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Helike was an ancient Greek polis, submerged by a tsunami in the winter of 373 BC. It was located in the regional unit of Achaea, northern Peloponnesos, two kilometres from the Corinthian Gulf and near the city of Boura, like Helike, was a member of the Achaean League. Modern research attributes the catastrophe to an earthquake and accompanying tsunami which destroyed and submerged the city. In an effort to protect the site from destruction, the World Monuments Fund included Helike in its 2004 and 2006 List of 100 Most Endangered Sites. Helike was founded in the Bronze Age; the poet Homer states that the city of Helike participated in the Trojan War as a part of Agamemnon's forces. Following its fall to the Achaeans, Helike led the Achaean League, an association that joined twelve neighboring cities in an area including today's town of Aigio. Helike known as Dodekapolis, became a cultural and religious center with its own coinage. Finds from ancient Helike are limited to two fifth-century copper coins, now housed in Bode Museum, Berlin.

The obverse shows the head of Poseidon, the city's patron, the reverse his trident. There was a temple dedicated to the Helikonian Poseidon. Helike founded colonies including Priene in Asia Sybaris in South Italy, its panhellenic temple and sanctuary of Helikonian Poseidon were known throughout the classical world, second only in religious importance to Delphi. The city was destroyed in two years before the Battle of Leuctra, during a winter night. Several events were construed in retrospect as having warned of the disaster: some "immense columns of flame" appeared, five days all animals and vermin fled the city, going toward Keryneia; the city and a space of 12 stadia below it were covered over by the sea. All the inhabitants perished without a trace, the city was obscured from view except for a few building fragments projecting from the sea. Ten Spartan ships anchored in the harbour were dragged down with it. An attempt involving 2,000 men to recover bodies was unsuccessful. Aigion took possession of its territory.

The catastrophe was attributed to the vengeance of Poseidon, whose wrath was incited because the inhabitants of Helike had refused to give their statue of Poseidon to the Ionian colonists in Asia, or to supply them with a model. According to some authorities, the inhabitants of Helike and Bura had murdered the Ionian deputies. About 150 years after the disaster, the philosopher Eratosthenes visited the site and reported that a standing bronze statue of Poseidon was submerged in a "poros", "holding in one hand a hippocamp", where it posed a hazard to those who fished with nets. Around 174 AD the traveler Pausanias visited a coastal site still called Helike, located seven kilometres southeast of Aigio, reported that the walls of the ancient city were still visible under water, "but not so plainly now as they were once, because they are corroded by the salt water". For centuries after, its submerged ruins could still be seen. Roman tourists sailed over the site, admiring the city's statuary; the site silted over and the location was lost to memory.

Adalberto Giovannini argued that the submergence of Helike might have inspired Plato to write his story about Atlantis. Ancient scholars and writers who visited the ruins include the Greeks Strabo and Diodoros of Sicily, the Romans Aelian and Ovid. On 23 August 1817, a similar disaster, an earthquake followed by a tsunami, occurred on the same spot; the earthquake was preceded like that produced by a battery of cannon. The aftershock was said to have lasted a minute and a half, during which the sea rose at the mouth of the Selinous River and extended to cover all the ground below Vostitza. After its retreat, not a trace was left of some artillery depots which had stood on the shore, the beach was carried away completely. In Vostitza, 65 people lost their lives and two thirds of its buildings were ruined, as were five villages in the plain; the submerged town was long one of the biggest targets for underwater archaeology. Scientists were divided in their opinions about the exact location of Helike.

Numerous archaeologists, historians and explorers wrote and searched, trying to discover any trace of the ancient town, with little success. But their work, essays and studies contributed to an important and growing body of knowledge. Among them are the following: In 1826, François Pouqueville, French diplomat and archaeologist, who wrote the Voyage en Grèce. Other investigators include in 1948 the German archaeologist Georg Karo.

