Andrés Jaque is an architect. His work explores. In 2003 he founded the Office for Political Innovation, a trandisciplinary agency working in the making of urban networks. In 2014 he won the Silver Lion to the Best Research Project at the 14th Venice Biennale. In 2016 he was awarded with the 10th Frederick Kiesler Prize, the most respected prize recognizing creators working in the intersection of art and architecture, he is the author of award-winning architectural projects, including the Casa Sacerdotal Diocesana de Plasencia. Teddy House, Mousse City,, he has developed a number of architectural experiments meant to interrogate architecture's political agency. The 12 Actions to Make Peter Eisenman Transparent, 2010, a project to make visible, easy to understand for general public, the political implications of the construction of the singular building site Cidade da Cultura in Santiago de Compostela. A series of actions described by Bruno Latour as a «beautiful mixture of art and building-site».
His 2012 intervention in the Barcelona Pavilion, ‘PHANTOM. Mies as Rendered Society’ made visible all the processes involved in the daily fabrication of the pavilion as an ordinary reality. Buckets, chairs, old faded curtains, the salt that keeps the ponds pristine or the result of failed experiments carried out at the pavilion, were kept at the so far unnoticed basement, his work'IKEA Disobedients' was the first architectural performance to be included in the MoMA's collection. Andrés Jaque has been Tessenow Stipendiat and he is the Director of the Advanced Architectural Design Program at Columbia University GSAPP and Visiting Professor at Princeton University School of Architecture. Andrés Jaque and the Office for Political Innovation have made major contributions to conceptualize the implications of French ecology and post-foundational politics for contemporary architectural and urban practices, they are the authors of: ‘Andrés Jaque. Everyday Politics’. EA! Ediciones. 2011.'PHANTOM. Mies as Rendered Society'.
Fundació Mies van der Rohe 2013. ‘Eco-Ordinary. Codes for Quotidian Architectural Practices’. Lampreave Ediciones. 2010. ‘Dulces Arenas Cotidianas’. Lugadero. 2013.'Calculable-Transmaterial'. ARQ. 2017.'Different Kinds of Water Pouring Into A Swimming Pool'. RedCat CalArts. 2014 Jaque has made regular contributions to both general media. With significant papers for leading architectural magazines such as El Croquis and Beyond. Since 2013 he publishes the periodic column "Cuarto de estar en la galaxia" in El País Semanal and collaborates with El País' cultural supplement, Babelia. In 2003 together with a number of sociologist and journalist he created the Office for Political Innovation, an urban lab focused on the development of a democratically centered architecture, considering objects as material actors of equalitarian societies. Hans Ulrich Obrist interviews Andrés Jaque Christopher Hawthorne profiles Andrés Jaque for Architect "Architecture as Rendered Society" Andrés Jaque's lecture at Princeton SoA IKEA Disobedients at the MoMA Collection Baraona, Ethel "The Value of the Onfra Ordinary" "Architecture as Rendered Socitety.
Andrés Jaque in conversation with Ignacio González Galán" "Andrés Jaque. Everyday Politics". Jaque, Andrés "Eco-Ordinary. Codes for Quotidian Architectural Practices" Jaque, Andrés "Dulces arenas cotidianas" Jaque, Andrés "Collective Experiments. Video-interviews and Tele-conversations in the time of the technical codes" Jaque, Andrés "Collective Experiments. Interiors and Multiverses" Jaque, Andrés "15M. Yes We Camp. Urbanism as Controversy" Jaque, Andrés "Janet Rodríguez's Parliament" Jaque, Andrés "Different Kinds of Water Pouring Into a Swimming Pool" Jaque, Andrés "Calculable-Transmaterial"
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Hans Poelzig was a German architect and set designer. Poelzig was born in Berlin in 1869 to Countess Clara Henrietta Maria Poelzig while she was married to George Acland Ames, an Englishman. Uncertain of his paternity, Ames refused to acknowledge Hans as his son and he was brought up by a local choirmaster and his wife. In 1899 he married Maria Voss with. Hans Poelzig was buried in the Old Cemetery in Berlin-Wannsee. On 18 November 2015, Friedrichstadt-Palast Berlin inaugurated a memorial at Friedrichstraße 107 dedicated to the theatre’s founders, Max Reinhardt, Hans Poelzig and Erik Charell. In 1903 he became a director at the Breslau Academy of Art and Design. From 1920-1935 he taught at the Technical University of Berlin. Director of the Architecture Department of the Prussian Academy of Arts in Berlin. After finishing his architectural education around the turn of the century, Poelzig designed many industrial buildings, he designed the 51.2 m tall Upper Silesia Tower in Posen for an industrial fair in 1911.
