CBP Air and Marine Operations
Air and Marine Operations is a federal law enforcement agency within U. S. Customs and Border Protection, a component of the Department of Homeland Security. AMO is maritime law enforcement organization, its mission is to protect the American people and nation’s critical infrastructure through the coordinated use of air and marine assets to detect and prevent acts of terrorism and the unlawful movement of people, illegal drugs, other contraband toward or across the borders of the United States. Air and Marine Operations Agents and Officers are endowed with the authority to enforce Title 8 and Title 19 of the United States Code in addition to the general law enforcement powers bestowed upon federal law enforcement agents; this specialized law enforcement capability allows AMO to make significant contributions to the efforts of the Department of Homeland Security, as well as to those of other federal, state and tribal agencies. AMO is uniquely positioned to provide direct air and maritime support to multiple agencies and to ensure the success of border protection and law enforcement operations between ports of entry, within the maritime domain and within the nation’s interior.
To accomplish its mission, AMO employs over 1,200 Federal Agents and Officers at 70 locations, operating more than 260 aircraft of 26 different types, 300 maritime vessels. It is one of the major operational components within U. S. Customs and Border Protection, along with the Office of Field Operations and United States Border Patrol. 1789 - The U. S. Customs Service is established to aid in the protection of the revenue of the United States and to prevent the smuggling of contraband. A fleet of vessels begin to patrol the coastal waters of the United States. Congress authorized the Collector of Customs to hire boatsmen; these vessels and boatsmen were the forerunners of today’s Midnight Express Interceptor vessels and Marine Interdiction Agents. 1808 - Boatsmen Asa March and Elis Drake became the first Customs officers to die in the line of duty. They gave their lives during a marine interdiction and subsequent gunfight on Lake Champlain in New York. 1922 - U. S. Customs Service Patrol began to use seized aircraft to enable aerial surveillance and enforcement.
1932 - A record-high 35 aircraft were seized for smuggling. This led to the establishment of an unofficial Customs Patrol Air Group; the new aerial surveillance effort focused on the southern U. S. border. 1969 - The U. S. Customs Service established its aviation program, which became operational in 1971. 1973 - The U. S. Customs Service's marine program was established in its modern form within the USCS Office of Investigations. 1999 - The USCS Air and Marine Interdiction Division was formed by merging the aviation and marine programs. March 1st, 2003 - Pursuant to the Homeland Security Act of 2002, the U. S. Customs Service and Immigration and Naturalization Service were abolished, their components were transferred to newly formed agencies within the Department of Homeland Security; the USCS Air and Marine Interdiction Division was transferred to Immigration and Customs Enforcement, becoming the Office of Air and Marine Operations. The U. S. Border Patrol with its aviation and marine assets was transferred from the Immigration and Naturalization Service to U.
S. Customs and Border Protection, becoming the Office of Border Patrol. October 23rd, 2004 - ICE Air and Marine Operations was transferred to U. S. Customs and Border Protection due to political and budgetary disputes between ICE and CBP. October 1st, 2005 - U. S. Customs and Border Protection integrated its Air and Marine Operations and Border Patrol aviation assets and personnel to more accomplish its aviation missions, forming the Office of CBP Air. January 17th, 2006 - U. S. Customs and Border Protection consolidated all aviation and marine assets under the newly titled Office of Air and Marine, which has the responsibility of providing training, creating standard operating procedures, as well as procuring and maintaining equipment for the entirety of CBP's aviation and marine programs; the purpose of these consolidations was to align air and marine law enforcement personnel and assets into one agency, enabling them to better accomplish the new homeland security mission. October 1st, 2015 - U.
