Kayaking is the use of a kayak for moving across water. It is distinguished from canoeing by the sitting position of the paddler and the number of blades on the paddle. A kayak is a low-to-the-water, canoe-like boat in which the paddler sits facing forward, legs in front, using a double-bladed paddle to pull front-to-back on one side and the other in rotation. Most kayaks have closed decks, although sit-on-top and inflatable kayaks are growing in popularity as well. Kayaks were created thousands of years ago by the Inuit known as Eskimos, of the northern Arctic regions, they used driftwood and sometimes the skeleton of whale, to construct the frame of the kayak, animal skin seal skin was used to create the body. The main purpose for creating the kayak, which translates to "hunter's boat" was for hunting and fishing; the kayak's stealth capabilities allowed for the hunter to sneak up behind animals on the shoreline and catch their prey. In the 1740s, Russian explorers led by Vitus Bering came in contact with the Aleutians, who had taken the basic kayak concept and developed multiple designs for hunting and environmental conditions.
They soon recognized the Aleutians were skillful at hunting sea otters by kayak. Because otters were a popular commodity in Europe and Asia, they would exploit and kidnap Aleutians and keep them aboard their ships to work and hunt. By the mid-1800s the kayak became popular and the Europeans became interested. German and French men began kayaking for sport. In 1931, Adolf Anderle was the first person to kayak down the Salzachöfen Gorge, believed to be the birthplace of modern-day white-water kayaking. Kayak races were introduced in the Berlin Olympic Games in 1936. In the 1950s, fiberglass kayaks were developed and used, until 1980s when polyethylene plastic kayaks were introduced. Kayaking progressed as a fringe sport in the U. S. until the 1970s, when it became a mainstream popular sport. Now, more than 10 white water kayaking events are featured in the Olympics. While kayaking represents a key international watersport, few academic studies have been conducted on the role kayaking plays in the lives and activities of the public Kayaks can be classified by their design and the materials from which they are made.
Each design has its specific advantage, including performance, manoeuvrability and paddling style. Kayaks can be made of metal, wood, plastic and inflatable fabrics such as PVC or rubber, more expensive but feather light carbon fiber; each material has its specific advantage, including strength, portability, resistance to ultraviolet and storage requirements. For example, wooden kayaks can be built by hand. Stitch and glue, plywood kayaks can be lighter than any other material except skin-on frame. Inflatable kayaks, made from lightweight fabric, can be deflated and transported and stored, are considered to be remarkably tough and durable compared to some hard-sided boats. There are many types of kayaks used in flat whitewater kayaking; the sizes and shapes vary drastically depending on what type of water to be paddled on and what the paddler would like to do. The second set of essentials for kayaking is an off-set paddle where the paddle blades are tilted to help reduce wind resistance while the other blade is being used in the water.
These vary in length and shape depending on the intended use, height of the paddler, the paddler's preference. Kayaks should be equipped with one or more buoyancy aid which creates air space that helps prevent a kayak from sinking when filled with water. A life jacket should be worn at all times, a helmet is often required for most kayaking and is mandatory for white water kayaking. Various other pieces of safety gear include a whistle for signaling for help. Proper clothing such as a dry suit, wetsuit or spray top help protect kayakers from cold water or air temperatures. "Sit on top" kayaks place the paddler in an shallowly-concave deck above the water level. This style is used for non-white water activities as most find it harder to stay inside the kayak while preventing them from "rolling" which allows the user to upright themselves if they flip over. There are some benefits to sit on tops such as the ability for a "dry hatch" these are a compartment, that runs the length of the kayak, which in addition to providing more buoyancy allows for the kayaker to store various equipment in.
"Sit on top" kayaks use "through holes" which allows any water that got in the boat to make it through the deck and dry hatch to drain. "Cockpit style" involves sitting with the legs and hips inside the kayak hull with a spray deck or "spray skirt" that creates a water-resistant seal around the waist. There is a wide range of "cockpit style" boats which allow for more user control of the boat as they are able to push against the walls of the boat to tip in order to complete maneuvers. A common variant of "cockpit style" kayaks are "play boats" these are very short kayaks in which the user does tricks and maneuvers: "Inflatables" are a hybrid of the two previous configurations; these boats are subject to more instability due to the way the boat sits higher in the water. They are used in a more commercial setting, they are affectionately called "Duckies". "Tandems" are configured for m
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower. In 2015, hydropower generated 16.6% of the world's total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity, was expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 33 percent of global hydropower in 2013. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 920 TWh of production in 2013, representing 16.9 percent of domestic electricity use. The cost of hydroelectricity is low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity; the hydro station consumes no water, unlike gas plants. The average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U. S. cents per kilowatt hour. With a dam and reservoir it is a flexible source of electricity since the amount produced by the station can be varied up or down rapidly to adapt to changing energy demands. Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, in many cases, has a lower output level of greenhouse gases than fossil fuel powered energy plants.
