Heinkel Flugzeugwerke was a German aircraft manufacturing company founded by and named after Ernst Heinkel. It is noted for producing bomber aircraft for the Luftwaffe in World War II and for important contributions to high-speed flight, with the pioneering examples of a successful liquid-fueled rocket and a turbojet-powered aircraft in aviation history, with both Heinkel designs' first flights occurring shortly before the outbreak of World War II in Europe. Following the successful career of Ernst Heinkel as the chief designer for the Hansa-Brandenburg aviation firm in World War I, Heinkel's own firm was established at Warnemünde in 1922, after the restrictions on German aviation imposed by the Treaty of Versailles were relaxed. By 1929, the firm's compressed air-powered catapults were in use on the German Norddeutscher Lloyd ocean-liners SS Bremen and Europa to launch short-range mail planes from the liners' decks; the company's first post-World War I aircraft design success was the design of the all-metal, single-engined Heinkel He 70 Blitz high-speed mail plane and airliner for Deutsche Luft Hansa in 1932, which broke a number of air speed records for its class.
It was followed by the two-engine Heinkel He 111 Doppel-Blitz, which became a mainstay of the Luftwaffe during World War II as a bomber. Heinkel's most important designers at this point were the twin Günter brothers and Walter, Heinrich Hertel; the firm's headquarters was in Rostock known as Heinkel-Nord, located in what used to be named the Rostock-Marienehe neighborhood, where the firm additionally possessed a factory airfield along the coastline in the Rostock/Schmarl neighborhood three kilometers north-northwest of the main offices, with a second Heinkel-Süd engineering and manufacturing facility in Schwechat, after the Anschluss in 1938. The Heinkel company is most associated with aircraft used by the Luftwaffe during World War II; this began with the adaptation of the He 70 and, in particular, the He 111. Heinkel provided the Luftwaffe's only operational heavy bomber, the Heinkel He 177, although this was never deployed in significant numbers; the German Luftwaffe equipped both of these bombers with the Z-Gerät, Y-Gerät, Knickebein, developed by Johannes Plendl, thus they were among the first aircraft to feature advanced night navigation devices, common in all commercial airplanes today.
Heinkel was less successful in selling fighter designs. Before the war, the Heinkel He 112 had been rejected in favour of the Messerschmitt Bf 109, Heinkel's attempt to top Messerschmitt's design with the Heinkel He 100 failed due to political interference within the Reichsluftfahrtministerium; the company provided the Luftwaffe with an outstanding night fighter, the Heinkel He 219, which suffered from politics and was produced only in limited numbers, but was the first Luftwaffe front-line aircraft to use retractable tricycle gear for its undercarriage design, the world's first front-line military aircraft to use ejection seats. By contrast, the only heavy bomber to enter service with the Luftwaffe during the war years – the Heinkel He 177 Greif – turned out to be one of the most troublesome German wartime aircraft designs, plagued with numerous engine fires from both its inadequate engine accommodation design and its general airframe design being mis-tasked, for a 30-meter class wingspan design, to be built to be able to perform moderate-angle dive bombing attacks from the moment of its approval by the RLM in early November 1937, which would not be rescinded until September 1942.
From 1941 until the end of the war, the company was merged with engine manufacturer Hirth to form Heinkel-Hirth, giving the company the capability of manufacturing its own powerplants, including its Heinkel Strahltriebwerke turbojet engine manufacturing firm. The Heinkel name was behind pioneering work in jet engine and rocket development, the German aviation firm that attempted to popularize the use of retractable tricycle landing gear, a relative rarity in early WW II German airframe design. In 1939, flown by Erich Warsitz, the Heinkel He 176 and Heinkel He 178 became the first aircraft designs to fly under liquid-fuel rocket and turbojet power respectively. Heinkel was the first to develop a jet fighter to prototype stage, the Heinkel He 280, the first Heinkel design to use and fly with retractable tricycle gear. In early 1942, the photographic interpretation unit at RAF Medmenham first saw evidence of the existence of the 280 in aerial reconnaissance photographs taken after a bombing raid on the Rostock factory.
