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Hellespontine Phrygia

Hellespontine Phrygia or Lesser Phrygia was a Persian satrapy in northwestern Anatolia, directly southeast of the Hellespont. Its capital was Dascylium, for most of its existence it was ruled by the hereditary Persian Pharnacid dynasty. Together with Greater Phrygia, it made up the administrative provinces of the wider Phrygia region; the satrapy was created in the beginning of the fifth century BC, during the time of administrative reorganisations of the territories in western Asia Minor, which were amongst the most important Achaemenid territories. The first Achaemenid ruler of Hellespontine Phrygia was Mitrobates, appointed by Cyrus the Great and continued under Cambises, he was killed and his territory absorbed by the satrap of neighbouring Lydia, Oroetes. Following the reorganization of Darius I, Mitrobates was succeeded by son of Megabazus. Artabazus became satrap circa 479 BCE and started the Pharnacid dynasty, which would rule Hellespontine Phrygia until the conquests of Alexander the Great.

As Alexander the Great was conquering and incorporating the Achaemenid Empire, he appointed Calas, a Macedonian General to govern Hellespontine Phrygia in 334 BC, after he had sent Parmenion to secure Dascylium, the provincial capital. Calas, being the first non-Achaemenid ruler of the province, was awarded the Persian title of "satrap", rather than a Macedonian title, Alexander instructed him to collect the same tribute from his subjects, paid to Darius III. After Alexander's death in 323, the satrapy was awarded to Leonnatus, killed in action in the Lamian War; the region was seized by Lysimachus, was added to the Seleucid Empire after the Battle of Corupedium, was integrated in the Bithynian kingdom. Mitrobates Megabazus Oebares II Artabazos I of Phrygia - r. 477 - 455 Pharnabazus I - r. 455 - before 430 Pharnaces II - r. before 430 - after 422 Pharnabazus II - r. before 413 - 387 Ariobarzanes of Phrygia - r. 387-363/362 Artabazos II - r. 363/362-353 Arsites - r. 353-334 Calas - r. 334-323 Leonnatus - r.

323-321 Kinzl, Konrad H.. A Companion to the Classical Greek World. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1405172011. Lyons, Justin D.. Alexander the Great and Hernán Cortés: Ambiguous Legacies of Leadership. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-1498505284. Scott, James M.. Paul and the Nations: The Old Testament and Jewish Background of Paul's Mission to the Nations with Special Reference to the Destination of Galatians. Mohr Siebeck. ISBN 978-3161463778. Weiskopf, Michael. "DASCYLIUM". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. VII, Fasc. 1. Pp. 85–90

Dorothy Wegman Raphaelson

Dorothy Wegman Raphaelson known professionally as Dorshka, was an American dancer, a Ziegfeld Girl and vaudeville performer, a novelist. Dorothy Deborah Wegman was raised in the Washington Heights neighborhood of New York City, her parents were immigrants from Eastern Europe. She had a brother Daniel. Dorothy Wegman left high school to work full-time after her father's death, she worked for a clothing manufacturer. She danced in The Whirl of New York, Topics of 1923, Big Boy, No Foolin', Rio Rita, she retired from the stage when she eloped. Raphaelson wrote two published novels: Glorified, based on her time as a dancer, Morning Song, autobiographical. Dorothy Wegman married writer Samson Raphaelson in late 1927 or early 1928, they had a son, a daughter, Naomi. She was widowed when Samson Raphaelson died in 1983, she died in 2005, aged 100 years, in New York. Her husband's papers, archived at the University of Illinois, includes a taped interview with Dorothy Wegman Raphaelson. Dorothy Wegman Raphaelson at Find a Grave Dorothy Wegman Raphaelson at the Internet Broadway Database Dorothy Wegman Raphaelson on IMDb A photograph of Dorothy Wegman by Alfred Cheney Johnston, in the collection of the Library of Congress

