Trinity Church, Halmstad
Trinity Church is a Roman Catholic church in Halmstad in Sweden. It is part of Saint Mary's Roman Catholic Parish within the Catholic Diocese of Stockholm, it was opened on 24 May 1981
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon, surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, supporters and motto. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to an individual person, state, organization or corporation; the Roll of Arms is a collection of many coats of arms, since the early Modern Age centuries it has been a source of information for public showing and tracing the membership of a noble family, therefore its genealogy across time. The ancient Greek hoplites used individual insignia on their shields; the ancient Romans used similar insignia on their shields. Heraldic designs came into general use among western nobility in the 12th century. Systematic, heritable heraldry had developed by the beginning of the 13th century. Who had a right to use arms, by law or social convention, varied to some degree between countries. Early heraldic designs were personal. Arms become hereditary by the end of the 12th century, in England by King Richard I during the Third Crusade.
Burgher arms are used in Northern Italy in the second half of the 13th century, in the Holy Roman Empire by the mid 14th century. In the late medieval period, use of arms spread to the clergy, to towns as civic identifiers, to royally chartered organizations such as universities and trading companies; the arts of vexillology and heraldry are related. The term coat of arms itself in origin refers to the surcoat with heraldic designs worn by combattants in the knightly tournament, in Old French cote a armer; the sense is transferred to the heraldic design itself in the mid-14th century. Despite no widespread regulation, heraldry has remained consistent across Europe, where tradition alone has governed the design and use of arms; some nations, like England and Scotland, still maintain the same heraldic authorities which have traditionally granted and regulated arms for centuries and continue to do so in the present day. In England, for example, the granting of arms has been controlled by the College of Arms.
Unlike seals and other general emblems, heraldic "achievements" have a formal description called a blazon, which uses vocabulary that allows for consistency in heraldic depictions. In the present day, coats of arms are still in use by a variety of institutions and individuals: for example, many European cities and universities have guidelines on how their coats of arms may be used, protect their use as trademarks. Many societies exist that aid in the design and registration of personal arms. Heraldry has been compared to modern corporate logos; the French system of heraldry influenced the British and Western European systems. Much of the terminology and classifications are taken from it. However, with the fall of the French monarchy there is not a Fons Honorum to enforce heraldic law; the French Republics that followed have either affirmed pre-existing titles and honors or vigorously opposed noble privilege. Coats of arms are considered an intellectual property of municipal body. Assumed arms are considered valid unless they can be proved in court to copy that of an earlier holder.
In the heraldic traditions of England and Scotland, an individual, rather than a family, had a coat of arms. In those traditions coats of arms are legal property transmitted from father to son. Undifferenced arms are used only by one person at any given time. Other descendants of the original bearer could bear the ancestral arms only with some difference: a colour change or the addition of a distinguishing charge. One such charge is the label, which in British usage is now always the mark of an heir apparent or an heir presumptive; because of their importance in identification in seals on legal documents, the use of arms was regulated. This has been carried out by heralds and the study of coats of arms is therefore called "heraldry". In time, the use of arms spread from military entities to educational institutes, other establishments. In Scotland, the Lord Lyon King of Arms has criminal jurisdiction to control the use of arms. In England, Northern Ireland and Wales the use of arms is a matter of civil law and regulated by the College of Arms and the High Court of Chivalry.
