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Hellenic Parliament

The Hellenic Parliament, in Greek known as Voulí ton Ellínon is the parliament of Greece, located in the Old Royal Palace, overlooking Syntagma Square in Athens. The Parliament is the supreme democratic institution that represents the citizens through an elected body of Members of Parliament, it is a unicameral legislature of 300 members, elected for a four-year term. During 1844–1863 and 1927–1935, the parliament was bicameral with an upper house, the Senate, a lower house, the Chamber of Deputies, which retained the name Vouli. Several important Greek statesmen have served as Speakers of the Hellenic Parliament; the first national parliament of the independent Greek state was established in 1843, after the September 3rd Revolution, which forced King Otto to grant a constitution. The Constitution of 1844 established a constitutional monarchy under the decisive power of the monarch, who exercised legislative power jointly with the elected House of Representatives and the appointed Senate, it established the Ministers' accountability vis-à-vis the acts of the monarch, appointing and suspending them.

In October 1862 a rising wave of discontent led the people and the military to rebel again against King Otto and oust him along with the Wittelsbach dynasty. The revolt marked the end of constitutional monarchy and the beginning of a crowned democracy with George Christian Wilhelm of the Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderburg-Glücksburg dynasty as monarch; the Constitution of 1864 created a single-chamber Parliament, elected for a four-year term, abolished the Senate. Moreover, the King preserved the right to convoke ordinary and extraordinary parliamentary sessions, dissolve Parliament at his discretion, as long as the Cabinet signed and endorsed the dissolution decree. With the revisions of 1911 and 1952 it lasted more than a century, with one of its most important elements being the restoration of the principle of popular sovereignty. In 1911, a revision of the constitution resulted in stronger human rights, the reinforcement of the Rule of Law and the modernization of institutions, among them the Parliament.

With regard to the protection of individual rights the most noteworthy amendments to the Constitution of 1864 were a more effective protection of individual security, equality in taxation, the right to assemble and the inviolability of the domicile. Furthermore, the Constitution facilitated expropriation so that land be allocated to poor farmers, while at the same time guaranteeing judicial protection of property rights, it was the first time that the Constitution made provision for mandatory and free education for all, while the process of Constitutional revision was simplified. The Constitution of 1927 made provisions for a head of state that the Parliament and the Senate would elect to serve a five-year term; this "President of the Republic" would be held unaccountable from a political point of view. It recognized the status of political parties as organic elements of the polity and established their proportional representation in the composition of parliamentary committees; this reform of the Constitution is a part of the Second Hellenic Republic, in reference to the Greek State using a republican democracy as a form of governance.

This constitutional change was initiated in January 1924 and initiated on April 13th, 1924 by the Fourth National Assembly. Following World War II, the development of parliamentary institutions resumed in 1948 and in the beginning of the 1950s; the Constitution of 1952 consisted of 114 articles and to a large extent was attached to the Constitutions of 1864 and 1911. Its central innovations were the explicit institutionalization of parliamentarianism and the consolidation for the first time of the voting rights of women, as well as of their right to stand as candidates for parliamentary office. In February 1963 the government of Konstantinos Karamanlis submitted a proposal for an extensive revision of the Constitution, yet the proposal was never put into practice because only a few months after its submission, the government resigned and Parliament dissolved. After seven years of military dictatorship, on 8 December 1974, a referendum was conducted to decide the nature of the form of government.

By a majority of 69.18%, the Greeks decided against a constitutional monarchy and for a parliamentary republic. The Constitution of 1975 was drafted using those of 1952 and 1927, as well as the draft Constitutional revision proposals of 1963, while numerous clauses were based on the West German Constitution of 1949 and the French Constitution of 1958, it included various clauses on individual and social rights, in line with developments at that time, introduced a presidential/parliamentary democracy, wherein the head of state maintained the right to interfere in politics. Greece's current Constitution has been revised three times, with the first one taking place in 1986, when the responsibilities of the President of the Republic were curtailed. In 2001, a extensive revision took place as a total of 79 articles were amended; the new, revised Constitution introduced new individual rights, such as the protection of genetic data and identity or the protection of personal data from electronic processing, new rules of transparency in politics.