Thereafter, the Allies began intensive aerial reconnaissance intended to learn more about the German jet aircraft programme. The He 219 night fighter design was the first German frontline combat aircraft to have retracting tricycle gear, the first operational military aircraft anywhere to use ejection seats. Heinkel's He 280, the firm's only twin-jet aircraft design to fly never reached production, since the RLM wanted Heinkel to concentrate on bomber production and instead promoted the development of the rival Messerschmitt Me 262. Late in the war, a Heinkel single-jet powered fighter took to the air as the Heinkel He 162A Spatz as the first military jet to use retractable tricycle landing gear, use a turbojet engine from its maiden flight forward, use an ejection seat from the start, but it had entered service at the time of Germany's surrender. Heinkel was a major user of Sachsenhausen concentration camp labour, using between 6,000 and 8,000 prisoners on the He 177 bomber. Following t
Dr. Ernst Heinkel was a German aircraft designer, Wehrwirtschaftsführer in the Third Reich, member of the Nazi party, his company Heinkel Flugzeugwerke produced the Heinkel He 178, the world's first turbojet aircraft and jet plane, the Heinkel He 176, the first rocket aircraft. He was born in Grunbach, today a part of Remshalden; as a young man he became an apprentice machinist at a foundry. Heinkel studied at the Technical Academy of Stuttgart, where he became interested in aviation through a fascination with Zeppelins, in 1909 attended an international airshow in Frankfurt am Main, he determined flight was the future of transportation, the following year, he built his first aircraft, working from a set of plans by Henri Farman. Heinkel suffered severe injuries. Soon afterwards, he gained employment at Luft-Verkehrs Gesellschaft, who were building Farman aircraft. From there, he went to Albatros. Heinkel claimed post-war to have designed the Albatros B. II, a successful reconnaissance and trainer aircraft used during the early stages of the First World War, but its main designer was in fact Robert Thelen.
His planes were used by Germany's Kaiserliche Marine during the war. After leaving the Albatros, Heinkel designed several land- and seaplanes for the Hansa-Brandenburg company starting in 1914. In 1921, Heinkel was appointed head designer of the re-established Caspar-Werke, but soon left after a dispute over ownership of a design. In 1922 he established the Heinkel-Flugzeugwerke company at Warnemünde. Due to the restrictions placed on German aircraft manufacturing by the Treaty of Versailles, Heinkel looked overseas for contracts, with some seaplane designs being licence-built in Sweden and working on catapult-launched seaplanes for the Imperial Japanese Navy, he installed a similar catapult on the ocean liner Bremen for launching mail planes. Between 1921-1924, the Japanese government placed several orders with Heinkel's company, helped him skirt the Versailles Treaty, which banned the construction of military aircraft in Germany, by informing the company of facility inspections by allied commissions in advance.
Japan was part of the inspection commission. Heinkel were never discovered during inspections. Heinkel noted in his memoirs that his company's relationship with Japan in the 1920s led to decades of cooperation. After Adolf Hitler came to power, designs by Heinkel's firm formed a vital part of the Luftwaffe's growing strength in the years leading up to the Second World War; this included the Heinkel He 59, the Heinkel He 115 and the Heinkel He 111. He was designated a Wehrwirtschaftführer by the German government for his commitment to rearmament. Heinkel was passionate about high-speed flight, was keen on exploring alternative forms of aircraft propulsion, he donated aircraft to Wernher von Braun, investigating rocket propulsion for aircraft, as well as sponsoring the research of Hans von Ohain into turbojet engines, leading to the flight of the Heinkel He 178, the first aircraft to fly under turbojet power by Erich Warsitz on August 27, 1939. Heinkel had been a critic of Hitler's regime concerning being forced to fire Jewish designers and staff in 1933, however, he was a member of the Nazi party, awarded the German National Prize for Art and Science in 1938, one of the rarest honors of the German government, he used forced Jewish labor starting in 1941, in which his company was considered a "model for slave labor."In 1942 the government "nationalised" the Heinkel works.
