Heidelberg is a university town in the German state of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany. In the 2016 census, its population was 159,914, of which a quarter consisted of students. Located about 78 km south of Frankfurt, Heidelberg is the fifth-largest city in Baden-Württemberg. Heidelberg is part of the densely populated Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region. Heidelberg University, founded in 1386, is Germany's oldest and one of Europe's most reputable universities. Heidelberg is a scientific hub in Germany and home to several internationally renowned research facilities adjacent to its university, including the European Molecular Biology Laboratory and four Max Planck Institutes; the city has been a hub for the arts literature, throughout the centuries, it was designated a "City of Literature" by the UNESCO Creative Cities Network. Heidelberg was a seat of government of the former Electorate of the Palatinate and is a popular tourist destination due to its romantic cityscape, including Heidelberg Castle, the Philosophers' Walk, the Baroque old town.
Heidelberg is in the Rhine Rift Valley, on the left bank of the lower part of the Neckar in a steep valley in the Odenwald. It is bordered by the Gaisberg mountains; the Neckar here flows in an east-west direction. On the right bank of the river, the Heiligenberg mountain rises to a height of 445 meters; the Neckar flows into the Rhine 22 kilometres north-west in Mannheim. Villages incorporated during the 20th century stretch from the Neckar Valley along the Bergstraße, a road running along the Odenwald hills. Heidelberg is on European walking route E1. Since Heidelberg is among the warmest regions of Germany, plants atypical of the central-European climate flourish there, including almond and fig trees. Alongside the Philosophenweg on the opposite side of the Old Town, winegrowing was restarted in 2000. There is a wild population of African rose-ringed parakeets, a wild population of Siberian swan geese, which can be seen on the islands in the Neckar near the district of Bergheim. Heidelberg is a unitary authority within the Regierungsbezirk Karlsruhe.
The Rhein-Neckar-Kreis rural district surrounds it and has its seat in the town, although the town is not a part of the district. Heidelberg is a part of the Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region referred to as the Rhein-Neckar Triangle; this region consists of the southern part of the State of Hessen, the southern part of the State of Rhineland-Palatinate, the administrative districts of Mannheim and Heidelberg, the southern municipalities of the Rhein-Neckar-Kreis. The Rhein-Neckar Triangle became a European metropolitan area in 2005. Heidelberg consists of 15 districts distributed in six sectors of the town. In the central area are Altstadt and Weststadt; the new district will have 5,000–6,000 residents and employment for 7,000. Further new residential space for 10,000-15,000 residents was made available in Patrick Henry Village following the departure of the US Armed Forces; the following towns and communes border the city of Heidelberg, beginning in the west and in a clockwise direction: Edingen-Neckarhausen, Schriesheim, Schönau, Neckargemünd, Gaiberg, Sandhausen, Plankstadt and Mannheim.
Heidelberg has an oceanic climate, defined by the protected valley between the Pfälzerwald and the Odenwald. Year-round, the mild temperatures are determined by maritime air masses coming from the west. In contrast to the nearby Upper Rhine Plain, Heidelberg's position in the valley leads to more frequent easterly winds than average; the hillsides of the Odenwald favour precipitation. The warmest month is July, the coldest is January. Temperatures rise beyond 30 °C in midsummer. According to the German Meteorological Service, Heidelberg was the warmest place in Germany in 2009. Between 600,000 and 200,000 years ago, "Heidelberg Man" died at nearby Mauer, his jaw bone was discovered in 1907. Scientific dating determined his remains as the earliest evidence of human life in Europe. In the 5th century BC, a Celtic fortress of refuge and place of worship were built on the Heiligenberg, or "Holy Mountain". Both places can still be identified. In 40 AD, a fort occupied by the 24th Roman cohort and the 2nd Cyrenaican cohort.
The early Byzantine/late Roman Emperor Valentinian I, in 369 AD, built new and maintained older castra and a signal tower on the bank of the Neckar. They built a wooden bridge based on stone pillars across it; the camp protected the first civilian settlements. The Romans remained until 260 AD; the local administrative center in Roman times was the nearby city of Lopodunum. Modern Heidelberg can trace its beginnings to the fifth century; the village Bergheim is first mentioned for that period in documents dated to 769 AD. Bergheim now lies in the middle of modern Heidelberg; the people converted to Christianity. In 863 AD, the monastery of St. Michael was founded on the Heiligenberg inside the double rampart of the Celtic fortress. Around 1130, the Neuburg Monastery wa
Mikhail Iosifovich Glinsky was a Soviet military leader. Mikhail Iosifovich Glinsky was born to ethnic Russian peasant parents in the village of Malaya Kamenka in the Minsk Governorate of the Russian Empire in 1901, he joined the Red Army and Bolshevik Party during the Russian Civil War in 1919. Assigned to the 22nd Brigade of the Red Army's 8th Rifle Division from October 1920 to November 1921, he joined the cavalry and went on to hold staff officer positions in the cavalry until the 1930s, he went on to attend the Frunze Military Academy in 1932-1933 and served as the military attaché with the Soviet ambassador in Latvia from December 1934 to May 1938. In World War II, Glinsky successively served as commander of the 41st Cavalry Division from December 1941 to January 1942 and 7th Guards Cavalry Division from January 1942 to March 1943, he was the chief of staff of the 4th Shock Army in May - June 1943 and commander of the 15th Cavalry Corps from February 1944 to May 1945, ascending in rank to lieutenant-general on 20 April 1945.
Continuing to hold corps-level commands in the post-war Soviet Army, Glinsky was appointed commander of the 19th Rifle Corps in 1946-1947, the 1st Rifle Corps in 1948-1950, the 24th Guards Rifle Corps in 1950-1954. Lieutenant-General Mikhail Glinsky was deputy commander of the Odessa Military District in 1954-1960. Mikhail Glinsky retired from active duty in the armed forces in 1960, he died in Moscow on 30 December 1991, when the Russian Federation was a few days old
The 1990 Notre Dame Fighting Irish football team represented the University of Notre Dame in the 1990 NCAA Division I-A football season. The team was coached by Lou Holtz and played its home games at Notre Dame Stadium in South Bend, Indiana. Notre Dame beat Michigan State to claim the Megaphone Trophy. Notre Dame beat Purdue to claim the Shillelagh Trophy. In the Michigan – Notre Dame rivalry, Notre Dame beat Michigan. Notre Dame beat USC to claim the Jeweled Shillelagh. Notre Dame lost to 1-3 Stanford to lose the Legends Trophy, costing them a shot at the national championship; the Immaculate Deflection - Rick Mirer's 24-yard completion to Adrian Jarrell, which bounced off hands of MSU LB Todd Murray up and into Jarrell's arms at MSU 2. Three plays Culver scored. "There's somebody looking out for us. There's somebody on our side," said Mirer. Notre Dame's 60th victory as No. 1 ranked team & 5-0-1 vs. MSU when ranked #1 Despite being drafted by the Los Angeles Raiders, the Toronto Argonauts of the Canadian Football League signed Raghib Ismail to a four-year contract worth 18 million dollars in April 1991.