 200,000-strong army from Wei's rival state Wu. Several decades of warring in Hefei between Wu and Wei followed this battle. During the 4th to the 6th centuries AD, this crucial border region between northern and southern states was much fought over. During the Sui and Tang periods, it became the seat of Lu prefecture—a title it kept until the 15th century, when it became a superior prefecture named Luzhou; the present city dates from the Song dynasty, the earlier Hefei having been some distance farther north. In the 10th year of Xining, the taxes collected from the Luchow Prefecture were 50315 Guan 25 million today's Chinese Yuan, with a ranking of the amount of taxes was the 11th among all the prefectures of Song Dynasty.
During the 10th century, it was for a while the capital of the independent Wu kingdom and was an important center of the Southern Tang state. After 1127 it became a center of the defenses of the Southern Song dynasty against the Jin invaders in the Jin–Song wars, as well as a flourishing center of trade between the two states; when the Chinese Republic was founded in 1911, the superior prefecture was abolished, the city took the name of Hefei. The city was known as Liu-tcheou during the Ming and Qing dynasties. Hefei was the temporary capital for Anhui from 1853 to 1862, it was renamed as Hefei County in 1912. Following the Chinese victory in the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1945, Hefei was made the capital of Anhui. Before World War II, Hefei remained an administrative center and the regional market for the fertile plain to the south, it was a collecting center for grain, beans and hemp, as well as a center for handicraft industries manufacturing cloth, bamboo goods, ironware. The construction in 1912 of the Tianjin–Pukou railway, farther east, for a while made Hefei a provincial backwater, much of its importance passed to Bengbu.
In 1932–36, however, a Chinese company built a railway linking Hefei with Yuxikou to the southeast and with the Huai River at Huainan to the north. While this railway was built to exploit the rich coalfield in northern Anhui, it did much to revive the economy of the Hefei area by taking much of its produce to Wuhu and Nanjing. Although Hefei was a quiet market town of only about 30,000 in the mid-1930s, its population grew more than tenfold in the following 20 years; the city's administrative role was strengthened by the transfer of the provincial government from Anqing in 1945, but much of its new growth derived from its development as an industrial city. A cotton mill was opened in 1958, a thermal generating plant, using coal from Huainan, was established in the early 1950s, it became the seat of an industry producing industrial chemicals and chemical fertilizers. In the late 1950s an iron and steel complex was built. In addition to a machine-tool works and engineering and agricultural machinery factories, the city has developed an aluminum industry and a variety of light industries.
There are several universities based in the city. Hefei is located 130 kilometres west of Nanjing in south-central Anhui. Chao Lake, a lake 15 km southeast of the city, is one of the largest fresh water lakes in China. Though, the lake has been polluted with nitrogen and phosphorus, in recent decades, the situation is improving due to efforts by both the government and the people. Hefei features a humid subtropical climate with four distinct seasons. Hefei's annual average temperature is 16.18 °C. Its annual precipitation is just over 1,000 millimetres, being heavier from May through August. Winters are damp and cold, with January lows dipping just below freezing and January averaging 2.8 °C. The city sees irregular snowfalls that turn significant. Springs are relatively pleasant if somewhat erratic. Summers here are oppressi
T. A. G. is a DOS-based bulletin board system computer program, released from 1986 to 2000. T. A. G. is free for business or personal use. The authors considered it fun to give the program away while others tried to charge for BBS programs; the software was a fork from an early version of the WWIV source code. Authors over the years: Victor Capton, Randy Goebel, Alan Jurison, Paul Loeber, Robert Numerick and Paul Williams. All live in the Detroit area except Alan Jurison. Peak number of running systems: Just over 1000 in the United States and Canada; the largest concentration was in the Detroit area, where it was one of most popular BBS software run in the area. There was a somewhat friendly rivalry with the Telegard team, which started in the same area. Areas of major T. A. G. BBS concentrations: Michigan: Detroit, Lansing and Battle Creek California: Oakland Connecticut: Hartford Florida: Jacksonville and Cocoa Maryland: Baltimore New Jersey: Newark New York: Syracuse North Carolina: Raleigh Ontario, Canada: Windsor and Hamilton Pennsylvania: Pittsburgh Texas: Houston and Fort Worth Virginia: NorfolkA quote from one of the authors: We all poured countless hours into the development and support of people running BBSs.