Francis Shand

Francis Livingstone Shand was an English first-class cricketer. Shand was born at Old Charlton, he was educated at Harrow School. He made his debut in first-class cricket for the Gentlemen of England against a combined Oxford and Cambridge Universities Past and Present cricket team at The Oval in 1874. Two years he appeared twice in first-class cricket, appearing the South in the North v South and for the Gentlemen of the South against the Players of the North, his final two first-class appearances came in 1889 for the Gentlemen of England against Oxford University, for A. J. Webbe's XI against Cambridge University. In six first-class matches, Shand scored 49 runs with a high score of 17, while with the ball he took 17 wickets at an average of 9.88. His best figures of 6 for 32, his only five wicket haul, came against Oxford University in 1889. Outside of cricket, Shand was a land proprietor in British Ceylon, he died in June 1921 at Buckinghamshire. Francis Shand at ESPNcricinfo

Dinosaur egg

Dinosaur eggs are the organic vessels in which a dinosaur embryo develops. When the first scientifically documented remains of dinosaurs were being described in England during the 1820s, it was presumed that dinosaurs had laid eggs because they were reptiles. In 1859, the first scientifically documented dinosaur egg fossils were discovered in France by Jean-Jacques Poech, although they were mistaken for giant bird eggs; the first scientifically recognized dinosaur egg fossils were discovered in 1923 by an American Museum of Natural History crew in Mongolia. Since many new nesting sites have been found all over the world and a system of classification based on the structure of eggshell was developed in China before diffusing into the West. Dinosaur eggshell can be viewed under a microscope; the interior of a dinosaur egg can be studied using CAT scans or by dissolving away the shell with acid. Sometimes the egg preserves the remains of the developing embryo inside; the oldest known dinosaur eggs and embryos are from Massospondylus, which lived during the Early Jurassic, about 190 million years ago.

In 1859, the first scientifically documented dinosaur egg fossils were discovered in southern France by a Catholic priest and amateur naturalist named Father Jean-Jacques Pouech. The first scientifically recognized dinosaur egg fossils were discovered serendipitously in 1923 by an American Museum of Natural History crew while looking for evidence of early humans in Mongolia; these eggs were mistakenly attributed to the locally abundant herbivore Protoceratops, but are now known to be Oviraptor eggs. Egg discoveries continued to mount all over the world, leading to the development of multiple competing classification schemes. In 1975 Chinese paleontologist Zhao Zi-Kui started a revolution in fossil egg classification by developing a system of "parataxonomy" based on the traditional Linnaean system which classified eggs based on their physical qualities rather than their hypothesized mothers. Zhao's new method of egg classification was hindered from adoption by Western scientists due to language barriers.

However, in the early 1990s Russian paleontologist Konstantin Mikhailov brought attention to Zhao's work in the English language scientific literature. Fossil dinosaur eggshell fragments can be recognized based on three important traits, their thickness should be uniform, they are slightly curved, their surface is covered in tiny pores. Less the concave underside of the eggshell fragment will preserve bumps known as mammillae. Sometimes the embryo had absorbed so much of the calcium that the mammilae need a magnifying glass or microscope to be seen. However, there are many kinds of occurring objects which can resemble fossil eggs; these can fool professional paleontologists. Calculus: Calculi are egg-like objects formed in the stomachs of ruminants such as cattle, deer and goats. Calculus formation is a defense mechanism protecting the ruminant's stomach from damage if it swallows a foreign object while grazing. After ingestion, the object is covered by the same material composing bone, calcium phosphate, vomited out of the animal's system.

These "stomach stones" tend to range in size from 1 to 6 centimeters. Larger sizes are known but rare. Sometimes tiny dimples cover the surface of a stomach stone, which can fool observers into thinking they are the pores of an egg. Fossil egg expert Ken Carpenter has described stomach stones as the most egg-like natural objects, noting that they are "the trickiest objects to identify". Calculi are so egg-like that on one occasion a detailed description of a stomach stone misidentified as a fossil egg was published in the scientific literature. Calculi can be distinguished from real egg fossils because when they are broken open, they show the layers of calcium phosphate and the foreign object at the core. Multiple layers of eggshell are known in pathological eggs, but these layers don't go all the way down to its core the way a stomach stone's do. Calculi are suspiciously intact, unlike fossil eggs, which are damaged. Stomach stones lack distinct shells with their attending structural components like continuous or prismatic layers and pores.