In reference to a dispute over the exercise of authority over the Officers of Arms in England, Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey, Lord Privy Seal, declared on 16 June 1673 that the powers of the Earl Marshal were "to order and determine all matters touching arms, ensigns of nobility and chivalry. It was further declared that no patents of arms or any ensigns of nobility should be granted and no augmentation, alteration, or addition should be made to arms without the consent of the Earl Marshal. In Ireland the usage and granting of coats of arms was regulated by the Ulster King of Arms from the office's creation in 1552. After Irish independence in 1922 the office was still working out of Dublin Castle; the last Ulster King of Arm
A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance. It is a journey to a shrine or other location of importance to a person's beliefs and faith, although sometimes it can be a metaphorical journey into someone's own beliefs. Many religions attach spiritual importance to particular places: the place of birth or death of founders or saints, or to the place of their "calling" or spiritual awakening, or of their connection with the divine, to locations where miracles were performed or witnessed, or locations where a deity is said to live or be "housed", or any site, seen to have special spiritual powers; such sites may be commemorated with shrines or temples that devotees are encouraged to visit for their own spiritual benefit: to be healed or have questions answered or to achieve some other spiritual benefit. A person who makes such a journey is called a pilgrim; as a common human experience, pilgrimage has been proposed as a Jungian archetype by Wallace Clift and Jean Dalby Clift.
The Holy Land acts as a focal point for the pilgrimages of the Abrahamic religions of Judaism and Islam. According to a Stockholm University study in 2011, these pilgrims visit the Holy Land to touch and see physical manifestations of their faith, confirm their beliefs in the holy context with collective excitation, connect to the Holy Land. Bahá'u'lláh decreed pilgrimage to two places in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas: the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad and the House of the Báb in Shiraz, Iran. `Abdu'l-Bahá designated the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh at Bahji, Israel as a site of pilgrimage. The designated sites for pilgrimage are not accessible to the majority of Bahá'ís, as they are in Iraq and Iran and thus when Bahá'ís refer to pilgrimage, it refers to a nine-day pilgrimage which consists of visiting the holy places at the Bahá'í World Centre in northwest Israel in Haifa and Bahjí. There are four places that Buddhists pilgrimage to: Lumbini: Buddha's birthplace Bodh Gaya: place of Enlightenment Sarnath: where he delivered his first teaching Kusinara: where he attained mahaparinirvana.
Other pilgrimage places in India and Nepal connected to the life of Gautama Buddha are: Savatthi, Nalanda, Vesali, Kapilavastu, Rajagaha. Other famous places for Buddhist pilgrimage include: India: Sanchi, Ajanta. Thailand: Sukhothai, Wat Phra Kaew, Wat Doi Suthep. Tibet: Lhasa, Mount Kailash, Lake Nam-tso. Cambodia: Angkor Wat, Silver Pagoda. Sri Lanka: Polonnaruwa, Temple of the Tooth, Anuradhapura. Laos: Luang Prabang. Malaysia: Kek Lok Si, Cheng Hoon Teng, Maha Vihara Myanmar: Bagan, Sagaing Hill. Nepal: Boudhanath, Swayambhunath. Indonesia: Borobudur. China: Yung-kang, Lung-men caves; the Four Sacred Mountains Japan: Shikoku Pilgrimage, 88 Temple pilgrimage in the Shikoku island. Japan 100 Kannon, pilgrimage composed of the Bandō and Chichibu pilgrimages. Saigoku 33 Kannon, pilgrimage in the Kansai region. Bandō 33 Kannon, pilgrimage in the Kantō region. Chichibu 34 Kannon, pilgrimage in Saitama Prefecture. Chūgoku 33 Kannon, pilgrimage in the Chūgoku region. Kumano Kodō Mount Kōya. Christian pilgrimage was first made to sites connected with the birth, life and resurrection of Jesus.
Aside from the early example of Origen in the third century, surviving descriptions of Christian pilgrimages to the Holy Land date from the 4th century, when pilgrimage was encouraged by church fathers including Saint Jerome, established by Saint Helena, the mother of Constantine the Great. The purpose of Christian pilgrimage was summarized by Pope Benedict XVI this way:To go on pilgrimage is not to visit a place to admire its treasures of nature, art or history. To go on pilgrimage means to step out of ourselves in order to encounter God where he has revealed himself, where his grace has shone with particular splendour and produced rich fruits of conversion and holiness among those who believe. Above all, Christians go on pilgrimage to the Holy Land, to the places associated with the Lord’s passion and resurrection, they go to Rome, the city of the martyrdom of Peter and Paul, to Compostela, associated with the memory of Saint James, has welcomed pilgrims from throughout the world who desire to strengthen their spirit with the Apostle’s witness of faith and love.