Today I don't think the internet has come close to the sense of community and simple accomplishment that BBSing provided. Building and running a complete environment on your local computer and watching people use it is a far different experience than putting up a web page on some remote server. We all still have a great many friends from being sysops and BBS developers. Other Notes: No one got them to answer definitively on what their name stood for, but there was a reasonably reliable rumor that it was from "The Adventurer's Guild", a Dungeons and Dragons sort of reference; the only known T. A. G. BBS still in existence can be accessed via telnet at diskbox.homeip.net The intro screen to the T. A. G. BBS login was
Rebar Art and Design Studio, stylized as REBAR, is an interdisciplinary studio founded in 2004 and based in San Francisco, United States, operating at the intersection of art, design.and activism. The group's work encompasses visual and conceptual public art, landscape design, urban intervention, temporary performance installation, digital media and print design. Rebar's projects intersect with contemporary urban ecology, new urbanism, psychogeography practices and theory. Principal members of Rebar are John Bela, Matthew Passmore, Blaine Merker. Rebar's work has been exhibited at the 2008 Venice Architecture Biennale, ExperimentaDesign Amsterdam, ISEA 2009 Dublin, the Yerba Buena Center for the Arts, the American Institute of Architects, the Canadian Centre for Architecture, the Harvard Graduate School of Design, Parsons School of Design, University of California Berkeley, the University of Michigan, the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Park Day was launched November 16, 2005, when Rebar converted a single metered parking space into a temporary public park in the SOMA district of San Francisco.
The installation was a response to the fact that at the time 70% of San Francisco's downtown outdoor space was dedicated to the private vehicle. SOMA was chosen because of its reputation as a city district, underserved by public open space. Today Park Day is a global “open source” project, adapted to address social issues in urban contexts around the world such as in Athens. PARK Day has expanded to include interventions ranging from free health clinics, urban farming and ecology demonstrations, political seminars, art installations, free bike repair shops. In 2009 more than 700 Park Day events were organized 140 cities, in 21 countries on 6 continents. In May, 2010 Rebar designed and installed its first Walklet, located at 22nd Street and Bartlett in the Mission District of San Francisco. A second walklet was installed and in front of Café Greco along Columbus Avenue in the North Beach neighborhood of San Francisco in September 2010; the installation at 22nd and Bartlett in San Francisco was part of a Pavement to Parks pilot project supported by the San Francisco Planning Department.
A third Walklet, which gained city approval in late October 2010, will extend the existing Columbus Street installation. In September 2010, San Francisco's expanded the scope of the Pavement to Parks program when it issued a request for proposals for Parklet permits to city businesses and nonprofits. A Walklet extends the sidewalk surface into the street and creates a more open and walkable pedestrian experience by converting parking spaces into public space. A Walklet is composed of many three-foot wide modules, which each serve a purpose, such as seating area and walking area, or landscaping area; the modules can be mixed and matched with other Walklet modules to create a design combination for each site. Rebar designed the Showplace Triangle park, located at 8th Street between 16th and Irwin Streets in the Potrero Hill district of San Francisco, it was San Francisco's second Pavement following the Castro Commons park. Rebar's design for the park used dumpsters for planters and surplus granite countertops for bench seating.
In February 2010 data collected by the Great Streets Project showed a 29 percent increase in pedestrians walking through the plaza, a 40 percent increase in the number of survey respondents who had a positive perception of the neighborhood, a 61 percent increase among people who considered Showplace Triangle a good place to stop and socialize. The number of users who felt a sense of community character in the area rose 39 percent; the PARKcycle, built in collaboration with the kinetic sculptor Reuben Margolin, made its debut during PARK Day 2007, in San Francisco. It is a human-powered open space distribution system designed for movement within the existing auto-centric urban infrastructure. PARK Day 2007 and the PARKcycle were both supported by a grant from the Black Rock Arts Foundation; the Tacoshed project was collaboration between David Fletcher and Rebar, with the students of the Brave New Ecologies Course taught in the fall of 2009 as part of URBANlab, an innovative curriculum component of The California College of the Arts Architecture Program.
The project was meant to give insight to how a familiar food like the food truck taco could provide information on the Bay Area's food and wastesheds. Tacoshed catalogued the network of systems and ecologies that contribute to the lifecycle of a taco and the findings were presented at a public event in February 2010. A schematic diagram of the project was published in issue 11 of Meatpaper magazine, released in spring 2010, the project garnered mentions on BLDGBLOG and in Good Magazine; the progress of the project is communicated via the @tacoshed Twitter account. Maps and graphics were created by Rachael Yu and Annie Aldrich, Teresa Aguilera, Fletcher Studio. For its spring 2003 issue on "Property," Cabinet Magazine, a non-profit Arts and Culture quarterly, purchased a half acre of land for $300 on eBay; the land was part of a failed 1960s residential development called the "Sunshine Valley Ranchettes," now a desolate tract of desert scrubland outside of Deming, New Mexico. The magazine set upon the land a non-traditional development scheme.
The land was dubbed Cabinetlandia and divided into manageable sectors- Readerlandia, Nepotismia, so forth. Magazine-sized parcels were offered to readers for a penny for a 99-year lease. Rebar contacted Cabinet Magazine and organized a collaborative effort to construct the Cabinet National Library, a library which contains all and only back issues of Cabinet magazine; the project is an actual, usable library and it served as Rebar's foundi