In Norse mythology, Hati Hróðvitnisson is a warg. Snorri gives another name for a wolf who swallows the moon, Mánagarmr. Hati's patronymic Hróðvitnisson, attested in both the Eddic poem "Grímnismál" and the Gylfaginning section of the Prose Edda, indicates that he is the son of Fenrir, for whom Hróðvitnir is an alternate name. According to Snorri, Hati's mother is the giantess, not named but mentioned in the Eddic poem "Völuspá", who dwells to the east of Midgard in the forest of Járnviðr and "fosters Fenrir's kin". Snorri states that this giantess and witch bears many giants for sons, all in the form of wolves, including Hati and Sköll, thus implied to be Hati's brother. In two verses of "Völuspá" that Snorri cites, an unnamed son of this giantess is prophesied to snatch the moon, eat the flesh of the dead, spattering the heavens with blood. In contrast the Eddic poem "Vafþrúðnismál" states. Snorri names a wolf named Mánagarmr as the most powerful of the giantess's progeny, goes on to say that he will swallow the moon and gorge on the dead.
This is an alternate name for Hati that Snorri took from folklore. It can be anglicized as Managarm, Manegarm, Mánagarm or Managarmr
In Norse mythology, a jötunn is a type of entity contrasted with gods and other figures, such as dwarfs and elves. The entities are themselves ambiguously defined, variously referred to by several other terms, including risi and troll. Although the term giant is sometimes used to gloss the word jötunn and its apparent synonyms in some translations and academic texts, jötnar are not notably large and may be described as exceedingly beautiful or as alarmingly grotesque; some deities, such as Skaði and Gerðr, are themselves described as jötnar, various well-attested deities, such as Odin, are descendants of the jötnar. Norse myth traces the origin of the jötnar to the proto-being Ymir, a result of growth of asexual reproduction from the entity's body. Ymir is killed, his body dismembered to create the world, the jötnar survive this event by way of sailing through a flood of Ymir's blood; the jötnar dwell in Jötunheimr. In Scandinavian folklore, the ambiguity surrounding the entities gives way to negative portrayals.
Old Norse jötunn and Old English eóten developed from the Proto-Germanic masculine noun *etunaz. Philologist Vladimir Orel says that semantic connections between *etunaz with Proto-Germanic *etanan makes a relation between the two nouns likely. Proto-Germanic *etanan is reconstructed from Old Norse etall'consuming', Old English etol'voracious, gluttonous', Old High German filu-ezzal'greedy'. Old Norse risi and Old High German riso derive from the Proto-Germanic masculine noun *wrisjon. Orel observes that the Old Saxon adjective wrisi-līke'enormous' is also connected. Old Norse þurs, Old English ðyrs, Old High German duris'devil, evil spirit' derive from the Proto-Germanic masculine noun *þursaz, itself derived form Proto-Germanic *þurēnan, etymologically connected to Sanskrit turá-'strong, rich'. For discussion regarding Old Norse troll and its development, see troll. Several terms are used to refer to female entities that fall into this category, including íviðja and gýgr; the jötnar are attested throughout the Old Norse record.
For example, in a stanza of Völuspá hin skamma, a variety of origins are provided: völvas are descended from Viðòlfr, all seers from Vilmeiðr, all charm-workers from Svarthöfði, all jötnar descend from Ymir. List of jötnar in Norse mythology Trollhunter Jeramy; the Poetic Edda. Coach House Books. ISBN 978 1 55245 2967. Bellows, Henry Adams; the Poetic Edda. Princeton University Press. New York: The American-Scandinavian Foundation. Orel, Vladimir. A Handbook of Germanic Etymology. Brill. ISBN 9004128751 Thorpe, Benjamin. Edda Sæmundar Hinns Frôða: The Edda of Sæmund the Learned. Part I. London: Trübner & Co
In Germanic mythology, Fulla or Volla is a goddess. In Norse mythology, Fulla is described as wearing a golden band and as tending to the ashen box and the footwear owned by the goddess Frigg, and, in addition, Frigg confides in Fulla her secrets. Fulla is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources. Volla is attested in the "Horse Cure" Merseburg Incantation, recorded anonymously in the 10th century in Old High German, in which she assists in healing the wounded foal of Phol and is referred to as Frigg's sister. Scholars have proposed theories about the implications of the goddess. In the prose introduction to the Poetic Edda poem Grímnismál, Frigg makes a wager with her husband—the god Odin—over the hospitality of their human patrons. Frigg sends her servant maid Fulla to warn the king Geirröd—Frigg's patron—that a magician will visit him. Fulla meets with Geirröd, gives the warning, advises to him a means of detecting the magician: In chapter 35 of the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning, High provides brief descriptions of 16 ásynjur.