In practice, this meant that Heinkel was detained until he sold his controlling interest in his factories to Hermann Göring. Heinkel moved to Vienna and started a new design bureau and corporate offices in Vienna's Schwechat suburb, establishing manufacturing facilities in Zwölfaxing and Floridsdorf as the Heinkel-Sud complex for his firm, the original Rostock-"Marienhe" plant becoming the Heinkel-Nord facility, it was at the Heinkel-Sud offices that Dr. Heinkel worked on the Heinkel He 274 four-engined high-altitude heavy bomber design - as one of the trio of proposals for aircraft designs to succeed his firm's failed Heinkel He 177A heavy bomber — until the war ended. With Germany forbidden from manufacturing aircraft by the Allies, Heinkel used his company's facilities to build private transportation. In 1953 Heinkel began production of the Tourist scooter, followed by the Perle moped in 1954. In 1956 he introduced the Heinkel Kabine bubble car. Bubble car and moped production ceased shortly after the restriction on aircraft manufacture was lifted, but scooter production continued until 1965.
In 1959, Heinkel's company was sued by Edmund Bartl for being enriched by slave labor during World War II, the German Supreme Court dismissed his claims for filing too late and ordered Bartl to pay court costs and attorney's fees. Ernst Heinkel died in 1958 in Stuttgart, his autobiography, Stürmisches Leben, was published in 1956 and translated into English as He1000 in its British edition and Stormy Life: Memoirs of a Pioneer of the Air Age in its US edition. In 1981, Heinkel was inducted into the International Air & Space Hall of Fame at the San Diego Air & Space Museum. Warsitz, Lutz; the First Jet Pilot - The Story of German Test Pilot Erich Warsitz. Pen and Sword Books. 9781844158188. English Edition Audio commentary by Erich Warsitz about Ernst Heinkel, August 2, 1979 Newspaper clippings about Ernst Heinkel in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Erhard Milch was a German field marshal who oversaw the development of the Luftwaffe as part of the re-armament of Nazi Germany following World War I. During World War II, he was in charge of aircraft production, he was convicted of war crimes during the Milch Trial held before the U. S. sentenced to life imprisonment. Milch was born in Wilhelmshaven, the son of Anton Milch, a Jewish pharmacist who served in the Imperial German Navy, Clara Milch, née Vetter; the Gestapo would investigate Milch due to his Jewish heritage. In 1935 rumours began to circulate; the Gestapo began an investigation, halted by Göring who produced an affidavit by Milch's mother that his true father was her uncle Karl Brauer. Milch was issued with a German Blood Certificate; this would mean that his mother Clara admitted not only to adultery but incest. David Irving in his book The Rise and Fall of the Luftwaffe; the Life of Field Marshal Erhard Milch, says that Milch asked him not to reveal the real truth about his parentage, so although Irving states that it was not Anton Milch and concentrates on his wealthy great-uncle Karl Brauer who died in 1906, he does not name him as his father.
However, who had access to the Field Marshal's private diary and papers, says the rumours began in the autumn of 1933, that Erhard obtained a signed statement by Anton Milch that he was not the father of Clara's children. Furthermore, Irving says that Clara Milch had written to her son in law Fritz Herrmann in March 1933 explaining the circumstances of her marriage and that Göring had initiated his own investigation that identified his real father. Milch was again questioned about his alleged Jewish father and Göring's role in this matter by Robert H. Jackson at Nuremberg in 1946. Milch enlisted in the German Army in 1910, where he rose to the rank of lieutenant and commanded an artillery unit in East Prussia on the outbreak of WW1, he saw action against the Russian Army on the River Deime in September 1914 and on the Angerapp Line in February 1915. In July 1915, he was transferred to the Luftstreitkräfte and trained as an aerial observer on the Western front, seeing action on the Somme 1916 and in Flanders 1917.