Concretions: Concretions are formed when decaying organisms change the chemistry of their immediate surroundings in a manner, conducive to minerals precipitating out of solution. These minerals accumulate in a mass shaped like the region of altered chemistry. Sometimes the mass produced. Most egg-shaped concretions have uniform interiors, however some form through the accumulation of mineral in layers; these layered concretions can be harder to recognize than those with uniform interiors because the layers can resemble egg white and yolk. The yellow of the false yolk comes from minerals like limonite and sulfur. Concretions generally lack distinct shells, although sometimes they can appear to have them if their outside surfaces have been case-hardened. Since their interiors are softer, erosion can separate the two. Real egg fossils should preserve eggshell structures like pores and prismatic or continuous layers, which are not present in concretions. Any given concretion is unlikely to be the same size as any other, so associations of egg-like objects of different sizes are not real eggs at all.

Concretions can be far larger than any real egg so an unnaturally large "egg" has been misidentified. Insect trace fossils: Sometimes the living or breeding chambers of an insect burrow are so egg-shaped that a paleontologist can mistake a natural cast o

Rescue Me (The Vampire Diaries)

"Rescue Me" is the 17th episode of the fifth season of the American series The Vampire Diaries and the series' 106th episode overall. "Rescue Me" was aired on March 27, 2014, on The CW. The episode was directed by Leslie Libman; the episode starts with Stefan having a vision of Tom saving a woman's life during a spell that Sloan casts in order to link Stefan to Tom so they will find him. From the spell, Stefan can "see" that Tom works at the Atlanta Metropolitan Hospital, something that will help Caroline and Enzo find Tom easier and kill him. Elena wakes up next to Damon after their break up sex, she realizes that it is Jeremy's parent-teacher conference and she tries to sneak out without waking up Damon. Damon though is awake and Elena reassures him that they are still broken up and what happened the previous night was a mistake before she leaves. Caroline and Enzo are in Atlanta trying to find Tom when Sloan calls to tell them that the person's name they are looking for is Tom and where he works.

Caroline gets mad at Sloan because she broke their deal and used Stefan again to link him to Tom, something that could lead Stefan to lose his memories. Sloan makes it clear that she does not care about Stefan's brain but about his blood and she reminds Caroline that as long as Tom is alive and Elena's blood is useless to her, she threatens Stefan's life. At Mystic Grill, Damon tries to get over his break up with Elena by drinking while Matt and Tyler see him and figure out that something is wrong between him and Elena; the three of them talk when Liv meets with Jeremy. They are surprised seeing them together, Damon leaves and Tyler tries to hear what Liv and Jeremy talk about but he cannot hear anything. Elena is on the phone with Bonnie while waiting in the line to the guidance counselor at Jeremy's school and tells her about her break up with Damon, they realize that Jeremy was neither home or with Bonnie and they wonder where he was. Elena has to hung up because it is her turn to go to the guidance counselor while Bonnie spots Luke sitting across the room.

The counselor informs Elena that she is not Jeremy's primary contact when Damon appears and tells her that she asked him to take care of Jeremy while she was at Whitmore. The two of them spend the day together attending classes and with Damon trying to make her change her mind about their break up. Back in Atlanta and Enzo find the hospital where Tom works but a doctor informs them that Tom has been missing for four months and no one knows where he is. Caroline calls Sloan and asks to talk to Stefan because their info was bad and they could not find Tom, she asks Stefan if he remembers any small details from his vision that could help them but he does not, so Sloan stars a new spell on Stefan despite Caroline's warnings not to. Stefan sees Tom talking to a girl named Hazel, who asks him to buy him a dinner for saving her friend's life and Tom accepts. Hazel gives him the address and Stefan is able to tell the address to Caroline. Caroline and Enzo find the address and Hazel but they cannot get into the house if someone does not invite them in.