S. Customs and Border Protection's Office of Air and Marine changed its name to Air and Marine Operations. Among AMO's many missions are anti-terrorism, countering smuggling, stopping illegal immigration; the agency uses its aviation and marine assets to detect and apprehend conveyances carrying terrorists, contraband, or undocumented aliens intending to enter the United States illegally. AMO Also leverages its unique detection and interdiction capabilities to support individual components of the Department of Homeland Security and Department of Justice. Providing support to agencies and multi-jurisdictional task forces such as ICE Homeland Security Investigations, the United States Secret Service and Border Protection, the United States Coast Guard, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, National Special Security Events, Joint Interagency Task Force South accounts for the bulk of AMO operations. To accomplish its missions, AMO uses a multitude of fixed and rotary wing aircraft, unarmed versions of military UAVs, as well as high speed blue water interceptors and utility vessels for strategic operations in high-risk areas.
All CBP aviation missions are conducted by Air Interdiction Agents, while CBP maritime operations in the Great Lakes, territorial waters, international waters are the responsibility of Marine Interdiction Agents. Patrol Agents from the Office of
Deployable Operations Group
The Deployable Operations Group was a United States Coast Guard command that provided properly equipped and organized Deployable Specialized Forces to Coast Guard, DHS, DoD and inter-agency operational and tactical commanders. Headquartered in Arlington, Virginia, it was established on 20 July 2007, was commanded by a captain and was decommissioned by the Commandant of the Coast Guard, Admiral Robert Papp on 1 October 2013. Although many of the units existed long before the 2007 commissioning. Upon decommissioning, the units assigned to the DOG were split between Coast Guard Pacific and Atlantic Area commands. From 2007-2013, the DOG and DSF deployed throughout the world in support of national interests and requirements as tailored and integrated force packages; this included response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake, in support of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, more deploying specialized counter piracy boarding teams to the Middle East to combat piracy operations. The DOG's purpose was to develop systems and processes for standardized training, organization and scheduling of deployable specialized forces to execute mission objectives in support of tactical and operational commanders.
The DOG was the Coast Guard's element of specialized forces, but is not a part of United States Special Operations Command because the Coast Guard does not operate under the Department of Defense. DOG units' missions include high-risk, high-profile tasks such as counter-terrorism, diving operations, intelligence-cued boardings, shipboard take-downs and threat assessments involving nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons The DOG had medics who were attached to medical teams operating within differing commands; these medics supported roles in Afghanistan and other areas with Navy and Department of Defense groups. The DOG managed Coast Guard personnel assigned to the Navy Expeditionary Combat Command, it was involved in the selection of Coast Guard candidates to attend United States Naval Special Warfare training and serve with Navy SEAL Teams. While the program is suspended there are still several Coast Guardsmen serving on SEAL Teams. DOG deployable specialized forces was composed of 3,000 Coast Guard personnel, including the following unit types: Port Security Units are deployable expeditionary force protection.
They can be abroad in support of various Department of Defense operations. Tactical Law Enforcement Teams provide specialized Law Enforcement Detachments to conduct counter-narcotics law enforcement and maritime interdiction operations from U. S. and allied naval vessels. There are two units, Tactical Law Enforcement Team South based in Opa-locka and the Pacific Area Tactical Law Enforcement Team based in San Diego, California. Maritime Safety and Security Teams are Anti-terrorism units created under the Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 in response to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001; the eleven MSSTs provide waterborne anti-terrorism and shoreside Anti-terrorism, force protection for strategic shipping, high interest vessels, critical infrastructure. MSSTs are a quick response force capable of rapid worldwide deployment via air, ground or sea transportation in response to changing threat conditions and evolving Maritime Homeland Security mission requirements. Multi-mission capability facilitates augmentation for other selected Coast Guard missions.
