Heian period

The Heian period is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. The period is named after modern Kyōto, it is the period in Japanese history when Buddhism and other Chinese influences were at their height. The Heian period is considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art poetry and literature. Although the Imperial House of Japan had power on the surface, the real power was in the hands of the Fujiwara clan, a powerful aristocratic family who had intermarried with the imperial family. Many emperors had mothers from the Fujiwara family. Heian means "peace" in Japanese; the Heian period was preceded by the Nara period and began in 794 CE after the movement of the capital of Japan to Heian-kyō, by the 50th emperor, Emperor Kanmu Kanmu first tried to move the capital to Nagaoka-kyō, but a series of disasters befell the city, prompting the emperor to relocate the capital a second time, to Heian. A rebellion occurred in China in the last years of the 9th century, making the political situation unstable.

The Japanese missions to Tang China were suspended and the influx of Chinese exports halted, a fact which facilitated the independent growth of Japanese culture called kokufu bunka. Therefore, the Heian Period is considered a high point in Japanese culture that generations have always admired; the period is noted for the rise of the samurai class, which would take power and start the feudal period of Japan. Nominally, sovereignty lay in the emperor but in fact, power was wielded by the Fujiwara nobility. However, to protect their interests in the provinces, the Fujiwara, other noble families required guards and soldiers; the warrior class made steady political gains throughout the Heian period. As early as 939 CE, Taira no Masakado threatened the authority of the central government, leading an uprising in the eastern province of Hitachi, simultaneously, Fujiwara no Sumitomo rebelled in the west. Still, a true military takeover of the Japanese government was centuries away, when much of the strength of the government would lie within the private armies of the shogunate.

The entry of the warrior class into court influence was a result of the Hōgen Rebellion. At this time Taira no Kiyomori revived the Fujiwara practices by placing his grandson on the throne to rule Japan by regency, their clan, the Taira, would not be overthrown until after the Genpei War, which marked the start of the Kamakura shogunate. The Kamakura period began in 1185 when Minamoto no Yoritomo seized power from the emperors and established the shogunate in Kamakura; when Emperor Kanmu moved the capital to Heian-kyō, which remained the imperial capital for the next 1,000 years, he did so not only to strengthen imperial authority but to improve his seat of government geopolitically. Nara was abandoned after only 70 years in part due to the ascendancy of Dōkyō and the encroaching secular power of the Buddhist institutions there. Kyōto had good river access to the sea and could be reached by land routes from the eastern provinces; the early Heian period continued Nara culture. Kanmu endeavored to improve the Tang-style administrative system, in use.

Known as the ritsuryō, this system attempted to recreate the Tang imperium in Japan, despite the "tremendous differences in the levels of development between the two countries". Despite the decline of the Taika–Taihō reforms, imperial government was vigorous during the early Heian period. Kanmu's avoidance of drastic reform decreased the intensity of political struggles, he became recognized as one of Japan's most forceful emperors. Although Kanmu had abandoned universal conscription in 792, he still waged major military offensives to subjugate the Emishi, possible descendants of the displaced Jōmon, living in northern and eastern Japan. After making temporary gains in 794, in 797, Kanmu appointed a new commander, Sakanoue no Tamuramaro, under the title Sei-i Taishōgun. By 801, the shōgun had defeated the Emishi and had extended the imperial domains to the eastern end of Honshū. Imperial control over the provinces was tenuous at best, however. In the ninth and tenth centuries, much authority was lost to the great families, who disregarded the Chinese-style land and tax systems imposed by the government in Kyoto.

Stability came to Japan, but though succession was ensured for the imperial family through heredity, power again concentrated in the hands of one noble family, the Fujiwara which helped Japan develop more. Following Kanmu's death in 806 and a succession struggle among his sons, two new offices were established in an effort to adjust the Taika–Taihō administrative structure. Through the new Emperor's Private Office, the emperor could issue administrative edicts more directly and with more self-assurance than before; the new Metropolitan Police Board replaced the ceremonial imperial guard units. While these two offices strengthened the emperor's position temporarily, soon they and other Chinese-style structures were bypassed in the developing state. In 838 the end of the imperial-sanctioned missions to Tang China, which had begun in 630, marked the effective end of Chinese influence. Tang China was in a state of decline, Chinese Buddhists were persecuted, undermining Japanese respect for Chinese institutions.

Japan began to turn inward. As the Soga clan had taken control of the throne in the sixth century, the Fujiwara by the ninth century had intermarried with the imperial family, one of their members was the first head of the Emperor's Private

Kuch Khatti Kuch Meethi

Kuch Khatti Kuch Meethi is a 2001 Indian film directed by Rahul Rawail and starring Kajol in a double role as two estranged identical twins. The storyline follows the general theme of its Hollywood counterpart The Parent Trap, based on the novel Lottie and Lisa, but with the added melodrama and slight-changed storyline of a Bollywood movie; the film stars Sunil Shetty, Rishi Kapoor, Rati Agnihotri and Pooja Batra. This is the second time; the rights to this film are owned by Shah Rukh Khan's Red Chillies Entertainment. Raj Khanna is a wealthy businessman who lives with his wife Archana, stepsister Devyani, her spouse, her son Teddy, in a mansion. Raj and Archana's lives are marred by marital discord. Shortly before separating, Archana gives birth to identical twins: one of these is taken by Devyani and handed to Raj without Archana's knowledge; this infant becomes an embittered young woman sentimentally named Sweety, Raj becomes a helpless alcoholic. Archana has moved to London with Tina. In contrast to Sweety's ferocity, Tina is meek, compassionate and demure.