High lists Fulla fifth, stating that, like the goddess Gefjun, Fulla is a virgin, wears her hair flowing with a gold band around her head. High describes that Fulla carries Frigg's eski, looks after Frigg's footwear, that in Fulla Frigg confides secrets. In chapter 49 of Gylfaginning, High details that, after the death of the deity couple Baldr and Nanna, the god Hermóðr wagers for their return in the underworld location of Hel. Hel, ruler of the location of the same name, tells Hermóðr a way to resurrect Baldr, but will not allow Baldr and Nanna to leave until the deed is accomplished. Hel does, allow Baldr and Nanna to send gifts to the living. Of these "other gifts" sent, the only specific item that High mentions is a finger-ring for Fulla; the first chapter of the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál, Fulla is listed among eight ásynjur who attend an evening drinking banquet held for Ægir. In chapter 19 of Skáldskaparmál, poetic ways to refer to Frigg are given, one of, by referring to her as "queen of Fulla."
In chapter 32, poetic expressions for gold are given, one of which includes "Fulla's snood." In chapter 36, a work by the skald Eyvindr skáldaspillir is cited that references Fulla's golden headgear. Fulla receives a final mention in the Prose Edda in chapter 75, where Fulla appears within a list of 27 ásynjur names. One of the two Merseburg Incantations, recorded in Old High German, mentions Volla; the incantation describes how Phol and Wodan rode to a wood, there Balder's foal sprained its foot. Sinthgunt sang charms, her sister Sunna sang charms, Friia sang charms, her sister Volla sang charms, Wodan sang charms, followed by a verse describing the healing of the foal's bone; the charm reads: Phol and Wodan went to the forest. Balder's horse sprained its foot. Sinthgunt sang charms, Sunna her sister. Andy Orchard comments that the seeming appearance of Baldr with Volla in the Merseburg Incantation is "intriguing" since Fulla is one of the three goddesses the deceased Baldr expressly sends gifts to from Hel.
John Lindow says that since the name Fulla seems to have something to do with fullness, it may point to an association with fertility. Rudolf Simek comments that while Snorri notes that Baldr sends Fulla a golden ring from Hel in Gylfaginning, "this does not prove that she plays any role in the Baldr myth, but shows that Snorri associated her with gold" because of kennings used associating Fulla with gold. Simek says that since Fulla appears in the poetry of Skalds as early as the 10th century that she was "not a late personification of plenty" but that she is likely identical with Volla from the Merseburg Incantation. Simek adds that it is unclear as to who Fulla is. John Knight Bostock says that theories have been proposed that the Fulla may at one time have been an aspect of Frigg; as a result, this notion has resulted in theory that a similar situation may have existed between the figures of the goddesses Sinthgunt and Sunna, in that the two may have been understood as aspects of one another rather than separate figures.
Hilda Ellis Davidson states that the goddesses Gefjun, Gerðr, Skaði "may represent important goddesses of early times in the North, but little was remembered about them by the time Snorri was collecting his material." On the other hand, Davidson notes that it is possible that these goddesses are viewable as aspects of a single Great Goddess. Davidson calls Fulla and Volla "vague, uncertain figures, emerging from odd references to goddesses which Snorri has noted in the poets, but they suggest the possibility that at one time three generations were represented among the goddesses of fertility and harvest in Scandinavia."
Þorgerðr Hölgabrúðr and Irpa
Þorgerðr Hǫlgabrúðr and Irpa are divine figures in Norse mythology. They appear together in Jómsvíkinga saga, Njáls saga, Þorleifs þáttr jarlsskálds. Irpa’s name does not appear outside of these four attestations, but Þorgerðr appears in the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál, Færeyinga saga, Harðar saga ok Hólmverja and is mentioned in Ketils saga hœngs. Þorgerðr Hǫlgabrúðr is associated with Haakon Sigurdsson, and, in Jómsvíkinga saga and Þorleifs þáttr jarlsskálds, Þorgerðr and Irpa are described as sisters. The roles of the Þorgerðr Hǫlgabrúðr and Irpa in these sources and the implications of their names has been the topic of some scholarly discourse and conjecture; the name Þorgerðr Hǫlgabrúðr is Old Norse and means "Þorgerðr, Hǫlgi's bride." According to Skáldskaparmál chapter 42, Hǫlgi is Þorgerðr's father. The first name Þorgerðr is a compound of two names: the god name Þor and gerðr – the latter name meaning "fenced in"; the figure's second name sometimes appears in sources featuring -brúðr replaced with -troll, and, in place of Hǫlg-, the prefixes Hǫrða-, Hǫrga-, Hǫlda- appear.