Pilgrimages were, are made to Rome and other sites associated with the apostles and Christian martyrs, as well as to places where there have been apparitions of the Virgin Mary. A popular pilgrimage journey is along the Way of St. James to the Santiago de Compostela Cathedral, in Galicia, where the shrine of the apostle James is located. A combined pilgrimage was held every seven years in the three nearby towns of Maastricht and Kornelimünster where many important relics could be seen. Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales recounts tales told by Christian pilgrims on their way to Canterbury Cathedral and the shrine of Thomas Becket. According to Karel Werner's Popular Dictionary of Hinduism, "most Hindu places of pilgrimage are associated with legendary events from the lives of various gods.... Any place can become a focus for pilgrimage, but in most cases they are sacred cities, rivers and mountains." Hindus are encouraged to undertake pilgrimages during their lifetime, though this practice is not considered mandatory.
Most Hindus visit sites within their locale. Kumbh Mela: Kumbh Mela is one of the largest gatherings of humans in the world where pilgrims gather to
A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism or Eastern Orthodoxy, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, craft, class, family or person. Saints become the patrons of places where they were born or had been active. However, there were cases in Medieval Europe where a city which grew to prominence and obtained for its cathedral the remains or some relics of a famous saint who had lived and was buried elsewhere, thus making him or her the city's patron saint – such a practice conferred considerable prestige on the city concerned. In Latin America and the Philippines and Portuguese explorers named a location for the saint on whose feast or commemoration they first visited the place, with that saint becoming the area's patron. Professions sometimes have a patron saint owing to that individual being involved somewhat with it, although some of the connections were tenuous. Lacking such a saint, an occupation would have a patron whose acts or miracles in some way recall the profession.
For example, when the unknown profession of photography appeared in the 19th century, Saint Veronica was made its patron, owing to how her veil miraculously received the imprint of Christ's face after she wiped off the blood and sweat. The veneration or "commemoration" and recognition of patron saints or saints in general is found in Roman Catholicism, Eastern Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, among some Lutherans and Anglicans. Catholics believe that patron saints, having transcended to the metaphysical, are able to intercede for the needs of their special charges, it is, however discouraged in most Protestant branches such as Calvinism, where the practice is considered a form of idolatry. Although Islam has no codified doctrine of patronage on the part of saints, it has been an important part of both Sunni and Shia Islamic tradition that important classical saints have served as the heavenly advocates for specific Muslim empires, cities and villages. Martin Lings wrote: "There is scarcely a region in the empire of Islam which has not a Sufi for its Patron Saint."
As the veneration accorded saints develops purely organically in Islamic climates, in a manner different to Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christianity, "patron saints" are recognized through popular acclaim rather than through official declaration. Traditionally, it has been understood that the patron saint of a particular place prays for that place's wellbeing and for the health and happiness of all who live therein. However, the Wahhabi and Salafi movements within Sunnism have latterly attacked the veneration of saints, which they claim are a form of idolatry or shirk. More mainstream Sunni clerics have critiqued this argument since Wahhabism first emerged in the 18th century; the critiques notwithstanding, widespread veneration of saints in the Sunni world declined in the 20th century under Wahhabi and Salafi influence. Calendar of saints Guardian angel List of blesseds List of saints Patron saints of ailments and dangers Patron saints of occupations and activities Patron saints of places Patron saints of ethnic groups Saint symbolism Catholic Online: Patron Saints Henry Parkinson.