They see Hazel in a trance and they realize that she is a witch. Enzo kills her, they find Tom in a coma and realize that Hazel was keeping him in that state to hide him for the last four months. Caroline wakes him and while she has to kill him, she instead snaps Enzo's neck and tells Tom that she is there to save him; the two of them go for a lunch where Caroline compels Tom to tell her everything about his life and she learns how Hazel kidnapped him. On their way back to the car, Enzo kills Tom. In the meantime, at the Whitmore Bonnie talks to Luke. Hazel asks Bonnie to inform Luke that she failed before she passes and Bonnie, asks Luke about Hazel and to tell her the truth. Luke admits that he is Liv's twin brother and witch and that they were trying to keep the travelers away from Tom and that he and his sister are trying to find out why the travelers need Elena and Stefan's blood. Back at the Mystic Grill, Liv tells Jeremy that she needs his help to fight the travelers since he is a hunter and they cannot control his mind.

She tells him some more details about the travelers and asks his help again so they can find why they need the blood of Elena and Stefan. While talking, Liv gets a text from Luke who informs her about Hazel and she leaves in a hurry. Jeremy calls Bonnie to ask about Elena and when Bonnie tells him that she is at school, he says that Elena might be in danger. Liv attacks her. Liv and her coven did everything they could to protect her but since now she is dangerous they have to kill her. Damon stops her. Damon threatens to kill her if she will not tell him what she wants. Liv says that now that there is only one male doppelganger, the travelers will come for Elena to use her. Jeremy arrives and asks Damon to free Liv because she knows more than she admits about the travelers and that he will not let her hurt Elena. Damon unwillingly does it. Caroline goes back to the traveler's camp and tells Stefan what happened and realizes that Stefan let her go on purpose knowing that she would never hurt Tom or anyone because that's just who she is.

At the Salvatore house, Elena tells Damon that she will go back to Whitmore and that they should stay away from each other because they are bad for each other. Jeremy joins them just to

Snoopy Flying Ace

Snoopy Flying Ace is a dogfighting video game based on Charles M. Schulz's Peanuts franchise and developed by Smart Bomb Interactive for the Xbox Live Arcade service on the Xbox 360, it was announced on November 10, 2008 and released on June 2, 2010. An unofficial sequel to the 2006 video game Snoopy vs. the Red Baron, it features a similar World War I setting. Snoopy is tasked with defeating several members of the Flying Circus, a special flight squadron in the Luftstreitkräfte, its commander, Manfred von Richthofen known as the Red Baron; the game was well-received by critics. Critics stated it was well worth its price; as of year-end 2011, the game has sold over 122,000 copies. The gameplay is similar to that of another arcade-style flight combat series Crimson Skies; the primary gameplay revolves around dogfights using triplanes. Players can fly into stationary turrets and control them. Two-player cooperative is supported via splitscreen, two players can play through the entire campaign together.

Acrobatic maneuvers such as barrel rolls and immelmanns can be performed. Players can select and customize one of several Peanuts characters, who have several outfits to choose from, or select and play as their Xbox Live avatar. Planes can be customized, from visuals to weaponry; each plane is equipped with machine guns, other weapons such as missiles, an EMP blast, floating mines can be equipped. Weaponry can be changed during gameplay after players respawn; the game supports up to 16 players over Xbox Live, features eight online game modes. Pigskin is an airborne rugby involving passing a ball among planes to reach the opposite goal without being shot down; the traditional Deathmatch and Team Deathmatch modes appear, known in-game as Dogfight and Team Dogfight. Capture the flag is available. Players can earn bonuses by gaining kill streaks in multiplayer. Snoopy Flying Ace is a fictional story set in 1917 Europe and northern Africa during World War I. Snoopy, a famous Allied fighter pilot, must combat the Imperial German Army Air Service.

His primary target is a specialized group of pilots dubbed the Flying Circus, its commander, Manfred von Richthofen, otherwise known as the Red Baron. The game features several characters from the Peanuts franchise, some belonging to the Royal Flying Corps in the Allied members of the French army faction, others to the German Empire in the Central Powers of the Austro-Hungarian Empire faction. During multiplayer matches players can choose any character, regardless of faction alignment during the campaign; the player's Xbox 360 avatar can be used during gameplay, is aligned to the faction of the player's choice. Snoopy Flying Ace was announced on November 10, 2008. Smart Bomb Interactive began development for the title with no set platforms, it was announced at Tokyo Game Show on September 24, 2009 that Microsoft Studios would be publishing the game for Xbox Live Arcade on the Xbox 360. It was shown in March 2010 at the Penny Arcade Expo, it was released on June 2, 2010. In promotion of the game, several Snoopy Flying Ace-themed avatar items were released on the Xbox Live Marketplace on June 8, 2010.