It became a water tower. He was appointed city architect of Dresden in 1916, he was an influential member of the Deutscher Werkbund. Poelzig was known for his distinctive 1919 interior redesign of the Berlin Grosses Schauspielhaus for Weimar impresario Max Reinhardt, for his vast architectural set designs for the 1920 UFA film production of The Golem: How He Came Into the World. With his Weimar architect contemporaries like Bruno Taut and Ernst May, Poelzig's work developed through Expressionism and the New Objectivity in the mid-1920s before arriving at a more conventional, economical style. In 1927 he was one of the exhibitors in the first International Style project, the Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart. In the 1920s he ran the "Studio Poelzig" in partnership with his wife Marlene. Poelzig designed the 1929 Broadcasting House in the Berlin suburb of Charlottenburg, a landmark of architecture, Cold War and engineering history. Poelzig's single best-known building is the enormous and legendary I.
G. Farben Building, completed in 1931 as the administration building for IG Farben in Frankfurt am Main, now known as the Poelzig Building at Goethe University. In March 1945 the building was occupied by American Allied forces under Eisenhower, became his headquarters, remained in American hands until 1995; some of his designs that were never built included one for the Palace of the Soviets and one for the League of Nations headquarters at Geneva. In 1933 Poelzig served as the interim director of the Vereinigte Staatsschulen für freie und angewandete Kunst, after the expulsion of founding director Bruno Paul by the National Socialists. Poelzig died in Berlin shortly before his planned departure for Ankara. 1901 Church spire, Wrocław 1904 A Family house with garden pavilion for the arts and crafts exhibition 1908 Dwelling houses, corner of Menzelstraße and Wölflstraße in Breslau, 1908 Dwelling house, Hohenzollernstraße, Breslau 1907 - ca. 1909: mixed commercial offices and retail, Hohenzollernstraße, Wrocław 1911 Sulphuric acid factory in Luboń 1911 Grain silo and Roofed Marketplace in Luboń 1911 Exhibition Hall and Tower in Poznań for an industrial fair 1912 Department store in Junkernstrasse, Wroclaw 1913 Four Domes Pavilion, Wroclaw 1919 Grosses Schauspielhaus, in Berlin 1920 Festival Theater for Salzburg 1924 Office building, Hanover 1927 Deli cinema, Wrocław 1929 Haus des Rundfunks, Berlin 1929 Kino Babylon, Berlin 1931 I.
G. Farben Building in Frankfurt Palace of the Soviets League of Nations 1920 - Film sets for The Golem: How He Came Into the World 1921 - Friedrichstraße Station Skyscraper competition in Berlin 1925 - Capitol, Berlin, 1926 - German Forum for Sport, His works in library of TU Berlin Industry buildings Film production design sketches on the European Film Gateway
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe was a German-American architect. He was referred to as Mies, his surname. Along with Alvar Aalto, Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius and Frank Lloyd Wright, he is regarded as one of the pioneers of modernist architecture. Mies was a director of a seminal school in modern architecture. After Nazism's rise to power, with its strong opposition to modernism, Mies went to the United States, he accepted the position to head the architecture school at the Armour Institute of Technology, in Chicago. Mies sought to establish his own particular architectural style that could represent modern times just as Classical and Gothic did for their own eras, he created his own twentieth-century architectural style, stated with extreme clarity and simplicity. His mature buildings made use of modern materials such as industrial steel and plate glass to define interior spaces, as conducted by other modernist architects in the 1920's and 1930's such as Richard Neutra. Mies strove toward an architecture with a minimal framework of structural order balanced against the implied freedom of unobstructed free-flowing open space.