Mel Carnahan

Melvin Eugene Carnahan was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 51st Governor of Missouri from 1993 until his death in a plane crash in 2000. A Democrat, he was elected posthumously to the U. S. Senate. Carnahan was born in Birch Tree and grew up on a small farm near Ellsinore, with his only sibling, Robert "Bob" Carnahan, he was the son of Kathel and A. S. J. Carnahan, the superintendent of Ellsinore schools who, in 1944, was elected to the United States House of Representatives, serving from 1945-1947 and 1949-1961. Carnahan moved with his family to Washington, D. C. in 1945 and returned in 1949, the year he met his future wife Jean. There he graduated from Anacostia High School in 1952 and earned a Bachelor of Arts in Business Administration from George Washington University in 1954, he married Jean Anne Carpenter that same year and entered the United States Air Force during the Korean War and served as a special agent for the Office of Special Investigation rising to the rank of First Lieutenant.

In 1956, he and his wife moved back to his home state of Missouri. He received a Juris Doctor from the University of Missouri School of Law in Columbia, Missouri, in 1959. Carnahan's political career started in 1960 when he was elected to serve as a municipal judge in Rolla. Two years he was elected as a member of the Missouri House of Representatives representing the Rolla area, he remained in the Missouri house until 1966, winning the position of majority floor leader in his second term. In 1966, he started practicing law. In 1980, Carnahan was elected Missouri State Treasurer, he served in that post from 1981 to 1985. In 1984 he was an unsuccessful candidate for Governor of Missouri, losing the Democratic primary election to then-Lieutenant Governor Kenneth Rothman, who lost the general election that year to state Attorney General John Ashcroft. In 1988 he was elected Lieutenant Governor of Missouri. In 1992, he faced Mayor of St. Louis Vincent C. Schoemehl in the Democratic primary for governor.

He won the Democratic nomination by a wide margin and went on to defeat Republican state Attorney General William L. Webster in the general election, he was elected Governor of Missouri on November 3, 1992, reelected for a second term on November 5, 1996, defeating Republican State Auditor of Missouri Margaret Kelly. In 2000, Carnahan ran in the election against incumbent Republican John Ashcroft to become a United States Senator, it was a heated and intense campaign, in which Carnahan traveled all over Missouri to garner support in what was a close race. However, early in the evening of October 16, the night before a presidential debate held at Washington University in St. Louis just three weeks before the election, the twin-engine Cessna airplane he was flying on, piloted by his son Randy, lost control in rainy and foggy conditions and crashed on a forested hillside near Goldman, only about 35 miles south of St. Louis. All three on board the plane were killed in the crash. Lieutenant Governor Roger B. Wilson ascended to the governorship and served out the balance of Carnahan's term, which ended in January 2001.

Because Missouri election law would not allow Carnahan's name to be removed from the November 7, 2000, the campaign chose Carnahan's widow, Jean Carnahan, to unofficially become the new Democratic candidate. Wilson promised to appoint her to the seat, if it became vacant as a result of Mel Carnahan's win in the election. Carnahan's campaign continued using the slogan "I'm Still with Mel." A Senate first, Carnahan posthumously won, by a 2% margin. Jean Carnahan was appointed to the Senate and served until November 2002, when she was defeated by a 1% margin in a special election by Republican James Talent. A high school, Carnahan High School of the Future, was named after him in 2003. Carnahan and his family were active members of the First Baptist Church of Rolla, where he served as an ordained deacon and member of the building committee. In 1984, he risked his political career by taking a public stand against Missouri ballot issues, Amendments 5 and 7, which would legalize parimutuel betting and create a state lottery.

He was one of only a handful of state elected officials to take such a position. Carnahan married Jean Carpenter in Washington, D. C. on June 12, 1954. They had all lawyers. Russ Carnahan, a former member of the U. S. House of Representatives for Missouri's 3rd District. National Governors Association Mel Carnahan at Find a Grave Appearances on C-SPAN

A Natural Born Gambler

A Natural Born Gambler is a 1916 silent film short, the first of only two films starring Broadway comic and singer Bert Williams. The film was Williams' first two-reel comedy, was a film, expected not to disappoint audiences and was anticipated, it was released by The General Film Company. Williams directed and G. W. Bitzer known as Billy Bitzer, D. W. Griffith's cameraman, was the cinematographer; this is a still-surviving film. It is an authentic comedic film for its time in which Williams is still humorous without relying on the popular physical style of slapstick comedy. Special and strategic advertising along with the name Williams had created for himself made it possible for the film to get exposure throughout the country. Most of this exposure came from newspaper prints. Film exhibitors were excited to have pre-release sales of the film, as Williams was popular through film and as a comedian. Much of Williams' reputation stemmed from his background of being a great comedian, it was said that Williams was one of the few comedians at this time who had the ability to be as successful and humorous within his films as he was on stage.

