click links in text for more info


Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System. Heliocentrism was opposed to geocentrism, which placed the Earth at the center; the notion that the Earth revolves around the Sun had been proposed as early as the 3rd century BC by Aristarchus of Samos, but at least in the medieval world, Aristarchus's heliocentrism attracted little attention—possibly because of the loss of scientific works of the Hellenistic Era. It was not until the 16th century that a mathematical model of a heliocentric system was presented, by the Renaissance mathematician and Catholic cleric Nicolaus Copernicus, leading to the Copernican Revolution. In the following century, Johannes Kepler introduced elliptical orbits, Galileo Galilei presented supporting observations made using a telescope. With the observations of William Herschel, Friedrich Bessel, other astronomers, it was realized that the Sun, while near the barycenter of the Solar System, was not at any center of the universe.

While the sphericity of the Earth was recognized in Greco-Roman astronomy from at least the 4th century BC, the Earth's daily rotation and yearly orbit around the Sun was never universally accepted until the Copernican Revolution. While a moving Earth was proposed at least from the 4th century BC in Pythagoreanism, a developed heliocentric model was developed by Aristarchus of Samos in the 3rd century BC, these ideas were not successful in replacing the view of a static spherical Earth, from the 2nd century AD the predominant model, which would be inherited by medieval astronomy, was the geocentric model described in Ptolemy's Almagest; the Ptolemaic system was a sophisticated astronomical system that managed to calculate the positions for the planets to a fair degree of accuracy. Ptolemy himself, in his Almagest, points out that any model for describing the motions of the planets is a mathematical device, since there is no actual way to know, true, the simplest model that gets the right numbers should be used.

However, he rejected the idea of a spinning Earth as absurd as he believed it would create huge winds. His planetary hypotheses were sufficiently real that the distances of the Moon, Sun and stars could be determined by treating orbits' celestial spheres as contiguous realities; this made the stars' distance less than 20 Astronomical Units, a regression, since Aristarchus of Samos's heliocentric scheme had centuries earlier placed the stars at least two orders of magnitude more distant. Problems with Ptolemy's system were well recognized in medieval astronomy, an increasing effort to criticize and improve it in the late medieval period led to the Copernican heliocentrism developed in Renaissance astronomy; the non-geocentric model of the Universe was proposed by the Pythagorean philosopher Philolaus, who taught that at the center of the Universe was a "central fire", around which the Earth, Sun and planets revolved in uniform circular motion. This system postulated the existence of a counter-earth collinear with the Earth and central fire, with the same period of revolution around the central fire as the Earth.

The Sun revolved around the central fire once a year, the stars were stationary. The Earth maintained the same hidden face towards the central fire, rendering both it and the "counter-earth" invisible from Earth; the Pythagorean concept of uniform circular motion remained unchallenged for the next 2000 years, it was to the Pythagoreans that Copernicus referred to show that the notion of a moving Earth was neither new nor revolutionary. Kepler gave an alternative explanation of the Pythagoreans' "central fire" as the Sun, "as most sects purposely hid their teachings". Heraclides of Pontus said that the rotation of the Earth explained the apparent daily motion of the celestial sphere, it used to be thought that he believed Mercury and Venus to revolve around the Sun, which in turn revolves around the Earth. Macrobius Ambrosius Theodosius described this as the "Egyptian System," stating that "it did not escape the skill of the Egyptians," though there is no other evidence it was known in ancient Egypt.

The first person known to have proposed a heliocentric system was Aristarchus of Samos. Like his contemporary Eratosthenes, Aristarchus calculated the size of the Earth and measured the sizes and distances of the Sun and Moon. From his estimates, he concluded that the Sun was six to seven times wider than the Earth, thought that the larger object would have the most attractive force, his writings on the heliocentric system are lost, but some information about them is known from a brief description by his contemporary and from scattered references by writers. Archimedes' description of Aristarchus's theory is given in The Sand Reckoner; the entire description comprises just three sentences, which Thomas Heath translates as follows: You are aware that "universe" is the name given by most astronomers to the sphere, the centre of, the centre of the earth, while its radius is equal to the straight line between the centre of the sun and the centre of the earth. This is the common account, but Aristarchus brought out a book consisting of certain hypotheses, wherein it appears, as a consequence of the assumptions made, that the universe is many times greater than the "universe" just mentioned.

