Hello Kitty known by her full name Kitty White, is a fictional character produced by the Japanese company Sanrio, created by Yuko Shimizu and designed by Yuko Yamaguchi. Sanrio depicts Hello Kitty as a female gijinka of Japanese Bobtail with a red bow and, notably, no mouth. According to her backstory, she is a perpetual 3rd-grade student. Kitty shares the same birthday as her twin sister, Mimi on November 1. Since the cartoon character's creation, Hello Kitty has become a media franchise including a product line, clothing apparel, toy-line, manga comics, anime series, popular music, other media. Shortly after her creation in 1974, the Hello Kitty vinyl coin purse was introduced by Sanrio in March 5 1975. Sanrio brought the character to the United States in 1976. Hello Kitty is a staple of the kawaii segment of Japanese popular culture. By 2010, Sanrio had groomed Hello Kitty into a global marketing phenomenon, worth $6 billion a year. By 2014, when Hello Kitty was 40 years old, she was worth about $8 billion a year.
As of 2019, Hello Kitty is the second highest-grossing franchise of all time, having generated $80 billion in lifetime retail sales. First aimed at pre-teenage females, Hello Kitty's market included adult consumers. A variety of products ranging from school supplies to fashion accessories feature this character. Several Hello Kitty TV series, targeted towards children, have been produced, as well as several manga comics and anime films. There are three Sanrio theme parks based on Hello Kitty, Harmonyland in Hiji, Ōita, Sanrio Puroland in Tama New Town, Tokyo and Sanrio Hello Kitty Town in Iskandar Puteri, Malaysia. In 1962, Shintaro Tsuji, founder of Sanrio, began selling rubber sandals with flowers painted on them. Tsuji noted the profits gained by adding a cute design to the shoes and hired cartoonists to design cute characters for his merchandise; the company produced a line of character merchandise around gift-giving occasions. Hello Kitty was designed by Yuko Shimizu and was added to the lineup of early Sanrio characters in 1974.
The character's first appearance on an item was a vinyl coin purse in Japan where she was pictured sitting between a bottle of milk and a goldfish bowl. She first appeared in the United States in 1976. Sanrio decided to make Hello Kitty British because at the time of her creation, foreign countries, in particular, were trendy in Japan. Sanrio had several characters set in the US, it wanted Hello Kitty to be different. Shimizu got the name Kitty from Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking-Glass. Sanrio's motto is "social communication," and Tsuji wanted the brand name to reflect that, he first considered "Hi Kitty" before settling on "Hello" for the greeting. Spokespeople for Sanrio have said that Hello Kitty has no mouth, as they want people to "project their feelings onto the character" and "be happy or sad together with Hello Kitty." Another explanation Sanrio has given for her lack of a mouth is. She's Sanrio's ambassador to the world and isn't bound to any particular language". Representatives for Sanrio have said they see Hello Kitty as a symbol of friendship, they hope she will foster between people across the world.
There has been speculation that Hello Kitty has its origins in Maneki Neko - the name "Hello Kitty" itself is a back-translation of Maneki Neko, meaning beckoning cat in English. Despite this, no definitive statement supports that speculation. Hello Kitty sold well after the 1974 launch, Sanrio's sales increased seven times up until they slumped temporarily in 1978. New series with Hello Kitty in different themed designs are released following current trends. Yuko Yamaguchi, the main designer for most of Hello Kitty's history, has said that fashion, TV inspire her in creating new designs. Hello Kitty was marketed only towards a child and preteen audience. In the 1990s, the target market for Hello Kitty was broadened to include teens and adults as a retro brand. Marketed to those who could not get Hello Kitty merchandise as children, or who fondly remember items they had, Sanrio began selling Hello Kitty branded products such as purses and laptops; the 1994–1996 Face series was the first to be designed for a more mature appeal.