Other federal agencies that MSST's train with are U. S. Navy VBSS Teams, FBI, their local SWAT Teams. MSST special capabilities include: Waterside Security Maritime Law Enforcement K9 explosive detection teams The MSRT is the only unit within the Coast Guard that has counterterrorism capabilities to conduct action against hostile targets; the MSRT is trained to be the first responder to potential terrorist threats, deny preemptive terrorist actions, execute security actions against armed hostiles and/or non-compliant threats, execute tactical facility entry, participate in port level counterterrorism exercises, educate other forces on Coast Guard counterterrorism procedures. Although the MSRT's focus is on the safety and security of homeland defense, it is capable of deploying worldwide in response to incidents. Other specialized units and federal agencies that MSRT train with are U. S. Navy SEAL teams, U. S. Navy HSC Squadrons, Navy EOD, Special Mission Units, the U. S. Secret Service, FBI, U.
S. Border Patrol's BORTAC, US Customs and Border Protection SRT, their motto, as seen on their unit patch, is "Nox Noctis est Nostri", which translates to "The Night is Ours". MSRT Special Capabilities include: Counterterrorism Direct Action Advanced Interdiction Hostage Rescue/Personnel Recovery Small Unit Tactics Counter Assault Tactical Maritime Law Enforcement Medium to High risk boardings Airborne Use of Force K9 explosive detection teams CBRNEElements of the MSRT's primary assault force are known as a Direct Action Section. Members of a DAS may include a Team Leader, Comms/JTAC's, Medics, Precision Marksmen, Observation members, team members trained to identify Chemical Biological Nuclear Radiological threats; these assault force teams train extensively in advanced close quarters combat and advanced combat marksmanship. They are well equipped to and surreptitiously board suspicious vessels, secure gas and oil platforms or secure land based targets by fast-roping from helicopters or using other undisclosed methods to neutralize enemy personnel.
The Tactical Delivery Team, boat assault force, are trained in advanced vessel d
Law enforcement agency
A law enforcement agency, in North American English, is a government agency responsible for the enforcement of the laws. Outside North America, such organizations are called police services. In North America, some of these services are called police, others are known as sheriff's offices/departments, while investigative police services in the United States are called bureaus, for example the Federal Bureau of Investigation. LEAs which have their ability to apply their powers restricted in some way are said to operate within a jurisdiction. LEAs will have some form of geographic restriction on their ability to apply their powers; the LEA might be able to apply its powers within a country, for example the United States of America's Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives or its Drug Enforcement Administration, within a division of a country, for example the Australian state Queensland Police, or across a collection of countries, for example international organizations such as Interpol, or the European Union's Europol.
LEAs which operate across a collection of countries tend to assist in law enforcement activities, rather than directly enforcing laws, by facilitating the sharing of information necessary for law enforcement between LEAs within those countries, for example Europol has no executive powers. Sometimes a LEA’s jurisdiction is determined by the complexity or seriousness of the non compliance with a law; some countries determine the jurisdiction in these circumstances by means of policy and resource allocation between agencies, for example in Australia, the Australian Federal Police take on complex serious matters referred to it by an agency and the agency will undertake its own investigations of less serious or complex matters by consensus, while other countries have laws which decide the jurisdiction, for example in the United States of America some matters are required by law to be referred to other agencies if they are of a certain level of seriousness or complexity, for example cross state boundary kidnapping in the United States is escalated to the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
Differentiation of jurisdiction based on the seriousness and complexity of the non compliance either by law or by policy and consensus can coexist in countries. A LEA which has a wide range of powers but whose ability is restricted geographically to an area, only part of a country, is referred to as local police or territorial police. Other LEAs have a jurisdiction defined by the type of laws they assist in enforcing. For example, Interpol does not work with political, religious, or racial matters. A LEA’s jurisdiction also includes the governing bodies they support, the LEA itself. Jurisdictionally, there can be an important difference between international LEAs and multinational LEAs though both are referred to as "international" in official documents. An international law enforcement agency has jurisdiction and or operates in multiple countries and across State borders, for example Interpol. A multinational law enforcement agency will operate in only one country, or one division of a country, but is made up of personnel from several countries, for example the European Union Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
International LEAs are also multinational, for example Interpol, but multinational LEAs are not international. Within a country, the jurisdiction of law enforcement agencies can be organized and structured in a number of ways to provide law enforcement throughout the country. A law enforcement agency’s jurisdiction can be for the whole country or for a division or sub-division within the country. LEA jurisdiction for a division within a country can be at more than one level, for example at the division level, state, province, or territory level, for example at the sub division level, county, shire, or municipality or metropolitan area level. In Australia for example, each state has its own LEAs. In the United States for example each state and county or city has its own LEAs; as a result, because both Australia and the United States are federations and have federal LEAs, Australia has two levels of law enforcement and the United States has multiple levels of law enforcement, Tribal, County, Town, special Jurisdiction and others.
