A campsite or camping pitch is a place used for overnight stay in an outdoor area. In UK English, a campsite is an area divided into a number of pitches, where people can camp overnight using tents or camper vans or caravans. In American English, the term campsite means an area where an individual, group, or military unit can pitch a tent or park a camper. There are two types of campsites: an impromptu area. A designated area with improvements and various facilities; the term camp comes from the Latin word campus, meaning "field". Therefore, a campground consists of open pieces of ground where a camper can pitch a tent or park a camper. More a campsite is a dedicated area set aside for camping and for which a user fee is charged. Campsites feature a few improvements. Dedicated campsites, known as Campgrounds have some amenities. Common amenities include, listed in order from most to least common: Fireplaces or fire pits in which to build campfires. Road access for vehicles A gravel or concrete pad on which to park a vehicle Picnic tables Marked spaces indicating a boundary for one camper or a group of campers Reservations to ensure there will be available space to camp Utility hookups, such as electricity water, sewer for the use of Travel trailers, Recreational vehicles, or similar Raised platforms on which to set up tents Piped potable waterCampgrounds may include further amenities: Pit toilets Flush toilets and showers Sinks and mirrors in the bathrooms A small convenience store Shower facilities Wood for free or for sale for use in cooking or for a campfire Garbage cans or large rubbish bins in which to place refuseCamping outside a designated campsite may be forbidden by law.
It is thought to be a nuisance, harmful to the environment, is associated with vagrancy. However some countries have specific laws and/or regulations allowing camping on public lands. In the United States, many national and state parks have dedicated campsites and sometimes allow impromptu backcountry camping by visitors. U. S. National Forests have established campsites, but allow camping anywhere, except within a certain distance of water sources or developed areas. Camping may be prohibited in certain ‘special areas’ of national forests containing unusual landforms or vegetation, and if conditions allow campfires, a campfire permit is required for campfires outside of developed campsites. In Britain, it is more known as wild camping, is illegal. However, Scotland has a relaxed view and wild camping is legal in the majority of Scotland. In many parts of Canada, "roughing it" is considered to be wilderness camping on government owned, public land known as crown land and called "the bush". There are no amenities of any kind and no development except for logging roads or ATV trails, few rules beyond the requirement in some provinces to move the site at least 100 metres every 21 days.
In North America many campgrounds have facilities for Recreational Vehicles and are known as RV parks. Similar facilities in the UK are known as Caravan Parks; the Kampgrounds of America is a large chain of commercial campgrounds located throughout the United States and Canada. Many travellers prefer to use similar campsites, as an alternative to hotels or motels. Both commercial and governmental campgrounds charge a nominal fee for the privilege of camping there, to cover expenses, in the case of an independent campground, to make a profit. However, there are some in North America that do not charge a use fee and rely on sources such as donations and tax dollars. Staying the night in a big-box store parking lot is common, some retailers welcome RVs to their parking lots; some RV parks provide year-round spaces. Confused with campsites, campgrounds and RV parks, trailer parks are made up of long term or semi-permanent residents occupying mobile homes, park trailers or RVs; the holiday park is a United Kingdom version of the North American trailer park.
Created to allow coastal resorts to enable temporary and high-income accommodation to be created, under UK planning laws, no residents are permanent, the park must be wholly shut to all for at least two months each year. All of the mobile homes are either available for rent from the land owner, or pitches are leased on a long-term basis from the land owner and the lease's own mobile home placed on the pitch. Permanent sites owners lease includes the provision by the land owner of water and general site and grounds maintenance; some holiday parks includes a small campsite for those touring the area, where they can pay to pitch tents or site touring caravans and motorhomes. Touring campsites have full access to the Holiday parks facilities, including clothes washing and showering. Most holiday parks include a central entertainments block, which can include a shop, a multi-purpose theatre used for both stage and activity-based entertainment. Caravan Holiday Homes Holiday parks vary in size and type, as do the kinds of accommodation available within them.