It has been suggested that name Þorgerðr derives from the name of the jǫtunn Gerðr, as Þorgerðr is described at times as a troll or giantess. Alternatively, Gerðr may be an abbreviated version of the name Þorgerðr. Þorgerðr is referred to as Gerðr in Tindr Hallkelsson’s 10th century drápa on Haakon, quoted in chapter 43 of Óláfs saga Tryggvasonar, found in the Heimskringla. John McKinnell states that the name of Þorgerðr's father is a addition used to explain the origins of the name of Hålogaland, that "Hǫlgabrúðr" means "bride of the Hålogaland" and that Hǫrðabrúðr may mean "bride of the Hörðaland." Hǫrðabrúðr as "bride of the heathen shrines," and hǫldabrúðr as either "bride of the people of Holde" or "bride of noblemen." McKinnell says that the variety of stories and names suggest that the tradition of Þorgerðr Hǫlgabrúðr was wide spread, that she was venerated in more than one area. The name Irpa may derive from the Old Norse term jarpr "dark brown", which has led to a number of theories about the goddess.
Jarpr is thought to derive from the earlier Proto-Germanic word *erpa-. Þorgerðr and/or Irpa are attested in the following works: Irpa appears in chapter 21 of the Jómsvíkinga saga, which focuses on the late 10th century Battle of Hjörungavágr between the fleet of the Jomsvikings under Sigvaldi Strut-Haraldsson and the fleet of Haakon Sigurdsson and Sweyn Haakonsson. Haakon calls a meeting during a lull in the fighting, says that he feels that the tide of the battle is going against his allies and him. Haakon goes to an island called Primsigned, north of Hjórunga Bay. On the island, Haakon falls to his knees, while looking northward, prays to what is described as his patron goddess, Þorgerðr Hǫlgabrúðr. According to the saga, Þorgerðr refuses his offers, but accepts the blót of his 7 year-old son. Haakon's slave, slaughters the boy. Haakon returns to his fleet and presses his men to engage in an attack, commends his men to: Press the attack all the more vigorously, because I have invoked for victory both the sisters and Irpa.
Haakon enters his ship, the fleet rows forward for the attack, battle ensues. The weather becomes thick in the north, the clouds cover the sky, daylight becomes sparse and lightning ring out, it begins to rain; the Jomvikings fleet fights facing the storm and cold, they have trouble standing due to the heavy wind. The Jomsvikings throw weapons and stones at Haakon's fleet but the winds turn their projectiles back at them. Hávard the Hewing, in the fleet of Haakon, first spots Þorgerðr there and many others see her; the wind wanes and the men witness arrows flying from the fingertips of Þorgerðr, each arrow killing a man of the Jomsviking fleet. The Jomsvikings tell Sigvaldi that although they are no longer fighting men alone, they will still do their best; the storm lessens once again Haakon invokes Þorgerðr. The saga describes this attack: And it grew dark again with a squall, this time stronger and worse than before, and right at the beginning of the squall Hávard the Hewing saw that two women were standing on the earl's ship, both were doing the same thing that Thorgerd had done before.
Sigvaldi tells his men to retreat, reasons that this is not what he vowed to fight since there are now two women, whom he refers to as "ogresses" and "trolls." After the Jomvikings fleet has been defeated, Haakon's men weigh the hailstones that had fallen during the storm, to detect "what power" Þorgerðr and Irpa had, they find that the hailstones weigh an ounce each. Þorgerðr and Irpa are again mentioned together in chapter 88 of Njáls saga, set in the 10th and 11th centuries. Here, Hrapp breaks into the temple owned by Haakon and Gudbrand while Haakon is at a feast at Gudbrand's home. Hrapp plunders a seated depiction of Þorgerðr. Next, Hrapp spots Thor's wain, he takes a gold ring from the depiction of Thor too, thirdly, he takes a ring from a depiction of Irpa there. Hrapp takes all of the images from the temple, strips them of their items, burns the temple until leaving at dawn. Þorgerðr is mentioned in the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál. Here, Hålogaland is described as named after king Hǫlgi, that he was Þorgerðr's father.