After a spell as a company commander in the trenches in the spring and summer of 1918, in the waning days of the war, he was promoted to captain and appointed to command a fighter wing, Jagdgruppe 6 though he had never trained as a pilot and could not fly himself. Milch resigned from the military in 1920 to pursue a career in civil aviation. With squadron colleague Gotthard Sachsenberg, Milch formed a small airline in Danzig under the banner of Lloyd Luftdienst, Norddeutscher Lloyd's union of regional German airlines; the airline linked Danzig to the Baltic States. In 1923, Milch became managing director of its successor company. From there and Sachsenberg went to work for rival Junkers Luftverkehr, where Milch was appointed managing director in 1925, he became the first managing director of Deutsche Luft Hansa. Milch joined the Nazi Party on 1 April 1929, but his membership was not acknowledged until March 1933, because Hitler deemed it desirable to keep the fact hidden for political reasons.
In 1933, Milch took up a position as State Secretary of the newly formed Reich Ministry of Aviation, answering directly to Hermann Göring. In this capacity, he was instrumental in establishing the air force of Nazi Germany. Milch was responsible for armament production, though Ernst Udet was soon making many of the decisions concerning contracts for military aircraft. Milch used his position to settle personal scores with other aviation industry personalities, including Hugo Junkers and Willy Messerschmitt. Milch banned Messerschmitt from submitting a design in the competition for a new fighter aircraft for the Luftwaffe. Messerschmitt outmanoeuvred Milch, circumventing the ban and submitting a design; the Messerschmitt-designed Bayerische Flugzeugwerke corporate entry, the Bf 109, proved to be the winner. Messerschmitt maintained its leading position within the German aircraft industry until the failure of the Me 210 aircraft. After that Milch, as the leader, did not depose him, but put him in an inferior position.
In 1935 doubts about the ethnic origin of Erhard Milch began when rumors circulated that his father Anton Milch was Jewish. The Gestapo began an investigation but it was stopped by Göring who forced Erhard's mother to sign a document that Anton was not the true father of Erhard and his brothers, but her uncle Karl Brauer; those events and the extension of the "Certificate of German Blood" were the background to Göring's statement, "I decide, a Jew in the airforce". However, many believe that he was quoting Karl Lueger, the former mayor of Vienna. At the outbreak of World War II Milch, now with the rank of general, commanded Luftflotte 5 during the Operation Weserübung in Norway. Following the defeat of France, Milch was promoted to Generalfeldmarschall during the 1940 Field Marshal Ceremony and given the title Air Inspector General; as such, Milch was in charge of aircraft production. The lack of a long-term strategy, a divisive military command structure, led to many mistakes in the operational and technical ability of the Luftwaffe, were key to the continued loss of German air superiority as the war progressed.
The frequent, conflicting, changes in operational requirements led to numerous changes in aircraft specification and d
Conventional landing gear
Conventional landing gear, or tailwheel-type landing gear, is an aircraft undercarriage consisting of two main wheels forward of the center of gravity and a small wheel or skid to support the tail. The term taildragger is used, although some claim it should apply only to those aircraft with a tailskid rather than a wheel; the term "conventional" persists for historical reasons, but all modern jet aircraft and most modern propeller aircraft use tricycle gear. In early aircraft, a tailskid made of metal or wood was used to support the tail on the ground. In most modern aircraft with conventional landing gear, a small articulated wheel assembly is attached to the rearmost part of the airframe in place of the skid; this wheel may be steered by the pilot through a connection to the rudder pedals, allowing the rudder and tailwheel to move together. Before aircraft used tailwheels, many aircraft were equipped with steerable tailskids, which operate similar to a tailwheel; when the pilot pressed the right rudder pedal — or the right footrest of a "rudder bar" in World War I — the skid pivoted to the right, creating more drag on that side of the plane and causing it to turn to the right.
While less effective than a steerable wheel, it gave the pilot some control of the direction the craft was moving while taxiing or beginning the takeoff run, before there was enough airflow over the rudder for it to become effective. Another form of control, less common now than it once was, is to steer using "differential braking", in which the tailwheel is a simple castering mechanism, the aircraft is steered by applying brakes to one of the mainwheels in order to turn in that direction; this is used on some tricycle gear aircraft, with the nosewheel being the castering wheel instead. Like the steerable tailwheel/skid, it is integrated with the rudder pedals on the craft to allow an easy transition between wheeled and aerodynamic control; the tailwheel configuration offers several advantages over the tricycle landing gear arrangement, which make tailwheel aircraft less expensive to manufacture and maintain. Due to its position much further from the center of gravity, a tailwheel supports a smaller part of the aircraft's weight allowing it to be made much smaller and lighter than a nosewheel.