His hypotheses are that the fixed stars and the sun remain unmoved, that the earth revolves about the sun on the circumference of a circle, the sun lying in the middle of the orbit, that the sphere of the fixed stars

HMRK Zrinjski Mostar

HMRK Zrinjski Mostar is a Croat-founded men's handball team from the city of Mostar and Herzegovina. Its current coach is Dario Pušić; the club plays in the Handball Championship of Herzegovina. It is part of the Zrinjski Mostar sport society. Fans of HMRK Zrinjski are known as Ultras; the club lacks its own arena, playing in a local gym, despite its successful results nationally. Zrinjski's greatest accomplishment has been reaching the EHF Challenge Cup and winning the National Cup in 2017; the club finished the last season 2017/2018 on the third place behind RK Izviđač and RK Vogošća PH with a team which consists with more than 90% of players and kids from Mostar. At the end of the last season, Filip Vistorop made a transfer to RK Zagreb and played for the Croatian national Team Juniors. Marino Marić Vedran Delić Goran Anđelić Marijan Marić Fahrudin Melić Goran Suton Bernard Mandarić Marin Šego Nemanja Kerezović Damir Džeba Dejan Đurić Igor Karačić Ivan Karačić Goran Kalenić Davorin Prskalo Mirko Herceg Dejan Unčanin Neno Boban Goran Trkulja Vedran Delić Ante Pavlak Nedjeljko Dominiković Eduard Martić Ivica Buntić Damir Džeba Marino Paradžik Josip Čutura Andrej Kolobarić Robert Rikić Smiljan Kolovrat Lazar Raguž Marko Perić Ante Granić Andrej Bošnjak Dario Zadro Mateo Zadro Boško Perić Filip Vistorop Martino Kordić Marko Čuljak Dinko Šakota Ivan Perić Ante Marić Igor Orlović Renato Rikić Mladen Bošković Dinko Šakota Damjan Šarac Petar Anđelić Matej Sarajlić Nikola Vidačak Ante Doko Robert Kožulj Marijan Marić Predrag Lukić Dragan Šoljić Marin Perić Dinko Dodig Karlo Bošnjak Toni Škember Josip Nakić Mario Babić Ivan Šarac Irhad Orhan Dario Pušić Josip Perić Goran Suton Enco Bukovac Zoran Dokić Željko Anić Damir Saltarić Lazar Raguž Zdravko Medić Zrinjski website

Robert Nickle

Robert Wienert Nickle was a 20th-century American artist known for his "street scrap" collage work. Nickle was born in Michigan. In 1943, he graduated from the University of Michigan where he studied design, he enlisted in the Navy that May, served in the South Pacific. Nickle worked and taught in Chicago, Illinois where he was affiliated with the New Bauhaus under László Moholy-Nagy with the University of Illinois at Chicago. Robert Nickle's work is included in the permanent collections of the Art Institute of Chicago and Alfred Smart Gallery, Whitney Museum of American Art, the Albright-Knox Art Gallery, the Indianapolis Museum, Smithsonian Museum, Carnegie Institute Museum and the National Gallery in Washington. More images

Vasily Baumgarten

Vasily Fyodorovich von Baumgarten was Russian and Yugoslavian architect and military engineer. Vasily was born in Russia, he graduated from the Emperor Alexander II's Cadet Corps at 1897 from the Nicholas Pavlovich's engineering school at 1900 and Nikolaevsky Engineering Academy at 1905 in St. Petersburg. During the Russo-Japanese War Vasily Baumgarten served in the Vladivostok Fortress in 1908–14 he worked in the city administration of St. Petersburg and he taught at his alma mater as associate professor. Baumgarten has taken part in construction of Naval and artillery ranges together with Vladimir Apyshkov built the house of Peter Stenbock-Fermore in St. Petersburg in 1913–14 he built several private houses in Pavlovsk. During the World War I colonel Baumgarten was appointed as a head of engineer troops at the 3rd Army headquarters, he has been awarded with the 2nd and 3rd classes of the Order of St. Stanislaus, 2nd and 3rd classes of the Order of St. Anna and 4th class of the Order of St. Vladimir.

Because of the October revolution and Russian Civil War in September 1918 Vasily Baumgarten joined the White movement. In January 1919 he joined the Anton Denikin's Volunteer Army as a procurement manager for engineer units. In November 1920 Baumgarten evacuated from Sevastopol to Istanbul, Turkey together with the staff of Peter Wrangel's Russian army retreating from Crimea, he became a major general and a corps engineer of the 1st Army Corps at Gallipoli. He emigrated to the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. In Belgrade Vasily Baumgarten has worked as an architect in chief at the Ministry of Army and Navy in rank of major general of the Royal Yugoslav Army, as well as an architect of the corresponding department in the Ministry of Civil Construction, he has become best known as an originator of the Royal Yugoslav Armed Forces General Staff headquarter building design and the design of the Emperor Nicholas II's Russian House in Belgrade. The interbellum politics of Vasily Baumgarten were panslavistic.