"Patron Saints". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. "Patron Saint". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920
St. Eugenia's Church (Stockholm)
Saint Eugenia's Church is a Roman Catholic church in the center of Stockholm. It was built in 1982 on plans of the Danish architect Jørgen Kjaergaard and is situated next to the former Royal Gardens, Kungsträdgården in Norrmalm; the Church is consecrated to an abbess of the monastery Mont Sainte-Odile in Alsace. St. Eugenia's Parish was established in 1837 and is the oldest Catholic parish in Sweden since the reformation. Services are held in Swedish, English and Arabic; the operation of the church and pastoral care of the parish is overseen by Jesuits. In 1783, when king Gustav III gave foreign Catholics religious freedom in Sweden, a provisional chapel was established in the City Hall located on Södermalm where the Stockholm City Museum is now located, close to present day Slussen. From there, the small parish was able to move into a church of its own in 1837; this second building, located on Norra Smedjegatan in the Norrmalm quarter, was the first Catholic church established after reformation.
When in 1860 religious freedom was introduced for all citizens, the Jesuit order established a first community in Sweden and was put in charge of St. Eugenia's pastoral services. In the 1950s, the municipal council decided to remodel Stockholm's inner city; the church thus was demolished and the parish had to manage with several provisional accommodations. In 1962 the municipality offered the property at Kungsträdgården 12, its present location, to the parish. Today's church, consecrated in 1982, is integrated in an historic palace and courtyard erected in 1887. Since the religious building itself is hidden behind the neo-renaissance façade of the former dwelling house, it is hardly visible as a church from outside. Just a small, gilded cross above the principal entry gives the impression that there is a church inside; the building's interior is soberly designed in red brick. Several objects in the interior have been in use since the old church at Norra Smedjegatan, such as the water fonts and the neo-baroque baptismal font of porphyry from Älvdal, a gift from King Carl XIV Johan and Queen Désirée Clary in 1838.
The tabernacle of Carraran marble was a gift to the old church from the Austrian Archduke Maximilian d'Este in 1842. Planted in the sanctuary floor, the monumental cross is carved of wood from the roof-beams of the predecessor church; the foundation stone, a gift from Pope Paul VI. is a marble block from the foundation of Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome. Separated by an adorned grille from the main liturgic space, a St. Mary's Chapel is kept open during the daytime for private visits. Hornung, Peter: S:ta Eugenia katolska kyrka. Stockholm 1998. Lind, Manne: Norra Smedjegatan: De sista åren. Stockholm 1970. Wehner, Richard: S:ta Eugenia Kyrka 1837-1937. Bidrag till Stockholms Katolska församlings historia. Uppsala 1937. Werner, Yvonne Maria: Världsvid men främmande: den katolska kyrkan i Sverige 1873-1929. Uppsala 1996. Saint Eugenia's Parish
Skövde is a locality and urban centre in Skövde Municipality and Västra Götaland County, in the Västergötland in central Southern Sweden. Skövde is situated some 150 km northeast of Gothenburg, between Sweden's two largest lakes, Vänern and Vättern, it lies on the eastern slope of a low mountain ridge, which cuts through the plain between the lakes. The Western Main Railway was built through Skövde in the 1850s, which gave the town a dramatic industrial and population boost. Today, Skövde is home to the headquarters for Skaraborg's District Court and is the Västra Götaland's fourth-largest urban area as well as Sweden's 32nd biggest locality with 34,466 inhabitants in 2010. Skövde traces its history back to the Medieval Age. In Skövde's city coat of arms is the image of Saint Elin, considered a pious woman from Skövde, she was born about 1101, was canonized in 1164. Of the medieval houses that once existed nothing remains, as a fire in 1759 burned down the entire city except for some houses called Helensgården.