A LEA’s jurisdiction will be geographically divided into operations areas for administrative and logistical efficiency reasons. An operations area is called a command or an office. While the operations area of a LEA is sometimes referred to as a jurisdiction, any LEA operations area still has legal jurisdiction in all geographic areas the LEA operates, but by policy and consensus the operations area does not operate in other geographical operations areas of the LEA. For example, the United Kingdom’s Metropolitan Police is divided into 32 Borough Operational Command Units, based on the London boroughs, the New York City Police Department is divided into 77 precincts. Sometimes the one legal jurisdiction is covered by more than one LEA, again for administrative and logistical efficiency reasons, or arising from policy, or historical reasons. For example, the area of jurisdiction of English and Welsh law is covered by a number of LEAs called constabularies, each of which has legal jurisdiction over the whole area covered by English and Welsh law, but they do not operate out of their areas without formal liaison between them.
The primary difference between separate agencies and operational areas within the one legal jurisdiction is the degree of flexibility to move resources between versus within agencies. When multiple LEAs cover the one legal jurisdiction, each agency still organizes itself into operations
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, to fly forward and laterally; these attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft and many forms of VTOL aircraft cannot perform. The English word helicopter is adapted from the French word hélicoptère, coined by Gustave Ponton d'Amécourt in 1861, which originates from the Greek helix "helix, whirl, convolution" and pteron "wing". English language nicknames for helicopter include "chopper", "copter", "helo", "heli", "whirlybird". Helicopters were developed and built during the first half-century of flight, with the Focke-Wulf Fw 61 being the first operational helicopter in 1936; some helicopters reached limited production, but it was not until 1942 that a helicopter designed by Igor Sikorsky reached full-scale production, with 131 aircraft built. Though most earlier designs used more than one main rotor, it is the single main rotor with anti-torque tail rotor configuration that has become the most common helicopter configuration.
Tandem rotor helicopters are in widespread use due to their greater payload capacity. Coaxial helicopters, tiltrotor aircraft, compound helicopters are all flying today. Quadcopter helicopters pioneered as early as 1907 in France, other types of multicopter have been developed for specialized applications such as unmanned drones; the earliest references for vertical flight came from China. Since around 400 BC, Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys; this bamboo-copter is spun by rolling a stick attached to a rotor. The spinning creates lift, the toy flies when released; the 4th-century AD Daoist book Baopuzi by Ge Hong describes some of the ideas inherent to rotary wing aircraft. Designs similar to the Chinese helicopter toy appeared in some Renaissance paintings and other works. In the 18th and early 19th centuries Western scientists developed flying machines based on the Chinese toy, it was not until the early 1480s, when Italian polymath Leonardo da Vinci created a design for a machine that could be described as an "aerial screw", that any recorded advancement was made towards vertical flight.
His notes suggested that he built small flying models, but there were no indications for any provision to stop the rotor from making the craft rotate. As scientific knowledge increased and became more accepted, people continued to pursue the idea of vertical flight. In July 1754, Russian Mikhail Lomonosov had developed a small coaxial modeled after the Chinese top but powered by a wound-up spring device and demonstrated it to the Russian Academy of Sciences, it was powered by a spring, was suggested as a method to lift meteorological instruments. In 1783, Christian de Launoy, his mechanic, used a coaxial version of the Chinese top in a model consisting of contrarotating turkey flight feathers as rotor blades, in 1784, demonstrated it to the French Academy of Sciences. Sir George Cayley, influenced by a childhood fascination with the Chinese flying top, developed a model of feathers, similar to that of Launoy and Bienvenu, but powered by rubber bands. By the end of the century, he had progressed to using sheets of tin for rotor blades and springs for power.