Caravans are a popular choice with holiday makers, modern varieties come complete with features like double glazing and central heating, fridges, hot/cold water supplies and gas
The northwestern wolf known as the Mackenzie Valley wolf, Alaskan timber wolf, Canadian timber wolf, or northern timber wolf, is a subspecies of gray wolf in western North America. It ranges from the upper Mackenzie River Valley; this wolf is recognized as a subspecies of Canis lupus in the taxonomic authority Mammal Species of the World. The subspecies was first written of by Scottish naturalist Sir John Richardson in 1829, he chose to give it the name occidentalis in reference to its geographic location rather than label it by its color, as it was too variable to warrant such. According to one source, phylogenetic analyses of North American gray wolves show that there are three clades corresponding to C. l. occidentalis, C. l. nubilus and C. l. baileyi, each one representing a separate invasion into North America from distinct Eurasian ancestors. C. l. occidentalis, the most northwestern subspecies, is descended from the last gray wolves to colonize North America. It crossed into North America through the Bering land bridge after the last ice age, displacing C. l. nubilus populations as it advanced, a process which has continued until present times.
Along with C. l. nubilus, C. l. occidentalis is the most widespread member of the five gray wolf subspecies in North America, with at least six different synonyms. Northwestern wolves are one of the largest subspecies of wolves. In British Columbia, five adult females averaged 42.5 kg and ten adult males averaged 51.1 kg, with a weight range for all adults of 38.6 to 61.4 kg. In Yellowstone National Park, adult females were reported to average 41 kg and adult males averaged 50 kg, with a mean adult body mass in winter of 43.4 kg. More recent studies have reported the average height and weight of males and females in the north-west of the United States, where the males were between 68 and 91.5 cm tall and weighed between 45 and 66 kg, while the females were between 35 and 50 cm and weighed 36-59 kg. Based on known reported adult average body masses, this would make the northwestern wolf the largest-bodied wolf subspecies, in comparison the mean adult weights of its two nearest rivals in size, the Eurasian wolf and the Interior Alaskan wolf, was reported as 39 kg and 40 kg, respectively.
Sir John Richardson described the northwestern wolf as having a more robust build than the European wolf, with a larger, rounder head and a thicker, more obtuse muzzle. Its ears are shorter, its fur bushier. In Yellowstone National Park, artificially relocated northwestern wolves have been well-documented feeding on elk, they stampede the herd using pack teamwork to separate the younger elk from the adults. They will charge young calves separated from their parents. Winter-weakened or sick elk play an important part of Yellowstone wolf diets and it is estimated that over 50 percent of winter-weakened or sick elk in Yellowstone are killed by wolves. Of these, about 12 percent of carcasses were scavenged by other predators, including ravens, bald eagles, black bears, grizzly bears, coyotes. In the same national park, wolves prey on bison, though such attacks involve sick animals or calves, as bison can kill wolves with their hooves, they are present in Canadian or British safari parks including Longleat and Parc Omega
Powell County, Montana
Powell County is a county in the U. S. state of Montana. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 7,027, its county seat is Deer Lodge. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,332.7 square miles, of which 2,326.4 square miles is land and 6.3 square miles is water. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 7,180 people, 2,422 households, 1,634 families in the county; the population density was 3 people per square mile. There were 2,930 housing units at an average density of 1 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 92.52% White, 0.50% Black or African American, 3.51% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.74% from other races, 2.30% from two or more races. 1.95% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 25.0% were of German, 13.6% Irish, 9.7% English, 7.4% American and 5.8% Norwegian ancestry. There were 2,422 households out of which 29.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.50% were married couples living together, 7.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.50% were non-families.
28.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.93. The county population contained 21.20% under the age of 18, 7.80% from 18 to 24, 30.80% from 25 to 44, 26.20% from 45 to 64, 14.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 143.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 151.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,625, the median income for a family was $35,836. Males had a median income of $26,366 versus $20,457 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,816. About 10.20% of families and 12.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.20% of those under age 18 and 6.00% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 7,027 people, 2,466 households, 1,582 families in the county; the population density was 3.0 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 3,105 housing units at an average density of 1.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 92.4% white, 4.4% American Indian, 1.0% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 27.9% were German, 19.1% were Irish, 14.6% were English, 8.5% were Norwegian, 4.7% were American. Of the 2,466 households, 26.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.8% were married couples living together, 8.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.8% were non-families, 32.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.79. The median age was 45.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $39,851 and the median income for a family was $45,339. Males had a median income of $30,163 versus $24,837 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,849.