After the fire, the city was rebuilt according to a grid pattern. The city only had a small population until the railway between Stockholm and Gothenburg was laid through the city, leading to an industrial and population boost. Skövde's patron saint, Saint Elin, lived in the 12th century. According to legend, she was murdered on the way to a church consecration, she was canonized on 30 July 1164 by Pope Alexander Archbishop Stefan of Sweden. During the Middle Ages, people made pilgrimages to Elin's grave, this contributed to the city's development and growth. During the Middle Ages Skövde was a successful city, the economy thriving and Skövde developed into a city of significant importance. Adjacent to the city were three churches: The City Church, The Elin Chapel directly south of the city, Holy Birgitta's Chapel in the north; the city was at this time not great in area or population, rather its greatness lay in that it was once home to the Patron Saint of the Diocese, St. Elin; the pilgrims travelled here to visit the Saint's origin and burial place, the commerce around the pilgrims came to be an important prerequisite for Skövde's development in the ensuing century.
The exact year when Skövde got its town charter is unknown, but it can be assumed to be sometime around the year 1400 when the city was mentioned in a tax roll. At the beginning of the 16th century, King Gustav Vasa confirmed the town's charter in a letter. If the 15th century was marked by success the 16th century saw an emergent decline for the city; the main reason for this was the transition to the Lutheran faith. They wanted to cleanse out all forms of idol worship in the form of saintly cults from the churches. Pilgrims ceased to travel here and a large part of the city's revenue disappeared overnight. King Gustav Vasa had plans to move the city together with some other cities of the West Göta region to Hornborgasjön in order to build a great city. In 1520 the first documented setback took place for Skövde; the Danish King, Kristian II, undertook his third military campaign against Sweden. One of the Danish armies swept through Västergötland and burned down Skövde, Falköping and Bogesund.
It was only in the 17th century that figures of how many people lived in Skövde could be estimated with any fair degree of certainty. For the year 1655, the city presented a census of 134 people, 34 farmers, 38 housewives, 12 sons, 3 daughters, 2 farmhands, 8 maids, 10 boarders, 14 boatmen, 13 described as'63 years old', i.e. contemporary retirees. During the 1660s there was some growth, in 1669 the city had a population of 168 people. At the beginning of the 18th century, Skövde was one of the county's smallest towns. In 1700, the town has just 154 inhabitants, but only 50 years had the population risen to 381. In 1770 the population had risen up to 500 people. At the beginning of the 18th century, the Swedish towns and country districts had to take care of prisoners of war captured by Karl XII's armies, it was the Saxons, Danes, Norwegians and Cossacks who lived in enforced internship in Skövde. In 1708, there were up to 56 prisoners of war in Skövde. In the town hall's civil rules one can read that the number of prisoners was now so great that every citizen had to now take care of a prisoner.
In 1718, there were up to 90 Danish prisoners, in other words, the number of prisoners of war came to dominate the small Skövde. In 1746, Carl von Linné was out on his journey through Västra Götaland, where he visited tracts of Skövde, he talks in detail about the pollarded meadows in Berg, beeches on Ingasäter and Mölltorp's alum works. When on 27 June he reached Skövde, he did not have much positive to say,'Skövde town, quarter before six from Berg, was a small spot, located on the east side of Billingen, without any lake or particular feature, the houses were small, streets irregular and Cemetery on set with lovely boxes; this city has once been the seat of St. Helena.' His journey continued the next stop being Skultorp. Once again Linnaeus was compelled to share his experiences, describing women's hats, farmhands' courtship and the magnificent view from Skultorp's Nabbe; the year 1759 saw the destruction of central Skövde in a large fire. A block of old wooden houses are preserved, together with a botanical garden, form the cultural reserve Helénsparken.
The oldest house in the park, Helénsstugan is from the early 18th cent
Canonization is the act by which a Christian church declares that a person who has died was a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the "canon", or list, of recognized saints. A person was recognized as a saint without any formal process. Different processes were developed, such as those used today in the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Church and the Anglican Communion; the first persons honored as saints were the martyrs. Pious legends of their deaths were considered affirmations of the truth of their faith in Christ; the Roman Rite's Canon of the Mass contains only the names of martyrs, along with that of the Blessed Virgin Mary and, since 1962, that of St. Joseph her spouse. By the fourth century, however, "confessors"—people who had confessed their faith not by dying but by word and life—began to be venerated publicly. Examples of such people are Saint Hilarion and Saint Ephrem the Syrian in the East, Saint Martin of Tours and Saint Hilary of Poitiers in the West.