His writings on his experiments and models would become influential on future aviation pioneers. Alphonse Pénaud would develop coaxial rotor model helicopter toys in 1870 powered by rubber bands. One of these toys, given as a gift by their father, would inspire the Wright brothers to pursue the dream of flight. In 1861, the word "helicopter" was coined by Gustave de Ponton d'Amécourt, a French inventor who demonstrated a small steam-powered model. While celebrated as an innovative use of a new metal, the model never lifted off the ground. D'Amecourt's linguistic contribution would survive to describe the vertical flight he had envisioned. Steam power was popular with other inventors as well. In 1878 the Italian Enrico Forlanini's unmanned vehicle powered by a steam engine, rose to a height of 12 meters, where it hovered for some 20 seconds after a vertical take-off. Emmanuel Dieuaide's steam-powered design featured counter-rotating rotors powered through a hose from a boiler on the ground. In 1887 Parisian inventor, Gustave built and flew a tethered electric model helicopter.
In July 1901, the maiden flight of Hermann Ganswindt's helicopter took place in Berlin-Schöneberg. A movie covering the event was taken by Max Skladanowsky. In 1885, Thomas Edison was given US$1,000 by James Gordon Bennett, Jr. to conduct experiments towards developing flight. Edison built a helicopter and used the paper for a stock ticker to create guncotton, with which he attempted to power an internal combustion engine; the helicopter was damaged by explosions and one of his workers was badly burned. Edison reported that it would take a motor with a ratio of three to four pounds per horsepower produced to be successful, based on his experiments. Ján Bahýľ, a Slovak inventor, adapted the internal combustion engine to power his helicopter model that reached a height of 0.5 meters in 1901. On 5 May 1905, his helicopter flew for over 1,500 meters. In 1908, Edison patented his own design for a helicopter powered by a gasoline engine with box kites attached to a mast by cables for a rotor, but it never flew.
In 1906, two French brothers and Louis Breguet, began experimenting with airfoils for helicopters. In
The AgustaWestland AW109 is a lightweight, twin-engine, eight-seat multi-purpose helicopter built by the Italian manufacturer Leonardo S.p. A.. The rotorcraft had the distinction of being the first all-Italian helicopter to be mass-produced. Developed as the A109 by Agusta, it entered service in 1976 and has since been used in various roles, including light transport, search-and-rescue, military roles; the AW109 has been in continuous production for 40 years. The AgustaWestland AW119 is a derivative of the AW109, the main difference being that it is powered only by a single engine. In the late 1960s, Agusta designed the A109 as a single-engine commercial helicopter. However, it was soon realised that a twin-engine design was needed and it was re-designed in 1969 with two Allison 250-C14 turboshaft engines. A projected military version was considered early on but Agusta chose not to pursue immediate development, instead concentrating on the eight-seat A109C version; the first of three prototypes made its maiden flight on 4 August 1971.
The A109's flight testing phase was prolonged, this was due in part to the discovery of dynamic instability which took a year to resolve via a modified transmission design. On 1 June 1975, certification for visual flight rules upon the A109 was received from the Federal Aviation Administration. In 1976, deliveries of production A109 to customers began. Advantages over the then-market leading Bell 206 were the A109's superior speed, twin-engine redundancy, greater seating capacity. In 1975, Agusta returned to the possibility of a military version, thus a series of trials were carried out between 1976 and 1977 using a total of five A109As outfitted with Hughes Aircraft-built TOW missiles. Two military versions emerged from this program, one was intended for light attack/close support missions and the other for shipboard operations. Improved civil versions followed on from the initial production model. In 1993, the A109 K2 was introduced using a pair of Turbomeca Arriel 1K1 engines. According to AgustaWestland, the A109 Power was in service in 46 countries by 2008.