According to Skáldskaparmál, blót were made to them both that included money, a tumulus was made for Hǫlgi, built with layers of
In Norse mythology, a valkyrie is one of a host of female figures who choose those who may die in battle and those who may live. Selecting among half of those who die in battle, the valkyries bring their chosen to the afterlife hall of the slain, ruled over by the god Odin. There, the deceased warriors become einherjar; when the einherjar are not preparing for the events of Ragnarök, the valkyries bear. Valkyries appear as lovers of heroes and other mortals, where they are sometimes described as the daughters of royalty, sometimes accompanied by ravens and sometimes connected to swans or horses. Valkyries are attested in the Poetic Edda, the Prose Edda, the Heimskringla and the Njáls saga, all written—or compiled—in the 13th century, they appear throughout the poetry of skalds, in a 14th-century charm, in various runic inscriptions. The Old English cognate terms wælcyrge and wælcyrie appear in several Old English manuscripts, scholars have explored whether the terms appear in Old English by way of Norse influence, or reflect a tradition native among the Anglo-Saxon pagans.
Scholarly theories have been proposed about the relation between the valkyries, the Norns, the dísir, all of which are supernatural figures associated with fate. Archaeological excavations throughout Scandinavia have uncovered amulets theorized as depicting valkyries. In modern culture, valkyries have been the subject of works of art, musical works, comic books, video games and poetry; the word valkyrie derives from Old Norse valkyrja, composed of two words: the noun valr and the verb kjósa. Together, they mean'chooser of the slain'; the Old Norse valkyrja is cognate to Old English wælcyrge. From the Old English and Old Norse forms, philologist Vladimir Orel reconstructs the Proto-Germanic form *wala-kuzjōn. However, the term may have been borrowed into Old English from Old Norse: see discussion in the Old English attestations section below. Other terms for valkyries in Old Norse sources include óskmey, appearing in the poem Oddrúnargrátr and Óðins meyjar, appearing in the Nafnaþulur. Óskmey may be related to the Odinic name Óski, referring to the fact that Odin receives slain warriors in Valhalla.
Valkyries are mentioned or appear in the Poetic Edda poems Völuspá, Grímnismál, Völundarkviða, Helgakviða Hjörvarðssonar, Helgakviða Hundingsbana I, Helgakviða Hundingsbana II and Sigrdrífumál. In stanza 30 of the poem Völuspá, a völva tells Odin that "she saw" valkyries coming from far away who are ready to ride to "the realm of the gods"; the völva follows this with a list of six valkyries: Skuld who "bore a shield", Skögul, Hildr, Göndul and Geirskögul. Afterwards, the völva tells him she has listed the "ladies of the War Lord, ready to ride, over the earth". In the poem Grímnismál, tortured and thirsty, tells the young Agnar that he wishes that the valkyries Hrist and Mist would "bear him a horn" provides a list of 11 more valkyries who he says "bear ale to the einherjar". A prose introduction in the poem Völundarkviða relates that the brothers Slagfiðr, Egil and Völund dwelt in a house sited in a location called Úlfdalir. There, early one morning, the brothers find three women spinning linen on the shore of the lake Úlfsjár, "near them were their swan's garments.
Two daughters of King Hlödvér are named Hervör alvitr. The brothers take the three women back to their hall with them—Egil takes Ölrún, Slagfiðr takes Hlaðguðr svanhvít and Völund takes Hervör alvitr, they live together for seven winters, until the women do not return. Egil goes off in snow-shoes to look for Ölrún, Slagfiðr goes searching for Hlaðguðr svanhvít and Völund sits in Úlfdalir. In the poem Helgakviða Hjörvarðssonar, a prose narrative says that an unnamed and silent young man, the son of the Norwegian King Hjörvarðr and Sigrlinn of Sváfaland, witnesses nine valkyries riding by while sitting atop a burial mound, he finds one striking. The valkyrie speaks to the unnamed man, gives him the name Helgi; the silent Helgi speaks. The valkyrie tells him she knows of a hoard of swords in Sigarsholm, that one of them is of particular importance, which she describes in detail. Further into the poem, Atli flytes with the female jötunn Hrímgerðr. While flyting with Atli, Hrímgerðr says that she had seen 27 valkyries around Helgi, yet one fair valkyrie led the band: Three
In Norse mythology, Gefjon is a goddess associated with ploughing, the Danish island of Zealand, the legendary Swedish king Gylfi, the legendary Danish king Skjöldr and virginity. Gefjon is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources; the Prose Edda and Heimskringla both report that Gefjon plowed away what is now lake Mälaren and with this land formed the island of Zealand, Denmark. In addition, the Prose Edda describes that not only is Gefjon a virgin herself, but that all who die a virgin become her attendants. Heimskringla records that Gefjon married the legendary Danish king Skjöldr and that the two dwelled in Lejre, Denmark. Scholars have proposed theories about the etymology the name of the goddess, connections to fertility and ploughing practices, the implications of the references made to her as a virgin, five potential mentions of the goddess in the Old English poem Beowulf, potential connections between Gefjon and Grendel's Mother and/or the goddesses Freyja and Frigg.
