In religion and folklore, Hell is an afterlife location in which evil souls are subjected to punitive suffering torture as eternal punishment after death. Religions with a linear divine history depict hells as eternal destinations, the biggest examples of which are Christianity and Islam, whereas religions with reincarnation depict a hell as an intermediary period between incarnations, as is the case in the dharmic religions. Religions locate hell in another dimension or under Earth's surface. Other afterlife destinations include Heaven, Purgatory and the underworld. Other religions, which do not conceive of the afterlife as a place of punishment or reward describe an abode of the dead, the grave, a neutral place, located under the surface of Earth; such places are sometimes equated with the English word'hell', though a more correct translation would be'underworld' or'world of the dead'. The ancient Mesopotamian, Greek and Finnic religions include entrances to the underworld from the land of the living.
The modern English word hell is derived from Old English hel, helle reaching into the Anglo-Saxon pagan period. The word has cognates in all branches of the Germanic languages, including Old Norse hel, Old Frisian helle, Old Saxon hellia, Old High German hella, Gothic halja. All forms derive from the reconstructed Proto-Germanic feminine noun *xaljō or *haljō. In turn, the Proto-Germanic form derives from the o-grade form of the Proto-Indo-European root *kel-, *kol-:'to cover, save'. Indo-European cognates including Latin cēlāre and early Irish ceilid. Upon the Christianization of the Germanic peoples, extension of Proto-Germanic *xaljō were reinterpreted to denote the underworld in Christian mythology, for which see Gehenna. Related early Germanic terms and concepts include Proto-Germanic *xalja-rūnō, a feminine compound noun, *xalja-wītjan, a neutral compound noun; this form is reconstructed from the Latinized Gothic plural noun *haliurunnae, Old English helle-rúne, Old High German helli-rūna'magic'.
The compound is composed of two elements: *xaljō and *rūnō, the Proto-Germanic precursor to Modern English rune. The second element in the Gothic haliurunnae may however instead be an agent noun from the verb rinnan, which would make its literal meaning "one who travels to the netherworld". Proto-Germanic *xalja-wītjan is reconstructed from Old Norse hel-víti'hell', Old English helle-wíte'hell-torment, hell', Old Saxon helli-wīti'hell', the Middle High German feminine noun helle-wīze; the compound is a compound of * * wītjan. Hell appears in several religions, it is inhabited by demons and the souls of dead people. A fable about Hell which recurs in folklore across several cultures is the allegory of the long spoons. Hell is depicted in art and literature most famously in Dante's Divine Comedy. Punishment in Hell corresponds to sins committed during life. Sometimes these distinctions are specific, with damned souls suffering for each sin committed, but sometimes they are general, with condemned sinners relegated to one or more chamber of Hell or to a level of suffering.
In many religious cultures, including Christianity and Islam, Hell is depicted as fiery and harsh, inflicting suffering on the guilty. Despite these common depictions of Hell as a place of fire, some other traditions portray Hell as cold. Buddhist – and Tibetan Buddhist – descriptions of Hell feature an equal number of hot and cold Hells. Among Christian descriptions Dante's Inferno portrays the innermost circle of Hell as a frozen lake of blood and guilt, but cold played a part in earlier Christian depictions of Hell, beginning with the Apocalypse of Paul from the early third century. The Sumerian afterlife was a dark, dreary cavern located deep below the ground, where inhabitants were believed to continue "a shadowy version of life on earth"; this bleak domain was known as Kur, was believed to be ruled by the goddess Ereshkigal. All souls went to the same afterlife, a person's actions during life had no effect on how the person would be treated in the world to come; the souls in Kur were believed to eat nothing but dry dust and family members of the deceased would ritually pour libations into the dead person's grave through a clay pipe, thereby allowing the dead to drink.
Nonetheless, funerary evidence indicates that some people believed that the goddess Inanna, Ereshkigal's younger sister, had the power to award her devotees with special favors in the afterlife. During the Third Dynasty of Ur, it was believed that a person's treatment in the afterlife depended on how he or she was buried; the entrance to Kur was beli
Anacaona known as Golden Flower, was a Taíno cacique, religious expert and poet born in Xaragua.. Before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492, now known as the island of Hispaniola was divided into five kingdoms. Anacaona, was born into a family of chiefs, was the sister of Bohecio, the chief of Xaragua, she succeeded her brother Bohechio as chief of the Xaragua after his death. Under Anacaona's rule, the Spaniard settlers and Xaragua people intermarried. In 1503, during his visit to Xaragua, governor of the island Nicolas Ovando suspected an insurrection among the present Taino chiefs including Anacaona. Ovando gave the order for the chiefs to be captured and burned, Anacaona was arrested and hanged. Anacaona was born in Yaguana, the capital of Xaragua in 1474, her name was derived from the Taíno words ana, meaning'flower', caona, meaning'gold, golden.' Anacaona's brother Bohechío was a local chieftain and under his rule, Bohecio consolidated power over all territories west of Xaragua in 1475.
Through consolidation, to strengthen his political influence, Bohecio married Anacaona to Canonabo, the chieftain of Maguana. Together they had Higuemota. In 1492, Christopher Columbus arrived in the kingdom of Marien, in search of a direct route to the Indies. Upon arrival, he was greeted by Tainos. Columbus was greeted with gold and other natural resources. In 1493, the Spanish crown established colonies to excavate gold and other minerals. With the establishment of the new colony, the Taino were kidnapped, murdered and enslaved to satisfy the needs of the Spanish crown. In 1493, Caonabo was arrested for ordering the destruction of its people, he died in a shipwreck during the journey. When Caonabo was captured, Anacaona returned to Xaragua and served as an advisor to her brother, chief Bohecio. In 1498, Bohecio was confronted by Bartholomew Columbus, brother of Christopher Columbus, who arrived in Xaragua with his troops to subdue Bohecío and extend to his territory and build riches in gold. With his weakened power, Bohechío, advised by Anacaona, decided to recognize the sovereignty of the Catholic Monarchs instead of fight, commit to pay the tribute with products as cotton, corn and other products.