In 2006, an enlarged variant, the A109S Grand, was introduced. The Agusta A109 was renamed the AW109 following the July 2000 merger of Finmeccanica S.p. A. and GKN plc's respective helicopter subsidiaries Agusta and Westland Helicopters to form AgustaWestland. Since the mid-1990s, fuselages for the AW109 have been manufactured by PZL-Świdnik, which became a subsidiary company of AgustaWestland in 2010. In June 2006, the 500th fuselage was delivered by PZL-Świdnik, marking 10 years of co-operation on the AW109 between the two companies. In 2004, AgustaWestland formed a joint venture with Changhe Aircraft Industries Corporation for the support and production of the AW109. In February 2014, AgustaWestland revealed that it was developing the AW109 Trekker, an updated variant of the AW109, it is equipped with skid landing gear and is powered by a pair of FADEC-equipped Pratt & Whitney Canada PW207C engines. The Trekker advances upon the standard AW109's utility capabilities; as per prior AW109 versions, the final assembly of the Trekker is undertaken at sites in both the US and Italy.
The AW109 is a lightweight twin-engine helicopter, known for its speed, elegant appearance and ease of control. Since entering commercial service, several revisions and iterations have been made introducing new avionics and engine technologies. AgustaWestland have promoted the type for its multirole capabilities and serviceability; the type has proven popular with VIP/corporate customers. Other roles for the AW109 have included emergency medical services, law enforcement, homeland security missions, harbor pilot shuttle duty and rescue, maritime operations, military uses. In 2008, AgustaWestland claimed the AW109 to be "one of the industry’s best-selling helicopters". A range of turboshaft powerplants have been used to power the numerous variants of the AW109, from the original Allison 250-C14 engines to the Turbomeca Arriel 1K1 and Pratt & Whitney Canada PW206 of more modern aircraft. Powerplants can be replaced or swapped for during airframe overhauls, resulting in increasing lifting capacity and other performance changes.
In the case of single-engine failure, the AW109 is intended to have a generous power reserve on a single engine. The engines drive a articulated four-blade rotor system. Over time, more advanced rotor blade designs have been progressively adopted for the AW109's main and tail rotors, such as composite materials being used to replace bonded metal, these improvements have been made with the aim of reducing operating costs and noise signature. According to Rotor&Wing, the type is well regarded for its "high and heavy" performance. According to AgustaWestland, the AW109 Power features various advanced avionics systems, these include a three-axis autopilot, an auto-coupled Instrument Landing System, integrated GPS, a Moving Map Display, weather radar, a Traff
An outboard motor is a propulsion system for boats, consisting of a self-contained unit that includes engine and propeller or jet drive, designed to be affixed to the outside of the transom. They are the most common motorized method of propelling small watercraft; as well as providing propulsion, outboards provide steering control, as they are designed to pivot over their mountings and thus control the direction of thrust. The skeg acts as a rudder when the engine is not running. Unlike inboard motors, outboard motors can be removed for storage or repairs. In order to eliminate the chances of hitting bottom with an outboard motor, the motor can be tilted up to an elevated position either electronically or manually; this helps when traveling through shallow waters where there may be debris that could damage the motor as well as the propeller. If the electric motor required to move the pistons which raise or lower the engine is malfunctioning, every outboard motor is equipped with a manual piston release which will allow the operator to drop the motor down to its lowest setting.