According to Sanrio, in 1999, Hello Kitty appeared on 12,000 different products yearly. By 2008, Hello Kitty was responsible for half of Sanrio's $1 billion net income, there were over 50,000 different Hello Kitty branded products in more than 60 countries. Beginning in 2007, following trends in Japan, Sanrio began using darker designs for Hello Kitty with more black and less pink and pulling away from kawaii styles. Hello Kitty and Mimmy celebrated their 40th Anniversary on 1 November 2014; the "Arigato Everyone Birthday Celebration" took place in Sanrio Puroland in Tokyo for several days. Aimed at the pre-adolescent female market, the Hello Kitty product range has expanded from dolls, greeting cards, accessories, school supplies and stationery to purses, televisions, other home appliances and computer equipment; these products range from mass market items to rare collectibles. As of 2014, there are more than 50,000 Hello Kitty product lines available in over 130 countries. Sanrio and various corporate partners have released Hello Kitty-branded products, including the Hello Kitty Stratocaster electric guitar and an Airbus A330-200 commercial passenger jet airliner, dubbed the Hello Kitty Jet (2005–2009, with EVA Airways in Taiw
Lords of the Black Sun is a 4X turn-based strategy computer game created by Portuguese developer Arkavi Studios and published by Iceberg Interactive. It was made available as an early access game on Steam December 6, 2013 and was released on September 12, 2014. Lords of the Black Sun plays like a traditional 4X and features 8 races, tactical turn-based combat, in-depth Espionage/Intel and Diplomacy components, a complex AI that, according to the developers, doesn't cheat and a "living universe" featuring independent races and pirate clans. Gameplay includes LAN, hotseat and online multiplayer complete with matchmaking. Despite being named as one of the best games of 2014 by PC Gamer and being in the list of the most awaited releases of that year in several media outlets, the Lords of the Black Sun was met with mixed reception upon release; some praised the game for its solid and easy to pick up gameplay and welcome additions to the tried and true 4X formula, while others complained of constant crashes, bland visuals and incompetent AI
Keneseth Israel is a Conservative synagogue in Louisville, Kentucky. The congregation had a synagogue constructed in Louisville in 1928, it is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The congregation was founded in 1882 as an Orthodox congregation, B'nai Jacob, merged with another orthodox congregation, Beth HaMedrash HaGadol in 1927 to create congregation Keneseth Israel. In 1928 the congregation had a synagogue built at 232-236 East Jacob Street in Louisville; the congregation moved to its current home in 1964. The earliest building was a former church. In 1901, the congregation B'nai Israel, dedicated a new building on the site of the former church building at 432 E. Jefferson Street; the building has twin towers with pyramid-form roofs and was stripped in red-and-white in the Moorish Revival style fashionable for synagogues. For most of its history, Keneseth Israel was an Orthodox synagogue affiliated with the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America. In 1994, its members voted to affiliate with the United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism, leaving Anshe Sfard as the only remaining Orthodox-affiliate congregation in Louisville.
The 1974 English cricket season was the 75th in which the County Championship had been an official competition. The recent pattern of joint tours continued with India and Pakistan again playing three Tests each against England. Worcestershire won the County Championship. County Championship - Worcestershire Gillette Cup - Kent Sunday League - Leicestershire Benson & Hedges Cup - Surrey Minor Counties Championship - Oxfordshire Second XI Championship - Middlesex II Wisden - Dennis Amiss, Mike Denness, Norman Gifford, Tony Greig, Andy Roberts Playfair Cricket Annual 1975 Wisden Cricketers' Almanack 1975 CricketArchive – season and tournament itineraries
An imidazopyridine is a nitrogen containing heterocycle, a class of drugs that contain this same chemical substructure. In general, they are GABAA receptor agonists, however proton pump inhibitors, aromatase inhibitors, NSAIDs and other classes of drugs in this class have been developed as well. Despite being similar to them in effect, they are not chemically related to benzodiazepines; as such, GABAA-agonizing imidazopyridines, pyrazolopyrimidines, cyclopyrrones are sometimes grouped together and referred to as "nonbenzodiazepines." Imidazopyridines include: Anxiolytics and hypnotics: Imidazopyridines: Alpidem —an anxiolytic, withdrawn from the market worldwide in 1995 due to hepatotoxicity. DS-1—a GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator selective for the α4β3δ subtype, not targeted by other GABAergics such as benzodiazepines or other nonbenzodiazepines. Necopidem—an anxiolytic, it has not found clinical use. Saripidem—a sedative and anxiolytic, it is not used clinically. TP-003—a subtype-selective partial agonist at GABAA receptors, binding to GABAA receptor complexes bearing either α2, α3 or α5 subunits, but only showing significant efficacy at α3.
