A helicopter, or chopper, is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, to fly forward and laterally; these attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft and many forms of VTOL aircraft cannot perform. The English word helicopter is adapted from the French word hélicoptère, coined by Gustave Ponton d'Amécourt in 1861, which originates from the Greek helix "helix, whirl, convolution" and pteron "wing". English language nicknames for helicopter include "chopper", "copter", "helo", "heli", "whirlybird". Helicopters were developed and built during the first half-century of flight, with the Focke-Wulf Fw 61 being the first operational helicopter in 1936; some helicopters reached limited production, but it was not until 1942 that a helicopter designed by Igor Sikorsky reached full-scale production, with 131 aircraft built. Though most earlier designs used more than one main rotor, it is the single main rotor with anti-torque tail rotor configuration that has become the most common helicopter configuration.
Tandem rotor helicopters are in widespread use due to their greater payload capacity. Coaxial helicopters, tiltrotor aircraft, compound helicopters are all flying today. Quadcopter helicopters were pioneered as early as 1907 in France, other types of multicopter have been developed for specialized applications such as unmanned drones; the earliest references for vertical flight came from China. Since around 400 BC, Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys; this bamboo-copter is spun by rolling a stick attached to a rotor. The spinning creates lift, the toy flies when released; the 4th-century AD Daoist book Baopuzi by Ge Hong describes some of the ideas inherent to rotary wing aircraft. Designs similar to the Chinese helicopter toy appeared in some Renaissance paintings and other works. In the 18th and early 19th centuries Western scientists developed flying machines based on the Chinese toy, it was not until the early 1480s, when Italian polymath Leonardo da Vinci created a design for a machine that could be described as an "aerial screw", that any recorded advancement was made towards vertical flight.
His notes suggested that he built small flying models, but there were no indications for any provision to stop the rotor from making the craft rotate. As scientific knowledge increased and became more accepted, people continued to pursue the idea of vertical flight. In July 1754, Russian Mikhail Lomonosov had developed a small coaxial modeled after the Chinese top but powered by a wound-up spring device and demonstrated it to the Russian Academy of Sciences, it was powered by a spring, was suggested as a method to lift meteorological instruments. In 1783, Christian de Launoy, his mechanic, used a coaxial version of the Chinese top in a model consisting of contrarotating turkey flight feathers as rotor blades, in 1784, demonstrated it to the French Academy of Sciences. Sir George Cayley, influenced by a childhood fascination with the Chinese flying top, developed a model of feathers, similar to that of Launoy and Bienvenu, but powered by rubber bands. By the end of the century, he had progressed to using sheets of tin for rotor blades and springs for power.
His writings on his experiments and models would become influential on future aviation pioneers. Alphonse Pénaud would develop coaxial rotor model helicopter toys in 1870 powered by rubber bands. One of these toys, given as a gift by their father, would inspire the Wright brothers to pursue the dream of flight. In 1861, the word "helicopter" was coined by Gustave de Ponton d'Amécourt, a French inventor who demonstrated a small steam-powered model. While celebrated as an innovative use of a new metal, the model never lifted off the ground. D'Amecourt's linguistic contribution would survive to describe the vertical flight he had envisioned. Steam power was popular with other inventors as well. In 1878 the Italian Enrico Forlanini's unmanned vehicle powered by a steam engine, rose to a height of 12 meters, where it hovered for some 20 seconds after a vertical take-off. Emmanuel Dieuaide's steam-powered design featured counter-rotating rotors powered through a hose from a boiler on the ground. In 1887 Parisian inventor, Gustave built and flew a tethered electric model helicopter.
In July 1901, the maiden flight of Hermann Ganswindt's helicopter took place in Berlin-Schöneberg. A movie covering the event was taken by Max Skladanowsky. In 1885, Thomas Edison was given US$1,000 by James Gordon Bennett, Jr. to conduct experiments towards developing flight. Edison built a helicopter and used the paper for a stock ticker to create guncotton, with which he attempted to power an internal combustion engine; the helicopter was damaged by explosions and one of his workers was badly burned. Edison reported that it would take a motor with a ratio of three to four pounds per horsepower produced to be successful, based on his experiments. Ján Bahýľ, a Slovak inventor, adapted the internal combustion engine to power his helicopter model that reached a height of 0.5 meters in 1901. On 5 May 1905, his helicopter flew for over 1,500 meters. In 1908, Edison patented his own design for a helicopter powered by a gasoline engine with box kites attached to a mast by cables for a rotor, but it never flew.
In 1906, two French brothers and Louis Breguet, began experimenting wit
Monarda fistulosa, the wild bergamot or bee balm, is a wildflower in the mint family widespread and abundant as a native plant in much of North America. This plant, with showy summer-blooming pink to lavender flowers, is used as a honey plant, medicinal plant, garden ornamental; the species is quite variable, several subspecies or varieties have been recognized within it. Monarda fistulosa is an herbaceous perennial that grows from slender creeping rhizomes, thus occurring in large clumps; the plants are up to 3 ft tall, with a few erect branches. Its leaves are about 2-3 in long, lance-shaped, toothed, its compact flower clusters are solitary at the ends of branches. Each cluster is about 1.5 in long. Wild bergamot grows in rich soils in dry fields and clearings on limy soil; the plants flower from June to September. Monarda fistulosa ranges from Quebec to the Northwest Territories and British Columbia, south to Georgia, Arizona and northeastern Washington; the plant is noted for its fragrance, is a source of oil of thyme.