The etymology of theonym Gefjon has been a matter of dispute. In modern scholarship, the element Gef- is held to be related to the element Gef- in the name Gefn, one of the numerous names for the goddess Freyja, means'she who gives'; the connection between the two names has resulted in etymological interpretation of Gefjun as "the giving one." The names Gefjun and Gefn are both related to the Matron groups the Ollogabiae. Albert Murey Sturtevant notes that "the only other feminine personal name which contains the suffix -un is Njǫr-un, recorded only in the þulur, among the kvenna heiti ókend. Whatever the stem syllable Njǫr- represents, the addition of the n- and un-suffixes seems to furnish an exact parallel to Gef-n: Gefj-un."A Finnish word for "bride's outfit, trousseau" may derive from Gefjon's name. In the Poetic Edda, Gefjon appears in three stanzas of the poem Lokasenna, where an exchange occurs between Gefjun and Loki at a dinner feast, the god Odin comes to Gefjon's defense. After an exchange occurs between Loki and the goddess Iðunn, Gefjon questions why Loki wants to bring negativity into the hall with the assembled gods: The last two lines of the stanza above differ by translation.
Henry Adams Bellows comments that the manuscript text for these two lines is "puzzling" and that as a result they have been "freely amended." In the stanza that follows, Loki responds to Gefjon, commenting that a youthful male once gave her a necklace, that with this youth Gefjon slept: Odin interjects. This woman was "of the race of the Æsir" and her name was Gefjun. Gefjun took four oxen from Jötunheimr in the north; these oxen were her sons from a jötunn. Gefjun's plough "cut so hard and deep that it uprooted the land, the oxen drew the land out into the sea to the west and halted in a certain sound." Gefjun there placed the land, bestowed upon it the name Zealand. Where the land had been taken from a lake stands. According to Snorri, the lake is now known as Lake Mälar, located in Sweden, the inlets in this lake parallel the headlands of Zealand; as a reference, the prose account presents a stanza from a work attributed to the 9th century skald Bragi Boddason: Gefjun dragged from Gylfi, gladly the land beyond value.
Denmark's increase, steam rising from the swift-footed bulls. The oxen bore eight moons of the forehead and four heads, hauling as they went in front of the grassy isle's wide fissure. In chapter 35 of Gylfaginning, the enthroned figure of High presents a list of goddesses. High presents Gefjun fourth, says that Gefjun is a virgin, all who die as virgins attend her. In relation, High notes that, like Gefjun, the goddess Fulla is a virgin. At the beginning of the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál, Gefjun is listed among nine goddesses who attend a banquet for Ægir on the island of Hlesey. In chapter 32, Gefjun is listed among six goddesses. In chapter 75, Gefjun is included among a list of 27 ásynjur names. In addition, Gefjun appears in a kenning for the völva Gróa employed in the skald Þjóðólfr of Hvinir's composition Haustlöng as quoted in chapter 17 of Skáldskaparmál. In chapter 5 of Ynglinga saga, a euhemerized prose account relates that Odin sent Gefjun from Odense, Funen "north over the sound to seek for land."