Zolpidem —a used hypnotic. Generic versions are available. Imidazopyridines: Bamaluzole—a GABAA receptor-agonizing anticonvulsant, never marketed. Antipsychotics: Imidazopyridines: Mosapramine —an atypical antipsychotic used in Japan. Drugs used for peptic ulcer disease, GERD and gastroprokinetic agents: Imidazopyridines: CJ-033466—an experimental gastroprokinetic acting as a selective 5-HT4 serotonin receptor partial agonist. Zolimidine—a gastroprotective agent. Linaprazan—a potassium-competitive acid blocker which demonstrated similar efficacy as esomeprazole in healing and controlling symptoms of GERD patients with erosive esophagitis. SCH28080—the prototypical potassium-competitive acid blocker which has not found clinical use because of liver toxicity in animal trials and elevated liver enzyme activity in the serum of human volunteers. Imidazopyridines: Tenatoprazole—it blocks the gastric proton pump leading to decline of gastric acid production. NSAIDs, analgesics and antimigraine drugs: Imidazopyridines: Miroprofen—a derivative of propionic acid.
Imidazopyridines: Telcagepant—a calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist, in clinical trials as a remedy for migraine. Its development was terminated. Drugs acting on the cardiovascular system: Imidazopyridines: Olprinone —a cardiac stimulant. Drugs for treatment of bone diseases: Imidazopyridines: Minodronic acid —a third-generation bisphosphonate used for the treatment of osteoporosis. Antineoplastic agents: Imidazopyridines: Fadrozole —an aromatase inhibitor. Imidazopyridines: 3-Deazaneplanocin A—an S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine synthesis inhibitor and histone methyltransferase EZH2 inhibitor. Directly-acting antiviral agents: Imidazopyridines: Tegobuvir/GS-9190 - an allosteric, non-nucleoside hepatitis C virus NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor targeting the thumb II allosteric site. Media related to Imidazopyridines at Wikimedia Commons
In statistics, Scheffé's method, named after the American statistician Henry Scheffé, is a method for adjusting significance levels in a linear regression analysis to account for multiple comparisons. It is useful in analysis of variance, in constructing simultaneous confidence bands for regressions involving basis functions. Scheffé's method is a single-step multiple comparison procedure which applies to the set of estimates of all possible contrasts among the factor level means, not just the pairwise differences considered by the Tukey–Kramer method, it works on similar principles as the Working–Hotelling procedure for estimating mean responses in regression, which applies to the set of all possible factor levels. Let μ1... μr be the means of some variable in r disjoint populations. An arbitrary contrast is defined by C = ∑ i = 1 r c i μ i where ∑ i = 1 r c i = 0. If μ1... μr are all equal to each other all contrasts among them are 0. Otherwise, some contrasts differ from 0. Technically there are infinitely many.
The simultaneous confidence coefficient is 1 − α, whether the factor level sample sizes are equal or unequal. We estimate C by C ^ = ∑ i = 1 r c i Y ¯ i for which the estimated variance is s C ^ 2 = σ ^ e 2 ∑ i = 1 r c i 2 n i, where ni is the size of the sample taken from the ith population, σ ^ e 2 is the estimated variance of the errors, it can be shown that the probability is 1 − α that all confidence limits of the type C ^ ± s C ^ F α. Draper and Smith, in their'Applied Regression Analysis', indicate that'r' should be in the equation in place of'r-1'; the slip with'r-1' is a result of failing to allow for the additional effect of the constant term in many regressions. That the result based on'r-1' is wrong is seen by considering r = 2, as in a standard simple linear regression; that formula would reduce to one with the usual t distribution, appropriate for predicting/estimating for a single value of the independent variable, not for constructing a confidence band for a range of values of the independent value.
Note that the formula is for dealing with the mean values for a range of independent values, not for comparing with individual values such as individual observed data values. Superscript letters are used to indicate which values are different using the Scheffé method. For example, when mean values of variables that have been analyzed using an ANOVA are presented in a table, they are assigned a different letter superscript based on a Scheffé contrast. Values that are not different based on the post-hoc Scheffé contrast will have the same superscript and values that are different will have different superscripts. If only a fixed number of pairwise comparisons are to be made, the Tukey–Kramer method will result in a more precise confidence interval. In the general case when many or all contrasts might be of interest, the Scheffé method is more appropriate and will give narrower confidence intervals in the case of a large number of comparisons. Bohrer, Robert. "On Sharpening Scheffé Bounds". Journal of the Royal Statistical Society.
Series B. 29: 110–114. JSTOR 2984571. Scheffé, H.. The Analysis of Variance. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-34505-9. Scheffé's method This article incorporates public domain material from the National Institute of Standards and Technology website https://www.nist.gov