Large outboards are either tiller steer up to approx 100hp. 100hp plus is linked to controls at the helm. These range from 2-, 3- and 4-cylinder models generating 15 to 135 horsepower suitable for hulls up to 17 feet in length, to powerful V6 and V8 cylinder blocks rated up to 557 hp. with sufficient power to be used on boats of 37 feet or longer. Small outboard motors, up to 15 horsepower or so are portable, they are affixed to the boat via clamps, thus moved from boat to boat. These motors use a manual start system, with throttle and gearshift controls mounted on the body of the motor, a tiller for steering; the smallest of these weigh as little as 12 kilograms, have integral fuel tanks, provide sufficient power to move a small dinghy at around 8 knots This type of motor is used: to power small craft such as jon boats, canoes, etc. to provide auxiliary power for sailboats, for trolling aboard larger craft, as small outboards are more efficient at trolling speeds. In this application, the motor is installed on the transom alongside and connected to the primary outboard to enable helm steering.
In addition many small motor manufacturers have begun offering variants with power trim/tilt and electric starting functions so that they may be controlled remotely. Electric outboard motors are self contained propulsory units for boats, first invented in 1973 by Morton Ray of Ray Electric Outboards; these are not to be confused with trolling motors, which are not designed as a primary source of power. Most electric outboard motors have 0.5 to 4 kW direct current electric motors, operated at 12 to 60 volts DC. Developed outboard motors are powered with an alternating current or DC electric motor in the power head like a conventional petrol engine. With this setup, a motor can produce 10 kW output or more and is able to replace a petrol engine of 15 HP or more; the advantage of the induction or asynchronous motor is the power transfer to the rotor by means of electromagnetic induction. As these engines do not use permanent magnets, they require less maintenance and develop more torque at lower RPM.
Pump-jet propulsion is available as an option on most outboard motors. Although less efficient than an open propeller, they are useful in applications where the ability to operate in shallow water is important, they eliminate the laceration dangers of an open propeller. Propane outboard motors are available from several manufacturers; these products have several advantages such as lower emissions, absence of ethanol-related issues, no need for choke once the system is pressurized. The first known outboard motor was a small 5 kilogram electric unit designed around 1870 by Gustave Trouvé, patented in May 1880. About 25 petrol powered outboards may have been produced in 1896 by American Motors Co—but neither of these two pioneering efforts appear to have had much impact; the Waterman outboard engine appears to be the first gasoline-powered outboard offered for sale in significant numbers. Developed by Cameron Waterman, a young Yale Engineering student, it was developed from 1903, with a patent application filed in 1905 Starting in 1906, the company went on to make thousands of his "Porto-Motor" units, claiming 25,000 sales by 1914.
The inboard boat motor firm of Caille Motor Company of Detroit were instrumental in making the cylinder and engines. The most successful early outboard motor, was created by Norwegian-American inventor Ole Evinrude in 1909. Between 1909 and 1912, Evinrude made thousands of his outboards and the three horse units were sold around the world, his Evinrude Outboard Co. was spun off to other owners, he went on to success after starting the ELTO company to produce a two-cylinder motor - ELTO stood for Evinrude Light Twin Outboard. The 1920s were the first high-water mark for the outboard with Evinrude, Johnson, ELTO, Atwater Lockwood and dozens of other makers in the field. A majority of outboards have been two-stroke powerheads fitted with a carburetor due to the design's inherent simplicity, low cost and light weight. Drawbacks include increased pollution, due to the high volume of unburned gasoline and oil in their exhaust, louder noise. Although four stroke outboards have been sold since the late 1920s Roness and Sharland, in 1962 Homelite introduced a commercially viable four cycle outboard a 55-horsepower motor, based on the 4 cylinder Crosley automobile engine.
This was called the Bearcat, purchased by Fischer-Pierce who are the makers of
Smuggling is the illegal transportation of objects, information or people, such as out of a house or buildings, into a prison, or across an international border, in violation of applicable laws or other regulations. There are various motivations to smuggle; these include the participation in illegal trade, such as in the drug trade, illegal weapons trade, exotic wildlife trade, illegal immigration or illegal emigration, tax evasion, providing contraband to a prison inmate, or the theft of the items being smuggled. Smuggling is a common theme in literature, from Bizet's opera Carmen to the James Bond spy books Diamonds are Forever and Goldfinger; the verb smuggle, from Low German smuggeln or Dutch smokkelen a frequentative formation of a word meaning "to sneak", most entered the English language during the 1600s–1700s. Smuggling has a long and controversial history dating back to the first time at which duties were imposed in any form, or any attempt was made to prohibit a form of traffic. Smuggling is associated with efforts by authorities to prevent the importation of certain contraband items or non-taxed goods.