Hydropower has been used since ancient times to perform other tasks. In the mid-1770s, French engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor published Architecture Hydraulique which described vertical- and horizontal-axis hydraulic machines. By the late 19th century, the electrical generator was developed and could now be coupled with hydraulics; the growing demand for the Industrial Revolution would drive development as well. In 1878 the world's first hydroelectric power scheme was developed at Cragside in Northumberland, England by William Armstrong, it was used to power a single arc lamp in his art gallery. The old Schoelkopf Power Station No. 1 near Niagara Falls in the U. S. side began to produce electricity in 1881. The first Edison hydroelectric power station, the Vulcan Street Plant, began operating September 30, 1882, in Appleton, with an output of about 12.5 kilowatts. By 1886 there were 45 hydroelectric power stations in the U. S. and Canada. By 1889 there were 200 in the U. S. alone. At the beginning of the 20th century, many small hydroelectric power stations were being constructed by commercial companies in mountains near metropolitan areas.
Grenoble, France held the International Exhibition of Hydropower and Tourism with over one million visitors. By 1920 as 40% of the power produced in the United States was hydroelectric, the Federal Power Act was enacted into law; the Act created the Federal Power Commission to regulate hydroelectric power stations on federal land and water. As the power stations became larger, their associated dams developed additional purposes to include flood control and navigation. Federal funding became necessary for large-scale development and federally owned corporations, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority and the Bonneville Power Administration were created. Additionally, the Bureau of Reclamation which had begun a series of western U. S. irrigation projects in the early 20th century was now constructing large hydroelectric projects such as the 1928 Hoover Dam. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers was involved in hydroelectric development, completing the Bonneville Dam in 1937 and being recognized by the Flood Control Act of 1936 as the premier federal flood control agency.
Hydroelectric power stations continued to become larger throughout the 20th century. Hydropower was referred to as white coal for its plenty. Hoover Dam's initial 1,345 MW power station was the world's largest hydroelectric power station in 1936; the Itaipu Dam opened in 1984 in South America as the largest, producing 14,000 MW but was surpassed in 2008 by the Three Gorges Dam in China at 22,500 MW. Hydroelectricity would supply some countries, including Norway, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Brazil, with over 85% of their electricity; the United States has over 2,000 hydroelectric power stations that supply 6.4% of its total electrical production output, 49% of its renewable electricity. The technical potential for hydropower development around the world is much greater than the actual production: the percent of potential hydropower capacity that has not been developed is 71% in Europe, 75% in North America, 79% in South America, 95% in Africa, 95% in the Middle East, 82% in Asia-Pacific.
The political realities of new reservoirs in western countries, economic limitations in the third world and the lack of a transmission system in undeveloped areas result in the possibility of developing 25% of the remaining technically exploitable potential before 2050, with the bulk of that being in the Asia-Pacific area. Some countries have developed their hydropower potential and have little room for growth: Switzerland produces 88% of its potential and Mexico 80%. Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator; the power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. This height difference is called the head. A large pipe delivers water from the reservoir to the turbine; this method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. At times of low electrical demand, the excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir.
When the demand becomes greater, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine. Pumped-storage schemes provide the most commercially important means of large-scale grid energy storage and improve the daily capacity factor of the generation system. Pumped storag
The Snake River is a major river of the greater Pacific Northwest region in the United States. At 1,078 miles long, it is the largest tributary of the Columbia River, in turn the largest North American river that empties into the Pacific Ocean; the Snake River rises in western Wyoming flows through the Snake River Plain of southern Idaho, the rugged Hells Canyon on the Oregon–Idaho border and the rolling Palouse Hills of Washington, emptying into the Columbia River at the Tri-Cities, Washington. The Snake River drainage basin encompasses parts of six U. S. is known for its varied geologic history. The Snake River Plain was created by a volcanic hotspot which now lies underneath the Snake River headwaters in Yellowstone National Park. Gigantic glacial-retreat flooding episodes that occurred during the previous Ice Age carved out canyons and waterfalls along the middle and lower Snake River. Two of these catastrophic flooding events, the Missoula Floods and Bonneville Flood affected the river and its surroundings.
Prehistoric Native Americans lived along the Snake starting more than 11,000 years ago. Salmon from the Pacific Ocean spawned by the millions in the river, were a vital resource for people living on the Snake downstream of Shoshone Falls. By the time Lewis and Clark explored the area, the Nez Perce and Shoshone were the dominant Native American groups in the region. Explorers and fur trappers further changed and used the resources of the Snake River basin. At one point, sign language used by the Shoshones representing weaving baskets was misinterpreted to represent a snake, giving the Snake River its name. By the middle 19th century, the Oregon Trail had become well established, bringing numerous settlers to the Snake River region. Steamboats and railroads moved agricultural products and minerals along the river throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. Starting in the 1890s, fifteen major dams have been built on the Snake River to generate hydroelectricity, enhance navigation, provide irrigation water.