He called his buildings "bones" architecture. He sought an objective approach that would guide the creative process of architectural design, but was always concerned with expressing the spirit of the modern era, he is associated with his fondness for the aphorisms, "less is more" and "God is in the details". Mies was born March 1886 in Aachen, Germany, he worked in his father's stone carving shop and at several local design firms before he moved to Berlin, where he joined the office of interior designer Bruno Paul. He began his architectural career as an apprentice at the studio of Peter Behrens from 1908 to 1912, where he was exposed to the current design theories and to progressive German culture, he worked alongside Le Corbusier and Walter Gropius, also involved in the development of the Bauhaus. Mies served as construction manager of the Embassy of the German Empire in Saint Petersburg under Behrens. Ludwig Mies renamed himself as part of his transformation from a tradesman's son to an architect working with Berlin's cultural elite, adding "van der" and his mother's maiden name "Rohe" and using the Dutch "van der", because the German form "von" was a nobiliary particle restricted to those of genuine aristocratic lineage.
He began his independent professional career designing upper-class homes. In 1913, Mies married the daughter of a wealthy industrialist; the couple separated in 1918, after having three daughters: Dorothea, an actress and dancer, known as Georgia and Waltraut, a research scholar and curator at the Art Institute of Chicago. During his military service in 1917, Mies fathered a son out of wedlock. In 1925 Mies began a relationship with designer Lilly Reich that ended when he moved to the United States. Mies carried on a romantic relationship with sculptor and art collector Mary Callery for whom he designed an artist's studio in Huntington, Long Island, New York, he was rumored to have a brief relationship with Edith Farnsworth, who commissioned his work for the Farnsworth House. Marianne's son Dirk Lohan studied under, worked for, Mies. After World War I, Mies began, while still designing traditional neoclassical homes, a parallel experimental effort, he joined his avant-garde peers in the long-running search for a new style that would be suitable for the modern industrial age.
The weak points of traditional styles had been under attack by progressive theorists since the mid-nineteenth century for the contradictions of hiding modern construction technology with a facade of ornamented traditional styles. The mounting criticism of the historical styles gained substantial cultural credibility after World War I, a disaster seen as a failure of the old world order of imperial leadership of Europe; the aristocratic classical revival styles were reviled by many as the architectural symbol of a now-discredited and outmoded social system. Progressive thinkers called for a new architectural design process guided by rational problem-solving and an exterior expression of modern materials and structure rather than what they considered the superficial application of classical facades. While continuing his traditional neoclassical design practice, Mies began to develop visionary projects that, though unbuilt, rocketed him to fame as an architect capable of giving form, in harmony with the spirit of the emerging modern society.
Boldly abandoning ornament altogether, Mies made a dramatic modernist debut in 1921 with his stunning competition proposal for the faceted all-glass Friedrichstraße skyscraper, followed by a taller curved version in 1922 named the Glass Skyscraper. He continued with a series of pioneering projects, culminating in his two European masterworks: the temporary German Pavilion for the Barcelona exposition in 1929 and the elegant Villa Tugendhat in Brno, Czech Republic, completed in 1930, he joined the German avant-garde, working with the progressive design magazine G, which started in July 1923. He developed prominence as architectural director of the Werkbund, organizing the influential Weissenhof Estate prototype modernist housing exhibition, he was one of the founders of the architectural association De
Dresden is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany. It is situated near the border with the Czech Republic. Dresden has a long history as the capital and royal residence for the Electors and Kings of Saxony, who for centuries furnished the city with cultural and artistic splendor, was once by personal union the family seat of Polish monarchs; the city was known as the Jewel Box, because of its baroque and rococo city centre. The controversial American and British bombing of Dresden in World War II towards the end of the war killed 25,000 people, many of whom were civilians, destroyed the entire city centre. After the war restoration work has helped to reconstruct parts of the historic inner city, including the Katholische Hofkirche, the Zwinger and the famous Semper Oper. Since German reunification in 1990 Dresden is again a cultural and political centre of Germany and Europe; the Dresden University of Technology is one of the 10 largest universities in Germany and part of the German Universities Excellence Initiative.