As a result, the smaller wheel causes less parasitic drag. Because of the way airframe loads are distributed while operating on rough ground, tailwheel aircraft are better able to sustain this type of use over a long period of time, without cumulative airframe damage occurring. If a tailwheel fails on landing, the damage to the aircraft will be minimal; this is not the case in the event of a nosewheel failure, which results in a prop strike. Due to the increased propeller clearance on tailwheel aircraft less stone chip damage will result from operating a conventional geared aircraft on rough or gravel airstrips, making them well suited to bush flying. Tailwheel aircraft are more suitable for operation on skis. Tailwheel aircraft are easier to maneuver inside some hangars; the conventional landing gear arrangement has disadvantages compared to nosewheel aircraft. Tailwheel aircraft are more subject to "nose-over" accidents due to injudicious application of brakes by the pilot. Conventional geared aircraft are much more susceptible to ground looping.
A ground loop occurs when directional control is lost on the ground and the tail of the aircraft passes the nose, swapping ends, in some cases completing a full circle. This event can result in damage to the aircraft's undercarriage, wingtips and engine. Ground-looping occurs because, whereas a nosewheel aircraft is steered from ahead of the center of gravity, a taildragger is steered from behind, so that on the ground a taildragger is inherently unstable, whereas a nosewheel aircraft will self-center if it swerves on landing. In addition, some tailwheel aircraft must transition from using the rudder to steer to using the tailwheel while passing through a speed range when neither is wholly effective due to the nose high angle of the aircraft and lack of airflow over the rudder. Avoiding ground loops requires more pilot skill. Tailwheel aircraft suffer from poorer forward visibility on the ground, compared to nose wheel aircraft; this requires continuous "S" turns on the ground to allow the pilot to see where they are taxiing.
Tailwheel aircraft are more difficult to taxi during high wind conditions, due to the higher angle of attack on the wings which can develop more lift on one side, making control difficult or impossible. They suffer from lower crosswind capability and in some wind conditions may be unable to use crosswind runways or single-runway airports. Due to the nose-high attitude on the ground, propeller-powered taildraggers are more adversely affected by P-factor – asymmetrical thrust caused by the propeller's disk being angled to the direction of travel, which causes the blades to produce more lift when going down than when going up due to the difference in angle the blade experiences when passing through the air; the aircraft will pull to the side of the upward blade. Some aircraft lack sufficient rudder authority in some flight regimes and the pilot must compensate before the aircraft starts to yaw; some aircraft older, higher powered aircraft such as the P-51 Mustang, cannot use full power on takeoff and still safely control their direction of travel.
On landing this is less of a factor, however opening the throttle to abort a landing can induce severe uncontrollable yaw unless the pilot is prepared for it. Jet aircraft gene
A gas turbine called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous combustion, internal combustion engine. There are three main components: An upstream rotating gas compressor. Above. A fourth component is used to increase efficiency, to convert power into mechanical or electric form, or to achieve greater power to mass/volume ratio; the basic operation of the gas turbine is a Brayton cycle with air as the working fluid. Fresh atmospheric air flows through the compressor. Energy is added by spraying fuel into the air and igniting it so the combustion generates a high-temperature flow; this high-temperature high-pressure gas enters a turbine, where it expands down to the exhaust pressure, producing a shaft work output in the process. The turbine shaft work is used to drive the compressor; the purpose of the gas turbine determines the design so that the most desirable split of energy between the thrust and the shaft work is achieved. The fourth step of the Brayton cycle is omitted, as gas turbines are open systems that do not use the same air again.