About 12.3% of families and 17.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.4% of those under age 18 and 13.0% of those age 65 or over. The current Montana State Prison facility is located in an unincorporated area in the county, near Deer Lodge. Powell County voters have supported Republican Party candidates in every national election since 1964. Deer Lodge List of cemeteries in Powell County, Montana List of lakes in Powell County, Montana List of mountains in Powell County, Montana National Register of Historic Places listings in Powell County, Montana Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site Montana State Prison Clark Fork Watershed Education Program Old Montana Prison Museums Powell County Chamber of Commerce Powell County Website
Mann Gulch fire
The Mann Gulch fire was a wildfire reported on August 5, 1949 in a gulch located along the upper Missouri River in the Gates of the Mountains Wilderness, Helena National Forest, in the U. S. state of Montana. A team of 15 smokejumpers parachuted into the area on the afternoon of August 5, 1949 to fight the fire, rendezvousing with a former smokejumper, employed as a fire guard at the nearby campground; as the team approached the fire to begin fighting it, unexpected high winds caused the fire to expand, cutting off the men's route and forcing them back uphill. During the next few minutes, a "blow-up" of the fire covered 3,000 acres in ten minutes, claiming the lives of 13 firefighters, including 12 of the smokejumpers. Only three of the smokejumpers survived; the fire would continue for five more days before being controlled. The United States Forest Service drew lessons from the tragedy of the Mann Gulch fire by designing new training techniques and safety measures that developed how the agency approached wildfire suppression.
The agency increased emphasis on fire research and the science of fire behavior. University of Chicago English professor and author Norman Maclean researched the fire and its behavior for his book, Young Men and Fire, published after his death. Maclean, who worked northwestern Montana in logging camps and for the forest service in his youth, recounted the events of the fire and ensuing tragedy and undertook a detailed investigation of the fire's causes. Young Men and Fire won the National Book Critics Circle Award for non-fiction in 1992; the 1952 film, Red Skies of Montana starring actor Richard Widmark and directed by Joseph M. Newman was loosely based on the events of the Mann Gulch fire; the location of the Mann Gulch fire was included as a historical district on the United States National Register of Historic Places on May 19, 1999. The fire started when lightning struck the south side of Mann Gulch at the Gates of the Mountains, a canyon over five miles long that cuts through a series of 1,200 foot cliffs.
The place was noted and named by Lewis and Clark on their journey west in 1805. The fire was spotted by forest ranger James O. Harrison around noon on August 5, 1949. Harrison, a college student at Montana State University, was working the summer as recreation and fire prevention guard for the Meriwether Canyon Campground, he had given it up because of the danger. As a ranger, he still had a responsibility to watch for and help fight fires, but it was not his primary role. On this day, he fought the fire on his own for four hours before he met the crew of smokejumpers, dispatched from Hale Field, Montana, in a Douglas DC-3, it was hot, with a temperature of 97 °F, the fire danger rating was high, rated 74 out of a possible 100. Wind conditions were turbulent; the plane flight was rough. One smokejumper did not jump, returning with the airplane to Hale Field. Getting off the plane, he resigned from the smokejumpers; the remaining 15 smokejumpers parachuted into an open area at the top of the gulch.
Below them, they could see the fire burning on the south ridge further down toward the Missouri River. Gear and individual jumpers were scattered due to the conditions, their radio was destroyed. After the smokejumpers had landed, a shout was heard coming from the front of the fire; the foreman, Wagner "Wag" Dodge, went out ahead to scout the fire. He left instructions for the team to finish gathering their equipment and eat, to cross the gully to the south slope and advance to the front of the fire; the voice turned out to be Jim Harrison, fighting the fire by himself for the past four hours. The two headed back up the gulch with Dodge noting that you could not get closer to within 100 feet of the fire due to the heat; the crew met Harrison about half way to the fire. Dodge instructed the team to move off the front of the fire, instead move down the gulch and cross over to the thinly-forested and grass-covered north slope of the gulch, they could fight the fire from the flank and steer it to a low-fuel area.
Dodge returned with Harrison to the supply area at the top of the gulch. The two stopped there to eat. From the high vantage point, Dodge noticed the smoke along the fire front boiling up indicating an intensification of the heat of the fire, he and Harrison headed down the gulch to catch up with the crew. By the time Dodge reached his men, the fire at the bottom of the gulch had jumped from the south ridge to the bottom of the north slope; the intense heat combined with wind coming off the river and pushed the flames up-gulch into the dry grass of the north slope causing what fire fighters call a "blow up". Various side ridges running down the north slope obscured the crew's view, so they could not see the conditions further down the gulch, they continued down toward the fire; when Dodge got a glimpse of what was happening below, he turned the men around and started them angling back up the gulch. Within a couple hundred yards, he ordered the men to drop packs and heavy tools: Dodge's order was to throw away just their packs and heavy tools, but to his surprise some of them had thrown away all of their heavy equipment.