It modernized parliamentary functions, propped up decentralization, elevated the status of fundamental Independent Authorities into Constitutional institutions, adopted its provis

Leeds–Northallerton railway

The Leeds–Northallerton railway is a disused railway line between West and North Yorkshire, in northern England. The line was opened in the 1850s; the Leeds and Thirsk Railway via Starbeck opened on 9 July 1848. In 1852 as the Leeds Northern Railway the extension to Northallerton and Stockton opened; the line became part of the North Eastern Railway in the 1854 amalgamation. All three stations at Leeds were used at various times; the section between Leeds and Harrogate is still extant, but its trains now serve a former branch line to York instead of continuing through Ripon to Northallerton. The line north of Harrogate was closed a few years after the publication of Richard Beeching's The Reshaping of British Railways report; the route was closed to passenger traffic on 6 March 1967, but a limited number of freight trains used the line to Ripon until 1969. It was supposed that closing this stretch of line would have little impact, since passengers travelling north could join the East Coast Main Line at York.

The stretch was temporarily re-opened as an emergency diversionary route during the Thirsk rail crash. The closure of the northern section of the line meant an end to over 100 years of railway service to the city of Ripon. In 2005, North Yorkshire County Council commissioned Ove Arup to undertake a feasibility study into the possibility of reopening the closed stretch of line between Harrogate and Ripon; the city was served by Ripon railway station on the Leeds-Northallerton line that ran between Leeds and Northallerton. It was once part of the North Eastern Railway and LNER; the Ripon line was closed to passengers on 6 March 1967 and to freight on 5 September 1969 as part of the wider Beeching Axe, despite a vigorous campaign by local campaigners, including the city's MP. Today much of the route of the line through the city is now a relief road and although the former station still stands, it is now surrounded by a new housing development; the issue remains a significant one in local politics and there are movements wanting to restore the line.

Reports suggest the reopening of a line between Ripon and Harrogate railway station would be economically viable, costing £40 million and could attract 1,200 passengers a day, rising to 2,700. Campaigners call on MPs to restore Ripon railway link. In October 2015, North Yorkshire County Council included the reopening in its Strategic Transport Prospectus, submitted to Transport for the North. In February 2016 the County Council included it in its Local Transport Plan, but it is accepted that it is unlikely to happen until after 2030; the Harrogate to Northallerton line has been identified by Campaign for a Better Transport as a priority 1 candidate for reopening. In 2019, the English Regional Transport Association proposed a re-opened railway between Harrogate and Northallerton would cost £40 million and attract 2,700 passengers per day; these figures were based on a single track railway. Network Rail were supportive of the proposal as it affords them an alternative route south from Northallerton.

From Leeds Leeds Central Holbeck Low Level Royal Gardens Burley Park opened 1988 Headingley Horsforth Woodside Horsforth Arthington Weeton Pannal Hornbeam Park Harrogate: The Harrogate loop was completed in 1862 Starbeck: The original route via Starbeck opened in 1848 Nidd Bridge Wormald Green Ripon Melmerby Melmerby was a junction with the original line to Baldersby and Thirsk Melmerby was the junction for the line to Tanfield and Masham At Melmerby South, there was the junction for a short branch to a Ministry of Supply Ordnance Depot. Sinderby Pickhill Newby Wiske Northallerton List of closed railway lines in Great Britain List of closed railway stations in Britain Bairstow, Martin. Railways Around Harrogate. ISBN 1-871944-18-X. Reopening of Harrogate to Ripon line feasibility study PDF

Cosmic-ray observatory

A cosmic-ray observatory is a scientific installation built to detect high-energy-particles coming from space called cosmic rays. This includes photons, electrons and some heavier nuclei, as well as antimatter particles. About 90% of cosmic rays are protons, 9% are alpha particles, the remaining ~1% are other particles, it is not yet possible to build image forming optics for cosmic rays, like a Wolter telescope for lower energy X-rays, although some cosmic-ray observatories look for high energy gamma rays and x-rays. Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays pose further detection problems. One way of learning about cosmic rays is using different detectors to observe aspects of a cosmic ray air shower. Methods of detection for gamma-rays: Scintillation detectors Solid state detectors Compton scattering Pair telescopes Air Cherenkov detectorsFor example, while a visible light photon may have an energy of a few eV, a cosmic gamma ray may exceed a TeV. Sometimes cosmic gamma rays are not grouped with nuclei cosmic rays.