Much of this experience he took with him throughout his film career seen through the comedic success of A Natural Born Gambler. All of this called for great success when the film was released on July 24, 1916. With the achievement of the film post-release, exhibitors remained happy about the film as they were able to profit from it throughout the rest of that summer; the film's opening scene takes place in a saloon. There are several men in the saloon, both black, they are preparing for the meeting of The Independent Order of Calcimine Artists of America, hosted by Hostetter Johnson. Bert Williams attends and participates in the meeting and heavy gambling. While gambling at the meeting, Bert is hesitant to give up the money he has lost. After the meeting and much argument, Bert Williams carries home his right hand man Limpy Jones, because Limpy has a broken leg; as they walk through a graveyard en route from the saloon, they spot two thieves whom they suspect to be the devil when they hear them speaking.

Bert and Limpy run back to the Saloon, with Limpy returning first Bert bringing the thieves with him, as he saw them on the way back and became friendly with them. In the saloon they take the thieves' winnings, which happens to be chickens, force the two thieves to leave. Bert tries to win in a dice game to earn back the money he had lost prior in the meeting. Brother Scott, the leader of the group and was against gambling, makes everyone involved in gambling leave the saloon, but takes the money left behind; when all the men return, a man named Cicero Sampson enters the saloon, who has just returned from the north with a large amount of earnings he won while gambling there. As the men are now back in the saloon, an interested Bert challenges the successful Cicero to a game. With the help of Limpy, Bert is able to beat Cicero, wins all of Cicero's money he won while in the north. Shortly after, the police arrest the men for gambling; the judge orders that all of the winnings from gambling in the saloon go to Brother Scott as a lawyer's fee.

The judge gives Cicero three days to leave town and orders Bert to jail for ten days. While in jail, Bert imagines dealing hands of cards. Within the film there are several stereotypes of blacks, such as stealing, mischief and greed. Although Brother Scott is not a gambler in the film, he is greedy and makes consistent financial gains, more so than Bert. With that said, although Bert is always trying to get the upper hand, he can never seem to be successful. Williams continued to use blackface within his own film, as a way to bring in and entertain the mainstream white audience, allowing the film to gain success. Blackface would allow blacks to be hyper-racialized and be seen as more entertaining to whites, it was one of the few ways. In the film Bert Williams uses heavy facial expression as well as pantomime, which were iconic of his acting style, were a part of his identity as an entertainer; this gives the film another form of Williams' own authenticity. Limpy Jones Bert Williams played by Bert Williams Brother Scott Hostetter Johnson Cicero Sampson Bert Williams Lime Kiln Field Day film featuring Williams, produced by Biograph and Klaw and Erlanger A Natural Born Gambler on IMDb A Natural Born Gambler available for free download at Internet Archive Williams, Bert.

A Natural Born Gambler. United States: General Film. A Natural Born Gambler on YouTube

Kingdom City, Missouri

Kingdom City is a village in Callaway County, United States. It is part of the Jefferson City Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 128 at the 2010 census. The village lies north of the intersection of Interstate 70 and U. S. Route 54. Kingdom City has its origins in the building of US Route 40 in 1925, at the same time US Route 54 was being planned with the intention of intersecting US 40 somewhere along the route; the city of Fulton had hoped for US 40 to go from Columbia through Fulton and intersect US 54 in their city, but the final decision had the highways intersect in what would become Kingdom City, just a rural farm and forested area south of McCredie. McCredie residents fought so hard for the highway that they staged a parade through the heart of Fulton with banners that read "54-40 or Fight"; when the road was being built and huge numbers of workers were brought in to do the work, McCredie became a boom town, with future Kingdom City receiving its first gas station and a two-story hotel, which burned down in 1930.