In England smuggling first became a recognised problem in the 13th century, following the creation of a national customs collection system by Edward I in 1275. Medieval smuggling tended to focus on the export of taxed export goods — notably wool and hides. Merchants however, sometimes smuggled other goods to circumvent prohibitions or embargoes on particular trades. Grain, for instance, was prohibited from export, unless prices were low, because of fears that grain exports would raise the price of food in England and thus cause food shortages and / or civil unrest. Following the loss of Gascony to the French in 1453, imports of wine were sometimes embargoed during wars to try and deprive the French of the revenues that could be earned from their main export. Most studies of historical smuggling have been based on official sources — such as court records, or the letters of Revenue Officers. According to Dr Evan Jones, the trouble with these is that'they only detail the activities of those dumb enough to get caught'.
This has led him and others, such as Prof Huw Bowen to use commercial records to reconstruct smuggling businesses. Jones' study focuses on smuggling in Bristol in the mid-16th century, arguing that the illicit export of goods like grain and leather represented a significant part of the city's business, with many members of the civic elite engaging in it. Grain smuggling by members of the civic elite working with corrupt customs officers, has been shown to have been prevalent in East Anglia during the 16th century. In England wool was smuggled to the continent in the 17th century, under the pressure of high excise taxes. In 1724 Daniel Defoe wrote of Lymington, Hampshire, on the south coast of England "I do not find they have any foreign commerce, except it be what we call smuggling and roguing; the high rates of duty levied on tea and wine and spirits, other luxury goods coming in from mainland Europe at this time made the clandestine import of such goods and the evasion of the duty a profitable venture for impoverished fishermen and seafarers.
In certain parts of the country such as the Romney Marsh, East Kent and East Cleveland, the smuggling industry was for many communities more economically significant than legal activities such as farming and fishing. The principal reason for the high duty was the need for the government to finance a number of expensive wars with France and the United States. Before the era of drug smuggling and human trafficking, smuggling had acquired a kind of nostalgic romanticism, in the vein of Robert Louis Stevenson's Kidnapped: "Few places on the British coast did not claim to be the haunts of wreckers or mooncussers; the thievery was romanticized until it seemed a kind of heroism. It did not have any taint of criminality and the whole of the south coast had pockets vying with one another over whose smugglers were the darkest or most daring; the Smugglers Inn was one of the commonest names for a bar on the coast". In Henley Road, smuggling in colonial times was a reaction to the heavy taxes and regulations imposed by mercantilist trade policies.
After American independence in 1783, smuggling developed at the edges of the United States at places like Passamaquoddy Bay, St. Mary's in Georgia, Lake Champlain, Louisiana. During Thomas Jefferson's embargo of 1807-1809, these same places became the primary places where goods were smuggled out of the nation in defiance of the law. Like Britain, a gradual liberalization of trade laws as part of the free trade movement meant less smuggling. In 1907 President Theodore Roosevelt tried to cut down on smuggling by establishing the Roosevelt Reservation along the United States-Mexico Border. Smuggling revived in the 1920s during Prohibition, drug smuggling became a major problem after 1970. In the 1990s, when economic sanctions were imposed on Serbia, a large percent of the population lived off smuggling petrol and consumer goods from neighboring countries; the state unofficially allowed this to continue or otherwise the entire economy would have collapsed. In modern times, as many first-world countries have struggled to contain a rising influx of immigrants, the smuggling of people across national borders has become a lucrative extra-legal activity, as well as the dark side, people-trafficking of women who m