Their names were inserted in the diptychs, the lists of saints explicitly venerated in the liturgy, their tombs were honoured in like manner as those of the martyrs. Since the witness of their lives was not as unequivocal as that of the martyrs, they were venerated publicly only with the approval by the local bishop; this process is referred to as "local canonization". This approval was required for veneration of a reputed martyr. In his history of the Donatist heresy, Saint Optatus recounts that at Carthage a Catholic matron, named Lucilla, incurred the censures of the Church for having kissed the relics of a reputed martyr whose claims to martyrdom had not been juridically proved, and Saint Cyprian recommended that the utmost diligence be observed in investigating the claims of those who were said to have died for the faith. All the circumstances accompanying the martyrdom were to be inquired into. Evidence was sought from the court records of the trials or from people, present at the trials.
Saint Augustine of Hippo tells of the procedure, followed in his day for the recognition of a martyr. The bishop of the diocese in which the martyrdom took place set up a canonical process for conducting the inquiry with the utmost severity; the acts of the process were sent either to the metropolitan or primate, who examined the cause, after consultation with the suffragan bishops, declared whether the deceased was worthy of the name of'martyr' and public veneration. Acts of formal recognition, such as the erection of an altar over the saint's tomb or transferring the saint's relics to a church, were preceded by formal inquiries into the sanctity of the person's life and the miracles attributed to that person's intercession; such acts of recognition of a saint were authoritative, in the strict sense, only for the diocese or ecclesiastical province for which they were issued, but with the spread of the fame of a saint, were accepted elsewhere also. The Church of England, the Mother Church of the Anglican Communion, canonized Charles I as a saint, in the Convocations of Canterbury and York of 1660.
In the Roman Catholic Church, both Latin and constituent Eastern churches, the act of canonization is reserved to the Apostolic See and occurs at the conclusion of a long process requiring extensive proof that the candidate for canonization lived and died in such an exemplary and holy way that they are worthy to be recognized as a saint. The Church's official recognition of sanctity implies that the person is now in Heaven and that they may be publicly invoked and mentioned in the liturgy of the Church, including in the Litany of the Saints. In the Roman Catholic Church, canonization is a decree that allows universal veneration of the saint in the liturgy of the Roman Rite. For permission to venerate locally, only beatification is needed. For several centuries the Bishops, or in some places only the Primates and Patriarchs, could grant martyrs and confessors public ecclesiastical honor. Only acceptance of the cultus by the Pope made the cultus universal, because he alone can rule the universal Catholic Church.
Abuses, crept into this discipline, due as well to indiscretions of popular fervor as to the negligence of some bishops in inquiring into the lives of those whom they permitted to be honoured as saints. In the Medieval West, the Apostolic See was asked to intervene in the question of canonizations so as to ensure more authoritative decisions; the canonization of Saint Udalric, Bishop of Augsburg by Pope John XV in 993 was the first undoubted example of Papal canonization of a saint from outside of Rome. Thereafter, recourse to the judgment of the Pope was had more frequently. Toward the end of the eleventh century the Popes judged it necessary to restrict episcopal authority regarding canonization, therefore decreed that the virtues and miracles of persons proposed for public veneration should be examined in councils, more in general councils. Pope Urban II, Pope Calixtus II, Pope Eugene III conformed to this discipline. Hugh de Boves, Archbishop of Rouen, canonized Walter of Pontoise, or St. Gaultier, in 1153, the final saint in Western Europe to be canonized by an authority other than the Pope: "The last case of canonization by a metropolitan is said to have been that of St. Gaultier, or Gaucher, bbot of Pontoise, by the Archbishop of Rouen.
A decree of