After Bohecio's death in 1500, Anacoana ruled as cacique until her execution in 1503. In the fall of 1503, governor of Nicolas Ovando and his party of 300 traveled on foot to Xaragua, they were received in a lavish ceremony by Anacaona, her nobles, several Taino chiefs. While the Taino presented the reception as a welcoming gesture, the Spanish who were present characterized it as an elaborate distraction. Ovando’s party was under the impression that Anacoana and the present Taino chiefs were planning an insurrection. Ovanda lured the chiefs into a caney for a Spanish tournament and gave the signal for the Spaniards to seize and bind the caciques; the caciques were burned in the caney. Anacaona was hanged. According to historian Troy S. Floyd, the accounts of these events remain uncertain for many reasons. Though the separate accounts made it seem as though it was a segregated fight between the Taino and the Spaniards, the two groups had coexisted and intermarried for six years prior, it is unclear.
Additionally, fifty Spaniards were killed, a high number of casualties, if the events occurred split down ethnic lines. The Xaragua caciques were respected as some of the most intelligent on the island, it is unlikely that they could be lured into a hut if they were planning their own revolt. Anacaona was a poet and composer, is accordingly memorialized in contemporary art and literature across the Caribbean. A statue commemorating her legacy is in Haiti; the tallest building in the Hispanola, Torre Anacaona 27, is named after Cacique Anacaona. The salsa song Anacaona by Cheo Feliciano popularizes her story; the Royal Diaries series, Anacaona: Golden Flower, Haiti, 1490 by Edwidge Danticat La Reine Taíno d'Ayiti" by Maryse N. Roumain, PhD. "Anacaona" by Ansy and Yole Dérose "Anacaona" by Tite Curet Alonso "Anacaona" by Irka Mateo's "Anacaona" by Cheo Feliciano's Chiefdoms of Hispaniola Enriquillo Anti-Colonialism Female Native American leaders Bartolomé de las Casas: A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies.
Peter Martyr d'Anghiera: De Orbe Novo. Samuel M. Wilson: Hispaniola - Caribbean Chiefdoms in the Age of Columbus; the University of Alabama Press, 1990. ISBN 0-8173-0462-2. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wilson, J. G.. "article name needed". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton; the Louverture Project: Anacaona Songs about Anacaona: Anacaona anacaona the golden flower book
The 1958–59 Georgetown Hoyas men's basketball team represented Georgetown University during the 1958–59 NCAA Division I college basketball season. Tom Nolan coached them in his third season as head coach; the team was an independent and played its home games at McDonough Gymnasium on the Georgetown campus in Washington, D. C, it had no post-season play. The 1958–59 team was undersized, averaging 6-feet-1 in height and with no player taller than 6-foot-4, inexperienced, with only one senior on the roster. Diminutive sophomore guard Brian "Puddy" Sheehan, the team's 5-foot-9 point guard, an expert ballhandler and a dominant player throughout his college career, emerged as the team's top scorer, averaging 18.4 points per game despite being the smallest man on the court. In his debut, he scored 30 points – a school record for points scored in a debut game – and he turned in a 25-point performance against Connecticut, 23 against Boston College, 22 in a win over Syracuse, he scored only nine points in one of the games against Maryland, but he scored in double figures in every other game.
Sophomore center Tom Coleman joined the varsity from the freshman team this year as its tallest player at 6-foot-4. He led the team in rebounding and scored 22 points in an upset of Loyola of Chicago and 31 against George Washington. Another player to join the varsity from the freshman team was sophomore forward Tom Matan, he had his most productive season this year. Able to play forward and center, he was an effective inside scorer, averaging 14.3 points per game this season, with 30 points in the upset of Loyola of Chicago, 27 against Loyola of Maryland, 26 against Seton Hall. Among four players suspended for the year partway through the previous season because of their grades, junior forward Tom McCloskey was the only one of the four to return to the team this season, he scored in double figures in 15 games, had 17 points in the upset of Loyola of Chicago and 20 in the win over Syracuse. He and junior guard Dick Razzetti both opted not to return to the varsity team the following season and instead play intramural basketball – leading their team to the 1960 intramural title – while McCloskey focused on his studies.
Young, always playing against larger and stronger players, with 15 of their 23 games on the road, the undersized 1958-59 Hoyas lost 10 of their last 13 games, concluding the season with seven straight losses. They struggled to an 8-15 finish, the worst record of Tom Nolan's four-year coaching tenure and worst by a Georgetown team since the 1934-35 season; the team had no post-season play, was not ranked in the Top 20 in the Associated Press Poll or Coaches' Poll at any time. SourcesBeginning this season and continuing through the 1967-68 season, Georgetown players wore even-numbered jerseys for home games and odd-numbered ones for away games. Players are listed below by the numbers they wore at home. Junior guard Ed Hargaden, Jr. was the first second-generation Georgetown men's basketball player, his father, guard Ed Hargaden, having been a standout guard on the 1932-33, 1933-34, 1934-35 teams. He was the only second-generation player in school history until center Patrick Ewing's son, forward Patrick Ewing, Jr. joined the team in the 2006-07 season.