Each year, Archana buys two identical presents, gives one to Tina on her birthday, locks the other into a closet to symbolize giving to Sweety, whom she believes is dead. Sweety is of marriageable age, but refuses to marry the man of her aunt's choice, runs away to London. Once there, she is mistaken for her sister by Archana; when the twins meet, they realize that Devyani has been scheming to keep Raj under her control, change places in hope of freeing Raj and reuniting their family: each according to her own personality, but under the name of her sister. Tina goes to India to cure their father of alcoholism, while Sweety remains in England to acclimate their mother to her habits; when Tina meets with Raj, she finds out that he is having a sexual affair with a young woman named Savitri, introduced to him by Devyani. When Savitri attempts to drug and seduce him, in hope of having him impregnate her, Tina gives the drug to Raj's aged, comical servant Ballu Mamaji. Savitri becomes pregnant with Ballu Mamaji's child.

Sweety and Tina marry her off to Uncle Ranjit, a wealthy man. Ballu Mamaji is refused. Through a series of tricks, the twins fool Archana into reconciling. Kajol as Tina / Sweety Khanna and Archana's daughters Rishi Kapoor as Raj Khanna Sunil Shetty as Sameer Rati Agnihotri as Archana Khanna Mita Vasisht as Devyani, Raj's stepsister Razzak Khan as Baloo Pooja Batra as Savitri Pramod Moutho as Doctor, Devyani's lover Dinesh Hingoo as Sweety's prospective father-in-law Parmeet Sethi as Uncle Ranjit Aishwarya Rai Bachchan was considered for the role of Tina/Sweety. Rati Agnihotri motherhood; the film soundtrack contains 8 songs penned by Sameer. "Ab Nahi To Kab": Anu Malik & Sunidhi Chauhan "Band Kamre Mein": Anuradha Sriram "Khud Bhi Nachungi": Alka Yagnik "Kuch Kuch Khatti": Alka Yagnik "Neend Udh Rahi Hai": Alka Yagnik & Kumar Sanu "Saamne Baith Kar": Alka Yagnik & Kumar Sanu "Tumko Sirf Tumko I": Kumar Sanu& Alka Yagnik "Tumko Sirf Tumko II": Kumar Sanu Kuch Khatti Kuch Meethi on IMDb


The Wda is a river in Poland. The Wda is one of the 15 main canoe trails in Poland, it is 198 km long and the surface of its catchment area amounts to 2325 km2. The Wda's average gradient is 0.7‰ and its flow is 6.52 m3/s. The Wda ends in the Wisła in Świecie; the Wda is one of the longest rivers in Bory Tucholskie and one of the most important of Pomorze's river routes. The source of Wda is on Równina Charzykowska in Krężno Lake; the river flows through the area of Bory Tucholskie, Wdzydzki Landscape Park and Wdecki Landscape Park. There is one river's canal below Wdzydze Lake; the river reaches Tleń flows across Wysoczyzna Świecka and ends in Wisła in Świecie on Dolina Fordońska. Krężno Wieckie Lubiszewskie Schodno Radolne Wdzydze ŻurskieThe Wdzydze Lake along with lakes Gołyń, Jeleń and Słupinek are called Morze Kaszubskie; this lakes take a shape of the cross made of postglacial channels. Wdzydze Lake is dangerous for inexperienced canoeists during strong winds. Lipusz Borsk Wojtal Czarna Woda Wda Błędno Tleń Żur Świecie Wda runs through many multispecies deciduous forests, in which contains diverse lichens.

The river meanders through riparian forests and alder forests. Rare mountain ash brekinii can be found in the Zygmunt Czubiński Reserve “Brzęki” in Szczerkowo. Next rare and protected plants on Wda's route are: lycopodium clavatum, diphasiastrum complanatum, lycopodium annotinum, western marsh orchid, heath spotted orchid, lesser butterfly-orchid, broad-leaved helleborine, european common twayblade and arctostaphylos uva-ursi, which are found in Wdecki Landscape Park; this region of Poland houses species like: cranes, common goldeneyes, western marsh harriers, kingfishers, common vipers, fire salamanders, tree frogs and great crested newts. The name “Wda” has been used in the Middle Ages, but the river is known as Czarna Woda; this name comes from dark brown colour of water caused by marshy banks, mineral molecules in water and sludge from tar factories in the 19th century. After World War I tourism started developing on Wda and about 40 years Wda earned its title of The Queen of The Rivers of Kociew and The Beauty of The Land of Kociew.

On the Wda's route are three hydroelectric power stations located in Żur, Gródek and Kozłowo. In this area canoeists need to portage their canoes to the further part of the river. Along the route of Wda some attractions can be found. First of them is a 19th-century Neogothic church in Lipusz. Next Kaszubski Park Etnograficzny, containing wooden dwelling houses and windmills; the oldest once date back to the 17th century. The archeological reserve “Kamienne Kręgi” near the towns of Odry and Miedzno consists of 12 mysterious stone circles and 20 burial mounds, which are remains from Goths and Gepids. Błędno has a memorial for the victory of Soviet guerrilla fighters over the German army. Next monument on Wda's route is a castle of the Teutonic Knights in Świecie; this is a building surrounded by water. From two sides by Wda and Wisła, from the third side by the moat. There are remains of defensive walls in the Old Town of Świecie and monumental Gothic parish church. Rivers of Poland,178,2,1109.html Galiński Z. Przewodnik dla kajakarzy.

Wda, Pascal, 2003