On the other hand, some of them wouldn't abandon their heavy tools after Dodge's order. Diettert, one of the most intelligent of the crew, continued carrying both his tools until Rumsey caught up with him, took hi
The Rocky Mountains known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than 4,800 kilometers from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico in the Southwestern United States. Located within the North American Cordillera, the Rockies are somewhat distinct from the Pacific Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, the Sierra Nevada, which all lie farther to the west; the Rocky Mountains formed 80 million to 55 million years ago during the Laramide orogeny, in which a number of plates began sliding underneath the North American plate. The angle of subduction was shallow, resulting in a broad belt of mountains running down western North America. Since further tectonic activity and erosion by glaciers have sculpted the Rockies into dramatic peaks and valleys. At the end of the last ice age, humans began inhabiting the mountain range. After Europeans, such as Sir Alexander Mackenzie, Americans, such as the Lewis and Clark expedition, began exploring the range and furs drove the initial economic exploitation of the mountains, although the range itself never experienced dense population.
Public parks and forest lands protect much of the mountain range, they are popular tourist destinations for hiking, mountaineering, hunting, mountain biking and snowboarding. The name of the mountains is a translation of an Amerindian name, related to Algonquian; the first mention of their present name by a European was in the journal of Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre in 1752, where they were called "Montagnes de Roche". The Rocky Mountains are defined as stretching from the Liard River in British Columbia south to the Rio Grande in New Mexico; the Rockies vary in width from 110 to 480 kilometres. The Rocky Mountains are notable for containing the highest peaks in central North America; the range's highest peak is Mount Elbert located in Colorado at 4,401 metres above sea level. Mount Robson in British Columbia, at 3,954 metres, is the highest peak in the Canadian Rockies; the eastern edge of the Rockies rises above the Interior Plains of central North America, including the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of New Mexico and Colorado, the Front Range of Colorado, the Wind River Range and Big Horn Mountains of Wyoming, the Absaroka-Beartooth ranges and Rocky Mountain Front of Montana and the Clark Range of Alberta.
The western edge of the Rockies includes ranges such as the Wasatch near Salt Lake City and the Bitterroots along the Idaho-Montana border. The Great Basin and Columbia River Plateau separate these subranges from distinct ranges further to the west. In Canada, the western edge of the Rockies is formed by the huge Rocky Mountain Trench, which runs the length of British Columbia from its beginnings in the middle Flathead River valley in western Montana to the south bank of the Liard River. Geographers define three main groups of the Canadian Rockies: the Continental Ranges, Hart Ranges, Muskwa Ranges; the Rockies do not extend into central British Columbia. Other mountain ranges continue beyond the Liard River, including the Selwyn Mountains in Yukon, the Brooks Range in Alaska, but those are not part of the Rockies, though they are part of the American Cordillera; the Continental Divide of the Americas is located in the Rocky Mountains and designates the line at which waters flow either to the Atlantic or Pacific Oceans.
Triple Divide Peak in Glacier National Park is so named because water falling on the mountain reaches not only the Atlantic and Pacific but Hudson Bay as well. Farther north in Alberta, the Athabasca and other rivers feed the basin of the Mackenzie River, which has its outlet on the Beaufort Sea of the Arctic Ocean. Human population is not dense in the Rocky Mountains, with an average of four people per square kilometer and few cities with over 50,000 people. However, the human population grew in the Rocky Mountain states between 1950 and 1990; the forty-year statewide increases in population range from 35% in Montana to about 150% in Utah and Colorado. The populations of several mountain towns and communities have doubled in the last forty years. Jackson, increased 260%, from 1,244 to 4,472 residents, in forty years; the rocks in the Rocky Mountains were formed. The oldest rock is Precambrian metamorphic rock. There is Precambrian sedimentary argillite, dating back to 1.7 billion years ago. During the Paleozoic, western North America lay underneath a shallow sea, which deposited many kilometers of limestone and dolomite.