"In 1952, a simple and audacious experiment allowed the first observation of Cherenkov light produced by cosmic rays passing through the atmosphere, giving birth to a new field of astronomy". This work, involving minimal instrument expense, based on a suggestion by Patrick Blackett, led to our current international multibillion-dollar investment in gamma ray astronomy; the Explorer 1 satellite launched in 1958 subsequently measured cosmic rays. Anton 314 omnidirectional Geiger-Müller tube, designed by George H. Ludwig of the State University of Iowa Cosmic Ray Laboratory, detected cosmic rays, it could detect protons with energy over 30 MeV and electrons with energy over 3 MeV. Most of the time the instrument was saturated; the University of Iowa noted that all of the zero counts per second reports were from an altitude of 2,000+ km over South America, while passes at 500 km would show the expected level of cosmic rays. After Explorer 3, it was concluded that the original Geiger counter had been overwhelmed by strong radiation coming from a belt of charged particles trapped in space by the Earth's magnetic field.

This belt of charged particles is now known as the Van Allen radiation belt. Cosmic rays were studied aboard the space station Mir in the late 20th century, such as with the SilEye experiment; this studied the relationship between flashes seen by astronauts in space and cosmic rays, the cosmic ray visual phenomena. In December 1993, an observatory named the Akeno Giant Air Shower Array recorded one of the highest energy cosmic ray events observed. In October 2003, the Pierre Augur Observatory completed construction on its 100th surface detector and became the largest cosmic-ray array in the world, it detects cosmic rays through the use of two different methods: watching high-energy particles interact with water, observing ultraviolet light emitted in the earth's atmosphere. In 2018, the installation of an upgrade called AugerPrime has started adding scintillation and radio detectors to the Pierre Auger Observatory. In 2010, an expanded version of AMANDA named. IceCube measures Cherenkov light in a cubic kilometer of transparent ice.

It is estimated to detect 275 million cosmic rays every day. Space shuttle Endeavor transported the Alphamagnetic Spectrometer to the International Space Station on May 16, 2011. In just over one year of operating, the AMS collected data on 17 billion cosmic-ray events. There are a number of cosmic ray research initiatives; these include, but are not limited to: Ground based ALBORZ Observatory ERGO CHICOS GAMMA KASCADE- – KArlsruhe Shower Core and Array DEtector Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory LOPES – the LOFAR PrototypE Station is the radio extension of KASCADE. TAIGATunka Advanced Instrument for cosmic ray physics and Gamma Astronomy High Energy Stereoscopic System High Resolution Fly's Eye Cosmic Ray Detector MAGIC MARIACHI Pierre Auger Observatory Telescope Array Project WALTA IceTop TACTIC Satellite based PAMELA Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Spaceship Earth ACE Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 Cassini-Huygens HEAO 1, Einstein Observatory, HEAO 3 ISS-CREAM Balloon-borne BESS ATIC TRACER BOOMERanG experiment TIGER Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass AESOP Observatories for ultra-high-energy cosmic rays: MARIACHI – Mixed Apparatus for Radar Investigation of Cosmic-rays of High Ionization located on Long Island, USA.

GRAPES-3 is a project for cosmic ray study with air shower detector array and large area muon detectors at Ooty in southern India. AGASA – Akeno Giant Air Shower Array in Japan High Resolution Fly's Eye Cosmic Ray Detector Yakutsk Extensive Air Shower Array Pierre Auger Observatory Extreme Universe Space Observatory Telescope Array Project Antarctic Impulse Transient Antenna detects ultra-high-energy cosmic neutrinos believed to be caused by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays The COSMICi project at Florida A&M University is developing technology for a distributed network of low-cost detectors for UHECR showers in collaboration with MARIACHI. CREDO Extragalactic cosmic ray Gamma-ray t