The economy of Dresden and its agglomeration is one of the most dynamic in Germany and ranks first in Saxony. It is dominated by high-tech branches called “Silicon Saxony”; the city is one of the most visited in Germany with 4.3 million overnight stays per year. The royal buildings are among the most impressive buildings in Europe. Main sights are the nearby National Park of Saxon Switzerland, the Ore Mountains and the countryside around Elbe Valley and Moritzburg Castle; the most prominent building in the city of Dresden is the Frauenkirche. Built in the 18th century, the church was destroyed during World War II; the remaining ruins were left for 50 years as a war memorial, before being rebuilt between 1994 and 2005. Dresden has nearly 560,000 inhabitants, the agglomeration is the largest in Saxony with 780,000 inhabitants. According to the Hamburgische Weltwirtschaftsinstitut and Berenberg Bank in 2017, Dresden has the fourth best prospects for the future of all cities in Germany. Although Dresden is a recent city of Germanic origin followed by settlement of Slavic people, the area had been settled in the Neolithic era by Linear Pottery culture tribes ca. 7500 BC.
Dresden's founding and early growth is associated with the eastward expansion of Germanic peoples, mining in the nearby Ore Mountains, the establishment of the Margraviate of Meissen. Its name etymologically derives from meaning people of the forest. Dresden evolved into the capital of Saxony. Around the late 12th century, a Slavic settlement called Drežďany had developed on the southern bank. Another settlement existed on the northern bank, it was known as Antiqua Dresdin by 1350, as Altendresden, both "old Dresden". Dietrich, Margrave of Meissen, chose Dresden as his interim residence in 1206, as documented in a record calling the place "Civitas Dresdene". After 1270, Dresden became the capital of the margraviate, it was given to Friedrich Clem after death of Henry the Illustrious in 1288. It was taken by the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1316 and was restored to the Wettin dynasty after the death of Valdemar the Great in 1319. From 1485, it was the seat of the dukes of Saxony, from 1547 the electors as well.
The Elector and ruler of Saxony Frederick Augustus I became King Augustus II the Strong of Poland in 1697. He gathered many of the best musicians and painters from all over Europe to the newly named Royal-Polish Residential City of Dresden, his reign marked the beginning of Dresden's emergence as a leading European city for technology and art. During the reign of Kings Augustus II the Strong and Augustus III of Poland most of the city's baroque landmarks were built; these include the Zwinger Royal Palace, the Japanese Palace, the Taschenbergpalais, the Pillnitz Castle and the two landmark churches: the Catholic Hofkirche and the Lutheran Frauenkirche. In addition significant art collections and museums were founded. Notable examples include the Dresden Porcelain Collection, the Collection of Prints and Photographs, the Grünes Gewölbe and the Mathematisch-Physikalischer Salon. In 1726 there was a riot for two days after a Protestant clergyman was killed by a soldier who had converted from Catholicism.
In 1729, by decree of King Augustus II the first Polish Military Academy was founded in Dresden. In 1730, it was relocated to Warsaw. Dresden suffered heavy destruction in the Seven Years' War, following its capture by Prussian forces, its subsequent re-capture, a failed Prussian siege in 1760. Friedrich Schiller wrote his Ode to Joy for the Dresden Masonic lodge in 1785. During the decline of Poland Dresden was site of preparations for the Polish Kościuszko Uprising; the city of Dresden had a distinctive silhouette, captured in famous paintings by Bernardo Bellotto and by Norwegian painter Johan Christian Dahl. Between 1806 and 1918 the city was the capital of the Kingdom of Saxony. During the Napoleonic Wars the French emperor made it a base of operations, winning there the famous Battle of Dresden on 27 August 1813. Following the November Uprising many Poles, including writers Juliusz Słowacki, Stefan Florian Garczyński, Klementyna Hoffmanowa and composer Frédéric Chopin, fled from the Russian Partition of Poland to Dresden.