In the southern Rocky Mountains, near present-day Colorado, these ancestral rocks were disturbed by mountain building 300 Ma, during the Pennsylvanian. This mountain-building produced the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, they consisted of Precambrian metamorphic rock forced upward through layers of the limestone laid down in the shallow sea. The mountains eroded throughout the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic, leaving extensive deposits of sedimentary rock. Terranes began colliding with the western edge of North America in the Mississippian, causing the Antler orogeny. For 270 million years, the focus of the effects of plate collisions were near the edge of the North American plate boundary, far to the west of the Rocky Mountain region, it was. The current Rocky Mountains arose in the Laramide orogeny from between 55 Ma. For the Canadi
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The bighorn sheep is a species of sheep native to North America. The species is aptly named for its large horns. A pair of horns might weigh up to 14 kg. Recent genetic testing indicates three distinct subspecies of Ovis canadensis, one of, endangered: O. c. sierrae. Sheep crossed to North America over the Bering land bridge from Siberia. By 1900, the population had crashed to several thousand, due to diseases introduced through European livestock and overhunting. Ovis canadensis is one of three species of mountain sheep in North Siberia. Wild sheep crossed the Bering land bridge from Siberia into Alaska during the Pleistocene and subsequently spread through western North America as far south as Baja California and northwestern mainland Mexico. Divergence from their closest Asian ancestor occurred about 600,000 years ago. In North America, wild sheep diverged into two extant species—Dall sheep, which occupy Alaska and northwestern Canada, bighorn sheep, which range from southwestern Canada to Mexico.
However, the status of these species is questionable given that hybridization has occurred between them in their recent evolutionary history. In 1940, Ian McTaggart-Cowan split the species into seven subspecies, with the first three being mountain bighorns and the last four being desert bighorns: Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep, O. c. canadensis, found from British Columbia to Arizona. Badlands bighorn sheep or Audubon's bighorn sheep, O. c. auduboni, occurred in North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana and Nebraska. This subspecies has been extinct since 1925. California bighorn sheep, O. c. californiana, found from British Columbia south to California and east to North Dakota. The definition of this subspecies has been updated. Nelson's bighorn sheep, O. c. nelsoni, the most common desert bighorn sheep, ranges from California through Arizona. Mexican bighorn sheep, O. c. mexicana, ranges from Arizona and New Mexico south to Sonora and Chihuahua. Peninsular bighorn sheep O. c. cremnobates, occur in the Peninsular Ranges of California and Baja California Weems' bighorn sheep, O. c. weemsi, found in southern Baja California.
Starting in 1993, Ramey and colleagues, using DNA testing, have shown this division into seven subspecies is illusory. Most scientists recognize three subspecies of bighorn; this taxonomy is supported by the most extensive genetics study to date which found high divergence between Rocky Mountain and Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, that these two subspecies both diverged from desert bighorn prior to or during the Illinoian glaciation. Thus, the three subspecies of O. canadensis are: Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep – occupying the U. S. and Canadian Rocky Mountains, the Northwestern United States. Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep – California bighorn sheep, a genetically distinct subspecies that only occurs in the Sierra Nevada in California. However, historic observer records suggest that bighorn sheep may have ranged as far west as the California Coastal Ranges which are contiguous to the Sierra Nevada via the Transverse Ranges. An account of "wild sheep" in the vicinity of the Mission San Antonio near Jolon and the mountains around San Francisco Bay dates to circa 1769.
Desert bighorn sheep – occurring throughout the desert regions of the Southwestern United States and Northwestern Mexico. The 2016 genetics study suggested more modest divergence of this desert bighorn sheep into three lineages consistent with the earlier work of Cowan: Nelson's, Peninsular; these three lineages occupy desert biomes that vary in climate, suggesting exposure to different selection regimens. In addition, two populations are considered endangered by the United States government: Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, Peninsular bighorn sheep, a distinct population segment of desert bighorn sheep Bighorn sheep are named for the large, curved horns borne by the rams. Ewes have horns, but they are shorter with less curvature, they range in color from light brown to grayish or dark, chocolate brown, with a white rump and lining on the backs of all four legs. Males weigh 58–143 kg, are 90–105 cm tall at the shoulder, 1.6–1.85 m long from the nose to the tail. Females are 34–91 kg, 75–90 cm tall, 1.28–1.58 m long.
Male bighorn sheep have large horn cores, enlarged cornual and frontal sinuses, internal bony septa. These adaptations serve to protect the brain by absorbing the impact of clashes. Bighorn sheep have preorbital glands on the anterior corner of each eye, inguinal glands in the groin, pedal glands on each foot. Secretions from these glands may support dominance behaviors. Bighorns from the Rocky Mountains are large, with males that exceed 230 kg and females that exceed 90 kg. In contrast, Sierra Nevada bighorn males weigh up to females to 60 kg. Males' horns can weigh up to 14 kg, as much as the rest of the bones in the male's body; the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep occupy the cooler mountainous regions of Canada and the United States. In contrast, the desert bighorn sheep subspecies are indigeno