Since the area had no name at the time the intersection was referred to only as the "Y", with people in Fulton wanting to name it "North Fulton" and the people in McCredie naming it "South McCredie". The Kingdom Oil Company, owned by B. P. Beamer, suggested Kingdom City, in reflection of the nickname for Callaway County. Through the 1920s and 30s numerous dance halls, cafés, hotels would come and go in Kingdom City. In 1965, Gasper's opened for business. In 1970, the McCredie Post Office took the community's name; this was the same year Kingdom City incorporated as a village and included the former unincorporated community of McCredie. The Richland Christian Church was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2001. Kingdom City is located along U. S. Route 54 one half mile north of I-70. McKinney Creek flows past the south edge of the community and Auxvasse Creek passes two miles to the north; the town of Auxvasse lies about five miles north along Route 54. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.82 square miles, of which 1.80 square miles of it is land and 0.02 square miles is water.

As of the census of 2010, there were 128 people, 49 households, 34 families living in the village. The population density was 71.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 55 housing units at an average density of 30.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 93.0% White, 6.3% African American, 0.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.8% of the population. There were 49 households of which 24.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.1% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 8.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 30.6% were non-families. 24.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.09. The median age in the village was 40 years. 22.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 49.2 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 121 people, 51 households, 36 families living in the village.

The population density was 89.3 people per square mile. There were 54 housing units at an average density of 39.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 90.91% White, 6.61% African American, 0.83% Native American, 1.65% from two or more races. There were 51 households out of which 29.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.9% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.4% were non-families. 21.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.69. In the village, the population was spread out with 21.5% under the age of 18, 5.0% from 18 to 24, 23.1% from 25 to 44, 32.2% from 45 to 64, 18.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 108.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.0 males. The median income for a household in the village was $35,417, the median income for a family was $34,583.

Males had a median income of $28,125 versus $17,750 for females. The per capita income for the village was $16,978. None of the population and none of the families were below the poverty line. William S. Bryan and Robert Rose, A History of the Pioneer Families of Missouri, with numerous sketches, adventures, etc. relating to Early Days in Missouri, St. Louis, Missouri: Bryan, Brand & Co. 1876 Callaway County Website Kingdom of Callaway County Historical Society Callaway County, Missouri tourism site

Amfreville battery

Amfreville battery was a World War II German artillery battery constructed close to the French village of Querqueville in northwestern France. It formed part of Germany's Atlantic Wall coastal fortifications and protected the western entrance to the port of Cherbourg; the battery engaged British and US ships towards the end of June 1944 before the battery fell to advancing US forces on 26 June 1944. The battery had been a French artillery position dating from 1898 constructed to protect the port of Cherbourg; the French installed three canon de 164 mm Modèle 1893 artillery pieces in 1926. During the German advance into the Cotentin Peninsula on 18 June 1940 the French guns fired upon advancing German units in the Martinvast region; the guns were destroyed by the French. In 1943 the Germans used the site as part of their Atlantic Wall fortifications. Concrete casemates were constructed to house four First World War-era 17 cm SK L/40 guns which had a firing range of over 27 km. A two-storey fire control tower was built to the rear of these bunkers.

The battery was protected by mortar pits and machine gun positions. The battery was manned by elements of the 260th German Artillery Battalion. Cherbourg, with its deep-water port, had been designated as a strategic target by Allied planners during the preparations for the invasion of Normandy. Following the successful Allies landings in Normandy in early June 1944, American forces headed north through the Cotentin Peninsula towards Cherbourg. At the end of June 1944, the Amfreville battery fired upon Allied shipping approaching the port of Cherbourg. On June 25, the battery engaged Allied ships which were supporting the liberation of the Cherbourg area. Allied warships including HMS Glasgow, HMS Enterprise and USS Texas shelled the battery but withdrew out of range of the battery; the following day, American ground troops attacked the battery and it surrendered to elements of the 2nd battalion of the 47th Infantry Regiment belonging to the 9th Infantry Division. Post war the battery was re-used by the French army.

The battery and surrounding area was put up for sale in 2016. Azeville battery Crisbecq Battery Longues-sur-Mer battery