National poet Adam Mickiewicz stayed several months in Dresden, starting in March 1832. He wrote the poetic drama Dziady, P
Peter Behrens was a German architect and designer. He was important to the modernist movement, several of the movement's leading names worked for him in earlier stages of their careers. Behrens attended the Christianeum Hamburg from September 1877 until Easter 1882, he studied painting in his native Hamburg, as well as in Düsseldorf and Karlsruhe, from 1886 to 1889. In 1890, he moved to Munich. At first, he worked as a painter and bookbinder in an artisanal fashion, he frequented the bohemian circles and was interested in subjects related to the reform of lifestyles. In 1899 Behrens accepted the invitation of the Grand Duke Ernst-Ludwig of Hesse to be the second member of his inaugurated Darmstadt Artists' Colony, where Behrens built his own house and conceived everything inside the house The building of this house is considered to be the turning point in his life, when he left the artistic circles of Munich and moved away from the Jugendstil towards a sober and austere style of design, he was one of the leaders of architectural reform at the turn of the century and was a major designer of factories and office buildings in brick and glass.
In 1903, Behrens was named director of the Kunstgewerbeschule in Düsseldorf, where he implemented successful reforms. In 1907, Behrens and ten other people, plus twelve companies, gathered to create the German Werkbund; as an organization, it was indebted to the principles and priorities of the Arts and Crafts movement, but with a decidedly modern twist. Members of the Werkbund were focused on improving the overall level of taste in Germany by improving the design of everyday objects and products; this practical aspect made it an influential organization among industrialists, public policy experts, investors and academics. Behrens' work for AEG was the first large-scale demonstration of the viability and vitality of the Werkbund's initiatives and objectives. In 1907, AEG retained Behrens as artistic consultant, he designed the entire corporate identity and for that he is considered the first industrial designer in history. Peter Behrens was never an employee for AEG. In 1910, Behrens designed the AEG Turbine Factory, in the Moabit district of Berlin.
From 1907 to 1912, he had students and assistants, among them were Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Adolf Meyer, Jean Kramer and Walter Gropius. From 1920 and 1924, he was responsible for the design and construction of the Technical Administration Building of Hoechst AG in Höchst. In 1922, he accepted an invitation to teach at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna. Peter Behrens remained head of the Department of Architecture at the Prussian Academy of Arts in Berlin. In 1926, Behrens was commissioned by the Englishman Wenman Joseph Bassett-Lowke to design him a family home in Northampton, UK; the house, named'New Ways' is regarded as the first modernist house in Britain. In 1928 Behrens won an international competition for the construction of the New Žilina; the building survives as a cultural centre. In 1936 Behrens was called from Vienna to conduct a Master class in architecture, in succession to Hans Poelzig, at the Prussian Academy of Arts in Berlin with the specific approval of Hitler. Behrens became associated with Hitler's urbanistic dreams for Berlin with the commission for the new headquarters of the AEG on Albert Speer's famous planned north-south axis.
Speer reported that his selection of Behrens for this commission was rejected by the powerful Alfred Rosenberg, but that his decision was supported by Hitler who admired Behrens's Saint Petersburg Embassy. Behrens and the academy helped his cause by reporting to the Ministry that Behrens had joined the illegal Nazi party in Austria on May Day of 1934; the vast AEG building with its marshalled fenestrations and detailing, like the project of which it was a part, was not built. Behrens died in Hotel Bristol in Berlin on 27 February 1940, while seeking refuge there from the cold of his country estate. All faces cast by the Klingspor Type Foundry. Behrens-Schrift Behrens-Antiqua Behrens Mediaeval notes SourcesBorský, Maroš. Synagogue Architecture in Slovakia: Towards Creating a Memorial Landscape of Lost Community. PhD dissertation, Hochschule für Jüdische Studien, Heidelberg. Accessed 23 November 2014. A. Windsor: Peter Behrens: Architect and Designer, Humanities Press Intl. Darmstadt: Institut Mathildenhöhe 1999, ISBN 3-9804553-6-X Georg Krawietz: "Peter Behrens im dritten Reich", Weimar 1995, VDG, Verlag und Datenbank für Geisteswissenschaften, ISBN 3-929742-57-8 Klaus J. Sembach: 1910 – Halbzeit der Moderne.
Stuttgart: Hatje 1992, ISBN 3-7757-0392-6 Virtual gallery with Behrens designs for AEG The synagogue of Zilina, Slovakia desig