There, Gefjun encountered king Gylfi "and he gave her ploughland." Gefjun went to the land of Jötunheimr, there bore four sons to a jötunn. Gefjun transformed these four sons into oxen, attached them to a plough, drew forth the land westward of the sea, opposite to Odense; the saga adds that this land is now called Zealand, that Gefjun married Skjöldr. The two dwelled in Lejre thereafter. From where Gefjun took the land
In early Germanic paganism, *Wulþuz appears to have been an important concept personified as a god, or an epithet of an important god. The term wolþu- "glory" in reference to the god, is attested on the 3rd century Thorsberg chape, there are many placenames in Ullr and a related name, but medieval Icelandic sources have only sparse material on the god Ullr; the medieval Norse word was Latinized as Ollerus. The Icelandic form is Ullur. In the mainland North Germanic languages, the modern form is Ull; the Old English cognate wuldor means "glory" but is not used as a proper name, although it figures in kennings for the Christian God such as wuldres cyning "king of glory", wuldorfæder "glory-father" or wuldor alwealda "glorious all-ruler". The Thorsberg chape bears an Elder Futhark inscription, one of the earliest known altogether, dating to AD 200. Owlþuþewaz / niwajmariz The first element owlþu, for wolþu-, means "glory", "glorious one", Old Norse Ullr, Old English wuldor; the second element, -þewaz, means "slave, servant".
The whole compound is a personal name or title, "servant of the glorious one", "servant/priest of Ullr". Niwajmariz means "well-honored". In Saxo Grammaticus' 12th century work Gesta Danorum, where gods appear euhemerized, Ollerus is described as a cunning wizard with magical means of transportation: When Odin was exiled, Ollerus was chosen to take his place. Ollerus ruled under the name Odin for ten years. Ullr is mentioned in the poem Grímnismál; the English versions shown here are by Thorpe. The name Ýdalir, meaning "yew dales", is not otherwise attested; the yew was an important material in the making of bows, the word ýr, "yew", is used metonymically to refer to bows. It seems that the name Ýdalir is connected with the idea of Ullr as a bow-god. Another strophe in Grímnismál mentions Ullr; the strophe may refer to some sort of religious ceremony. It seems to indicate Ullr as an important god; the last reference to Ullr in the Poetic Edda is found in Atlakviða: Both Atlakviða and Grímnismál are considered to be among the oldest extant Eddic poems.
It may not be a coincidence. Again we seem to find Ullr associated with some sort of ceremony, this time that of swearing an oath by a ring, a practice associated with Thor in sources. In chapter 31 of Gylfaginning in the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, Ullr is referred to as a son of Sif and as a stepson of Sif's husband. Snorri informs his readers that Ullr can be called bow-god, hunting-god and shield-god. In turn a shield can be called Ullr's ship. Despite these tantalising tidbits Snorri relates no myths about Ullr, it seems that he didn't know any, the god having faded from memory. Snorri's note that a shield can be called Ullr's ship is borne out by surviving skaldic poetry with kennings such as askr Ullar, far Ullar and kjóll Ullar all meaning Ullr's ship and referring to shields. While the origin of this kenning is unknown it could be connected with the identity of Ullr as a ski-god. Early skis, or sleds, might have been reminiscent of shields. A late Icelandic composition, Laufás-Edda, offers the prosaic explanation that Ullr's ship was called Skjöldr, "Shield".
The name of Ullr is common in warrior kennings, where it is used as other god names are. Ullr brands – Ullr of sword – warrior rand-Ullr – shield-Ullr – warrior Ullr almsíma – Ullr of bowstring – warriorThree skaldic poems, Þórsdrápa, Haustlöng and a fragment by Eysteinn Valdason, refer to Thor as Ullr's stepfather, confirming Snorri's information. Ullr's name appears in several important Swedish place names; this indicates that Ullr had at some point a religious importance in Scandinavia, greater than what is apparent from the scant surviving textual references. It is probably significant that the placenames referring to this god are found close to placenames referring to another deity: Njörðr in Sweden and Freyr in Norway; some of the Norwegian placenames have Ullinn. It has been suggested that this is the remnant of a pair of divine twins and further that there may have been a female Ullin, on the model of divine pairs such as Fjörgyn and Fjörgynn. Ullarhváll - name of an old farm in Oslo and of Ullevaal Stadion Ullestad - name of old farm in Voss.
Ullarnes - name of an old farm in Rennesøy. Ullerøy - name of four old farms in Skjeberg, Spind, Sør-Odal and Vestre Moland. Ullern - name of old farms in Hole, Ullensaker, Sør-Odal and Øvre Eiker. Ullinsakr - name of two old farms in Hemsedal and Torpa. Ullinshof - name of three old farms in Nes, Nes and Ullensaker. Ullensvang - name of an old farm in Ullensvang. Ullinsvin - name of an old farm in Vågå. Ullsfjorden - fjord in Troms county. Believed to be named after Ullr, although there is some uncertainty. Ulvik - village and fjord in Hordaland county.(For a possible nickname *Ringir for Ullr see under the na