Among other things he took part in the Association of Russian artists in the Kingdom of SCS' exhibition in 1928 and the Great Exhibition of Russian Art in 1930 in Belgrade, in 1930–31 Vasily became a member of the art group К.Р.У.Г. He was a leader of the voluntary support group for the students of Nikolaevsky Engineering School and the Academy. Here is the list of key Yugoslav architectural projects executed by Vasily Baumgarten: General Staff building, Belgrade. For a long time in Yugoslavia it was believed the architect Baumgarten has not survived World War II times, although the date and place of his death haven't been known; however it turned out that after 1945 Wilhelm Baumgarten emigrated to Argentina together with his family. The last years of his life he spent in Buenos Aires. There Baumgarten served as a chairman of The Gallipoli Association in South America and was the leader of the Peter Wrangel's Russian All-Military Union local department, he died on May 13, 1962. Buried at the Cementerio Británico not far from La Chacarita Cemetery in Buenos Aires.

Vasily Baumgarten married shortly before the October revolution in Russia. Xenia Michaylovna Benois, last name changed to Baumgarten as she got married, was his wife, a niece of the artist Alexandre Benois; the couple had sons and there is an information of a granddaughter named Marina. Russian Center of Science and Culture, Belgrade fr:Nikola Krasnov ru:Сташевский, Валерий Владимирович

Egyptian Open

The Egyptian Open is the national open golf tournament of Egypt. It was first played in 1921, is the oldest professional competition in the Middle East. During the early 1950s, it was contested by many of the world's leading golfers, with winners including Bobby Locke and Bernard Hunt. In 2009, the tournament once again attracted an international field including eight time European Tour Order of Merit winner and captain of the 2010 European Ryder Cup team Colin Montgomerie. During the event, it was announced that a deal had been signed which would see the Egyptian Open become an event on the second tier Challenge Tour for a minimum of three years from 2010; the Challenge Tour last visited Egypt in 2004 for the Al Ahram-Jolie Ville Sharm El Sheikh Challenge. Official website Coverage on the Challenge Tour's official site

Mark Haapala

Mark Thomas Casey Haapala is an American producer and director. He directed the award-winning short film Dog It Down, winner of the 2012 Hollywood Reel Independent Film Festival. Haapala served as executive producer and head writer for the TV Pilots: Off The Record, The Groom Whisperer and Pinky and The Fan Girls, optioned by the Lifetime channel and was a winner at the New York Television Festival as “Best Unscripted TV show” in 2014. Haapala was born in Irvine, California to parents Susan and Thomas Haapala, a VP at Black & Decker Corporation, he graduated from Loyola Marymount University in 2002 with a degree in theatre, along with actor Chris Sullivan. He attended LMU at the sametime as: Leroy McClain, Colin Hanks and Busy Philipps. One of Haapala's first jobs in entertainment was as Jerry Ferrara stand-in on the HBO show Entourage. Dog It Down, Haapala’s first short film was based on the true story of three US Navy Sailors who were trapped under water for 17 days in an air tight compartment aboard the USS West Virginia during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.

Dog It Down was funded and Executive Produced by Entourage actor Kevin Connolly. The short film would go on to win the 2012 Hollywood Reel Independent Film Festival, was screened and received accolades at: the GI Film Festival, The Newport Beach Film Festival, would air on both PBS and the Military channel, he appeared as “The Clapper” in the Season 5 episode 11 of Entourage entitled “Play’n With Fire”. In 2010, Haapala was accepted into the Directors Guild of America Trainee program as an Assistant Director Trainee, he is a member of the Producers Guild of America Haapala and writing partner, Stewart Gold penned an original romantic comedy,The Groom Whisperer, for Larry Levinson Productions in 2013. The duo created the reality show Pinky and the Fangirls, optioned by the Lifetime Channel in 2014, it starred his wife, Kristen "Pinky" Coogan. Haapala co-wrote and directed the 2014 Independent TV pilot Off The Record, screened at Tribeca Cinemas as part of the 2014 New York Television Festival.

AwardsHollywood Reel Independent Film Festival – Best Short Film – Dog It Down New York Television Festival – Best Unscripted TV Show – Pinky and the Fangirls Mark Haapala on IMDb