Gas turbines are used to power aircraft, ships, electrical generators, gas compressors, tanks. 50: Earliest records of Hero's engine. It most served no practical purpose, was rather more of a curiosity. 1000: The "Trotting Horse Lamp" was used by the Chinese at lantern fairs as early as the Northern Song dynasty. When the lamp is lit, the heated airflow rises and drives an impeller with horse-riding figures attached on it, whose shadows are projected onto the outer screen of the lantern. 1500: The Chimney Jack was drawn by Leonardo da Vinci: Hot air from a fire rises through a single-stage axial turbine rotor mounted in the exhaust duct of the fireplace and turning the roasting spit by gear-chain connection. 1629: Jets of steam rotated an impulse turbine that drove a working stamping mill by means of a bevel gear, developed by Giovanni Branca. 1678: Ferdinand Verbiest built a model carriage relying on a steam jet for power. 1791: A patent was given to John Barber, an Englishman, for the first true gas turbine.
His invention had most of the elements present in the modern day gas turbines. The turbine was designed to power a horseless carriage. 1861: British patent no. 1633 was granted to Marc Antoine Francois Mennons for a "Caloric engine". The patent shows that it was a gas turbine and the drawings show it applied to a locomotive. Named in the patent was Nicolas de Telescheff, a Russian aviation pioneer. 1872: A gas turbine engine designed by Berlin engineer, Franz Stolze, is thought to be the first attempt at creating a working model, but the engine never ran under its own power. 1894: Sir Charles Parsons patented the idea of propelling a ship with a steam turbine, built a demonstration vessel, the Turbinia the fastest vessel afloat at the time. This principle of propulsion is still of some use. 1895: Three 4-ton 100 kW Parsons radial flow generators were installed in Cambridge Power Station, used to power the first electric street lighting scheme in the city. 1899: Charles Gordon Curtis patented the first gas turbine engine in the US.
1900: Sanford Alexander Moss submitted a thesis on gas turbines. In 1903, Moss became an engineer for General Electric's Steam Turbine Department in Lynn, Massachusetts. While there, he applied some of his concepts in the development of the turbosupercharger, his design used a small turbine wheel, driven by exhaust gases. 1903: A Norwegian, Ægidius Elling, built the first gas turbine, able to produce more power than needed to run its own components, considered an achievement in a time when knowledge about aerodynamics was limited. Using rotary compressors and turbines it produced 11 hp. 1906: The Armengaud-Lemale turbine engine in France with a water-cooled combustion chamber. 1910: Holzwarth impulse turbine achieved 150 kilowatts. 1913: Nikola Tesla patents the Tesla turbine based on the boundary layer effect. 1920s The practical theory of gas flow through passages was developed into the more formal theory of gas flow past airfoils by A. A. Griffith resulting in the publishing in 1926 of An Aerodynamic Theory of Turbine Design.
Working testbed designs of axial turbines suitable for driving a propellor were developed by the Royal Aeronautical Establishment proving the efficiency of aerodynamic shaping of the blades in 1929. 1930: Having found no interest from the RAF for his idea, Frank Whittle patented the design for a centrifugal gas turbine for jet propulsion. The first successful use of his engine occurred in England in April 1937. 1932: BBC Brown, Boveri & Cie of Switzerland] starts selling axial compressor and turbine turbosets as part of the turbocharged steam generating Velox boiler. Following the gas turbine principle, the steam evaporation tubes are arranged within the gas turbine combustion chamber. 1934: Raúl Pateras de Pescara patented the free-piston engine as a gas gener
Ernst Udet was a German pilot and air force general during both World War I and World War II. Udet joined the Imperial German Air Service at age 19 becoming a notable flying ace of World War I, scoring 62 confirmed victories by the end of his life; the highest scoring German fighter pilot to survive that war, the second-highest scoring after Manfred von Richthofen, his commander in the Flying Circus, Udet rose to become a squadron commander under Richthofen, under Hermann Göring. Udet spent the 1920s and early 1930s as a stunt pilot, international barnstormer, light aircraft manufacturer, playboy. In 1933, Udet joined the Nazi Party and became involved in the early development of the Luftwaffe, where he was appointed director of research and development. Influential in the adoption of dive bombing techniques as well as the Stuka dive bomber, by 1939 Udet had risen to the post of Director-General of Equipment for the Luftwaffe; the stress of the position and his distaste for administrative duties led to Udet developing alcoholism.