A downloadable content pack dubbed Suppertime of Destruction was released on August 25, 2010. It features two additional planes, five additional multiplayer modes, three new weapons, several new character costumes and plane skins. Smart Bomb Interactive stated that the inspiration for Flying Ace came from their well-received 2006 title, Snoopy vs. the Red Baron. "We were proud of that game and it was a critical success, but the budget and time constraints that came from the publisher left us feeling that we could have done a lot more. So we went to United Media and representatives of the Schulz family, we licensed the property ourselves" stated Clark Stacey, Vice President for Smart Bomb Interactive. "But of course, it was Charles M. Schulz’s original strips of Snoopy as the World Famous WWI Flying Ace that are the ultimate inspiration" added Stacey; the game was developed using Smart Bomb Interactive's game engine and toolset. Snoopy Flying Ace received "favorable" reviews according to video game review aggregator Metacritic.

It received an Editor's Choice award from IGN's Arthur Gies, who called it "both the best dogfighting game of this console generation and one of the most exciting multiplayer titles to come out this year." As of August 2010, Snoopy Flying Ace has sold over 84,000 copies and as of year-end 2010, the game has sold over 110,000 copies. 2011 sales exceeded 122,000 units. Several reviewers stated. Critics gave universally positive remarks in regards to gameplay. Eduardo Reboucas of Game Revolution said the game was "extremely easy to pick up", added "Weapons are varied and offer plenty of combinations for a lot of different tactics." Eurogamer's Kristan Reed echoed his remarks and stated that "simplified objectives and stripped-down controls to make it accessible to everyone." Joe Donato of GameZone praised the dogfights and added "combat is a thrill."'s Chris Pereira agreed and stated "it's a more accessible, trimmed-down version of Crimson Skies at a bargain price." He was critical of the single player AI, added "enemies evade your attacks so that it feels like the game is just trying to artificially lengthen each encounter."

Reviewers universally praised the online gameplay. Official Xbox Magazine's reviewer stated S

Munmun Lugun

Munmun Timothy Lugun is an Indian professional footballer who plays as a left back. Born in Delhi, Lugun started his football career with Simla Youngs in the I-League 2nd Division, he captained his state youth team during the B. C. Roy Trophy in 2010. In 2012 Lugun signed with United Sikkim for their 2nd Division campaign and helped the club earn promotion to the I-League, he made his professional debut for the club in the I-League in their opening match against Salgaocar on 6 October 2012. Lugun started and played the full match as United Sikkim won 3–2. By the end of the season, despite the club being relegated, Lugun himself started and played 24 of United Sikkim's 26 matches. After United Sikkim were relegated, Lugun signed with Rangdajied United, he made his debut for the club on 22 September 2013 against Prayag United. He started and played the full match as Rangdajied United lost 2–0. After the 2013–14 I-League season, Lugun was selected by the Delhi Dynamos in the Indian Super League domestic draft for the inaugural season.

Lugun only made one appearance for the Delhi side during the season, on 28 November 2014 against Mumbai City. He started and played the full match as Delhi Dynamos won 4–1. On 22 December 2014, after the ISL season, Lugun signed with Pune for the 2014–15 I-League, he made his debut for the side on 14 February 2015 against Dempo. Lugun came on as a 72nd minute substitute for Yumnam Raju as Pune and Dempo drew the match 0–0. On 25 March 2016 it was announced that Lugun would be part of the Minerva Academy squad in the I-League 2nd Division. After the 2nd Division season, in September 2016 it was revealed that Lugun had signed with Indian Super League side Mumbai City; as of 18 February 2017 United SikkimI-League 2nd Division: 2012 Indian Super League Profile