Several varieties have been variously recognized within Monarda fistulosa, of which some have been treated as subspecies or as distinct species. Some of the varieties are geographically widespread, others are quite restricted in their ranges. Varieties include: Monarda fistulosa var. brevis – Smoke Hole bergamot Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa – wild bergamot Monarda fistulosa var. longipetiolata – Monarda fistulosa var. maheuxii – Monarda fistulosa var. menthifolia – Monarda fistulosa var. mollis – Monarda fistulosa var. rubra – Monarda fistulosa, unnamed variety – One authority states that Native Americans recognized four kinds of wild bergamot that had different odors. It is listed as historical in Rhode Island, it is listed as weed in Nebraska. Wild bergamot was considered a medicinal plant by many Native Americans including the Menominee, the Ojibwe, the Winnebago, it was used most to treat colds, was made into a tea. Today, many families still use wild bergamot during the cold and flu season.
The tea may be sweetened with honey. The species of Monarda that may go under the common name "bee balm," including M. fistulosa, have a long history of use as a medicinal plant by Native Americans, including the Blackfoot. The Blackfoot recognized the plant's strong antiseptic action, used poultices of the plant for skin infections and minor wounds. A tea made from the plant was used to treat mouth and throat infections caused by dental caries and gingivitis. Bee balm is the natural source of the antiseptic thymol, the primary active ingredient in modern commercial mouthwash formulas; the Winnebago used. Bee balm was used as a carminative herb by Native Americans to treat excessive flatulence. Leaves were eaten boiled with meat and a concoction of the plant was made into hair pomade; the herb is considered an active diaphoretic. The essential oil of Monarda fistulosa was analyzed using mass spectrometry and arithmetical retention indices, was found to contain p-cymene, thymol, an aliphatic aldehyde, the methyl ether of carvacrol, α-pinene, β-pinene, sabinene hydrate, α-terpinene, citronellyl acetate, β-caryophyllene.
As a honey plant, it is popular with a variety of pollinators, including bees and lepidoptera. It is a larval host to the hermit sphinx, orange mint moth, raspberry pyrausta. List of honey plants Blanchan, Neltje. Wild Flowers: An Aid to Knowledge of our Wild Flowers and their Insect Visitors. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. Connecticut Plants, Connecticut Botanical SocietyEdibility of Monarda fistulosa: Visual identification and edible parts of Monarda fistulosa Wild Bergamot, Andy's Northern Ontario Wildflowers
Dean Willard was a candidate for the Seattle Port Commission, fifth position in 2011. As a senior in high school, Willard interned with Alaska Attorney General Wilson Condon. Willard attended Brigham Young University in Idaho. From June 1993 to July 1995, Willard was the Vice President of Perception Management, a public relations and political campaign consulting company, he was responsible for information technology functions. In August 1995, he was a Partner and Technology Consultant at Accenture and stayed there until October 2006, where he became the Vice President of Enterprise Information Security at T-Mobile USA. In 2008, he left T-Mobile USA to start his own IT Security consulting business, working as a technology management and information security consultant, he is married to Dorothy Willard. As a member of the 5th District Democrats, he has been a district committeeman, the chairman of the King County Democrats endorsements committee. Willard worked behind the scenes on several campaigns including Joe Mallahan's recent Seattle mayoral campaign.
Willard managed Oregon Democrat State Rep. Tim Josi's 1990 political campaign, served as his legislative assistant during his freshman term for the 1991 session. Willard challenged the incumbent, Representative Glenn Anderson, for position 2 in the 5th Legislative District on the grounds that the constituents are not well represented in the all-Republican district; the district has changed over the last ten years. His platform issues includes tax funding for schools, he has criticized the current tax system as regressive. He has criticized the Business and Occupation Tax, calling it unfair to small businesses, stated that exemptions on property tax favor large businesses. Willard says that K-12 basic education is in a poor state due to the lack of proper funding. Willard cites his corporate and entrepreneurial experience as a means to solve the state’s ongoing budget crisis, with stated goals of promoting economic development and improving the public school system. Willard was endorsed by the 5th Legislative District.
Willard is running against incumbent Bill Bryant. Will "Walkin' Will" Knedlik has withdrawn from the race. Willard has endorsements from the 37th Dems. Willard is on the board of directors for the Seattle Youth Symphony, the steering committee for Treehouse for Kids Golf Tournament, the Washington Community For Self-Help Gala. Washington State House elections, 2010 Dean Willard official campaign website Dean Willard, Pos 2 5th District candidate statements Dean Willard's Campaign Contributions "Dean Willard to challenge Glenn Anderson in 5th District" - Sammamish Review