The launch of Operation Barbarossa, combined with issues with the Luftwaffe's needs for equipment outstripping Germany's production capacity and poor relations with the Nazi Party, caused Udet to commit suicide on 17 November 1941 by shooting himself in the head. "Our defeat was caused by Udet," Hitler would claim. "That man concoted the most nonsensical state of affairs seen in the history of the Luftwaffe." Ernst Udet was born on 26 April 1896. Udet grew up in Munich, was known from his early childhood for his sunny temperament and fascination with aviation. In his youth he hung out at an army airship detachment. In 1909, he helped. After crashing a glider he and a friend constructed, he flew in 1913 with a test pilot in the nearby Otto Works owned by Gustav Otto, which he visited. Shortly after the beginning of World War I, Udet attempted to enlist in the Imperial German Army on 2 August 1914, but at only 160 cm tall he did not qualify for enlistment; that month, when the Allgemeiner Deutscher Automobil-Club appealed for volunteers with motorcycles, Udet applied and was accepted.
Udet's father had given him a motorcycle when he had passed his first year examination, along with four friends, Udet was posted to the 26. Württembergischen Reserve Division as a "messenger rider." After injuring his shoulder when his motorcycle hit a crater from an artillery shell explosion, he was sent to a military hospital, his motorcycle was sent for repairs. When Udet tried to track down the 26th Division, he was unable to find it and decided to serve in the vehicle depot in Namur. During this time, he met officers from the Chauny flying sector, who advised him to transfer as an aerial observer. However, before he received his orders, the army dispensed with the volunteer motorcyclists, Udet was sent back to the recruiting officials. Udet tried to return to the fighting, but he was unable to get into either the pilot or aircraft mechanic training the army offered. However, he learned that if he were a trained pilot, he would be accepted into army aviation. Through a family friend, Gustav Otto, owner of the aircraft factory he had hung out around in his youth, Udet received private flight training.
This cost him new bathroom equipment from his father's firm. Udet received his civilian pilot's license at the end of April 1915 and was accepted by the Imperial German Air Service. Udet at first flew in Feld Flieger-Abteilung 206 —an observation unit—as an Unteroffizier pilot with observer Leutnant Justinius, he and his observer won the Iron Cross for nursing their damaged Aviatik B. I two-seater back to German lines. Justinius had climbed out to hold the wing and balance it rather than landing behind the enemy lines and being captured. After the structural failure of the Aviatik that caused Udet and Justinius to go down, a similar incident in which Leutnant Winter and Vizefeldwebel Preiss lost their lives, the Aviatik B was retired from active service. Udet was court-martialed for losing an aircraft in an incident the flying corps considered a result of bad judgement. Overloaded with fuel and bombs, the aircraft plunged to the ground. Miraculously, both Udet and Justinius survived with only minor injuries.
Udet was placed under arrest in the guardhouse for seven days. On his way out of the guardhouse, he was asked to fly Leutnant Hartmann to observe a bombing raid on Belfort. A bomb thrown by hand by the leutnant became stuck in the landing gear, but Udet performed aerobatics and managed to shake it loose; as soon as the Air Staff Officer heard about Udet's performance during the incident, he ordered Udet transferred to the fighter command. Udet was assigned a new Fokker to fly to his new fighter unit—FFA 68—at Habsheim. Mechanically defective, the plane crashed into a hangar when he took off, was given an older Fokker to fly. In this aircraft he experienced his first aerial combat, which ended in disaster. While lining up on a French Caudron, Udet found he could not bring himself to fire on another person and was subsequently fired on by the Frenchman. A bullet smashed his flying goggles. Udet survived the encounter but from on learned to attack aggressively and began scoring victories, downing his first French opponent on 18 March 1916.
On that occasion, he had scrambled to attack two French aircraft, instead finding himself faced with a formation of 23 enemy aircraft. He dive
Rostock is a city in the north German state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Rostock is on the Warnow river. Rostock is the largest city in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, as well as its only regiopolis. Rostock is home to one of the oldest universities in the world, the University of Rostock, founded in 1419; the city territory of Rostock stretches for about 20 km along the Warnow to the Baltic Sea. The largest built-up area of Rostock is on the western side of the river; the eastern part of its territory is dominated by the forested Rostock Heath. In the 11th century Polabian Slavs founded; the Danish king Valdemar I set the town on fire in 1161. Afterwards the place was settled by German traders. There were three separate cities: Altstadt around the Alter Markt, which had St. Petri, Mittelstadt around the Neuer Markt, with St. Marien and Neustadt around the Hopfenmarkt, with St. Jakobi. In 1218, Rostock was granted Lübeck law city rights by prince of Mecklenburg. During the first partition of Mecklenburg following the death of Henry Borwin II of Mecklenburg in 1226, Rostock became the seat of the Lordship of Rostock, which survived for a century.
In 1251, the city became a member of the Hanseatic League. In the 14th century it was a powerful seaport town with 12,000 inhabitants and the largest city in Mecklenburg. Ships for cruising the Baltic Sea were constructed in Rostock; the independent fishing village of Warnemünde at the Baltic Sea became a part of Rostock in 1323, to secure the city's access to the sea. In 1419, the University of Rostock was founded, the oldest university in continental northern Europe and the Baltic Sea area. At the end of the 15th century, the dukes of Mecklenburg succeeded in enforcing their rule over the town of Rostock, which had until been only nominally subject to their rule and independent, they took advantage of a riot known as a failed uprising of the impoverished population. Subsequent quarrels with the dukes and persistent plundering led to a loss of the city's economic and political power. In 1565 there were further clashes with Schwerin. Among other things, the nobility introduced a beer excise. John Albert I advanced on the city with 500 horsemen, after Rostock had refused to take the formal oath of allegiance, had the city wall razed in order to have a fortress built.
The conflict did not end until the first Rostock Inheritance Agreement of 21 September 1573, in which the state princes were guaranteed hereditary rule over the city for centuries and recognizing them as the supreme judicial authority. The citizens razed the fortress the following spring. From 1575 to 1577 the city walls were rebuilt, as was the Lagebusch tower and the Stein Gate, in the Dutch Renaissance style; the inscription sit intra te concordia et publica felicitas, can still be read on the gate, refers directly to the conflict with the Duke. In 1584 the Second Rostock Inheritance Agreement was enforced, which resulted in a further loss of former city tax privileges. At the same time, these inheritance contracts put paid to Rostock's ambition of achieving imperial immediacy, as Lübeck had done in 1226; the strategic location of Rostock provoked the envy of its rivals. Danes and Swedes occupied the city twice, first during the Thirty Years' War and again from 1700 to 1721. In the early 19th century, the French, under Napoleon, occupied the town for about a decade until 1813.
In nearby Lübeck-Ratekau, Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, born in Rostock and, one of few generals to fight on after defeat at the Battle of Jena, surrendered to the French in 1806. This was only after furious street fighting in the Battle of Lübeck, in which he led some of the cavalry charges himself. By the time of the surrender, the exhausted Prussians had neither ammunition. In the first half of the 19th century, Rostock regained much of its economic importance, due at first to the wheat trade from the 1850s, to industry its shipyards; the first propeller-driven steamers in Germany were constructed here. The city grew in area and population, with new quarters developing in the south and west of the ancient borders of the city. Two notable developments were added to house the increasing population at around 1900: Steintor-Vorstadt in the south, stretching from the old city wall to the facilities of the new Lloydbahnhof, was designed as a living quarter, it consisted of large single houses, once inhabited by wealthy citizens.
Kröpeliner-Tor-Vorstadt in the west, was designed to house the working population as well as to provide smaller and larger industrial facilities, such as the Mahn & Ohlerich's Brewery. The main shipyard, was nearby at the shore of the river. In the 20th century, important aircraft manufacturing facilities were situated in the city, such as the Arado Flugzeugwerke in Warnemünde and the Heinkel Works with facilities at various places, including their secondary Heinkel-Süd facility in Schwechat, Austria, as the original Heinkel firm's Rostock facilities had been renamed Heinkel-