However, these dams blocked salmon migration above Hells Canyon and have led to water quality and environmental issues in certain parts of the river. The removal of several dams on the lower Snake River has been proposed, in order to restore some of the river's once-tremendous salmon runs. Formed by the confluence of three tiny streams on the southwest flank of Two Oceans Plateau in Yellowstone National Park, western Wyoming, the Snake starts out flowing west and south into Jackson Lake, its first 50 miles run through Jackson Hole, a wide valley between the Teton Range and the Gros Ventre Range. Below the tourist town of Jackson, the river turns west and flows through Snake River Canyon, cutting through the Snake River Range and into eastern Idaho, it receives the Hoback and Greys Rivers before entering Palisades Reservoir, where the Salt River joins at the mouth of Star Valley. Below Palisades Dam, the Snake River flows through the Snake River Plain, a vast arid physiographic province extending through southern Idaho south-west of the Rocky Mountains and underlain by the Snake River Aquifer, one of the most productive aquifers in the United States.
Southwest of Rexburg, the Snake is joined from the north by Henrys Fork. The Henrys Fork is sometimes called the North Fork of the Snake River, with the main Snake above their confluence known as the "South Fork". From there it turns south, flowing through downtown Idaho Falls past the Fort Hall Indian Reservation and into American Falls Reservoir, where it is joined by the Portneuf River; the Portneuf River Valley is an overflow channel that in the last glacial period carried floodwaters from pluvial Lake Bonneville into the Snake River altering the landscape of the Snake River Plain through massive erosion. From there the Snake resumes its journey west, it is interrupted by several major cataracts, the largest being 212-foot Shoshone Falls, which marked the upriver limit of migrating salmon. A short distance downstream. Near Twin Falls, the Snake approaches the southernmost point in its entire course, after which it starts to flow west-northwest; the Snake continues through its canyon, receiving the Malad River from the east near Bliss and the Bruneau River from the south in C.
J. Strike Reservoir, it passes through an agricultural valley about 30 miles southwest of Boise and flows west into Oregon, before turning north to define the Idaho–Oregon border. Here the Snake River doubles in size as it receives several major tributaries – the Owyhee from the southwest the Boise and Payette rivers from the east, further downstream the Malheur River from the west and Weiser River from the east. North of Boise, the Snake enters Hells Canyon, a steep, rapid-strewn gorge that cuts through the Salmon River Mountains and Blue Mountains of Idaho and Oregon. Hells Canyon is one of the most rugged and treacherous portions of the course of the Snake River, posing a major obstacle for 19th-century American explorers. Here the Snake is impounded by Hells Canyon and Brownlee Dams, which together make up the Hells Canyon Hydroelectric Project. At the halfway point in Hells Canyon, in one of the most remote and inaccessible sections of its course, the Snake River is joined from the east by its largest tributary, the Salmon River.
From there, the Snake begins to form the Washington–Idaho border, receiving the Grande Ronde River from the west before receiving the Clearwater River from the east at Lewiston, which marks the head of navigation on the Snake. The river leaves Hells Canyon and turns west, winding through the Palouse Hills of eastern Washington; the Lower Snake River Project's four dams and
Basalt is a mafic extrusive igneous rock formed from the rapid cooling of magnesium-rich and iron-rich lava exposed at or near the surface of a terrestrial planet or a moon. More than 90% of all volcanic rock on Earth is basalt. Basalt lava has a low viscosity, due to its low silica content, resulting in rapid lava flows that can spread over great areas before cooling and solidification. Flood basalt describes the formation in a series of lava basalt flows. By definition, basalt is an aphanitic igneous rock with 45–53% silica and less than 10% feldspathoid by volume, where at least 65% of the rock is feldspar in the form of plagioclase; this is as per definition of the International Union of Geological Sciences classification scheme. It is the most common volcanic rock type on Earth, being a key component of oceanic crust as well as the principal volcanic rock in many mid-oceanic islands, including Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Réunion and the islands of Hawaiʻi. Basalt features a fine-grained or glassy matrix interspersed with visible mineral grains.
The average density is 3.0 g/cm3. Basalt is defined by its mineral content and texture, physical descriptions without mineralogical context may be unreliable in some circumstances. Basalt is grey to black in colour, but weathers to brown or rust-red due to oxidation of its mafic minerals into hematite and other iron oxides and hydroxides. Although characterized as "dark", basaltic rocks exhibit a wide range of shading due to regional geochemical processes. Due to weathering or high concentrations of plagioclase, some basalts can be quite light-coloured, superficially resembling andesite to untrained eyes. Basalt has a fine-grained mineral texture due to the molten rock cooling too for large mineral crystals to grow; these phenocrysts are of olivine or a calcium-rich plagioclase, which have the highest melting temperatures of the typical minerals that can crystallize from the melt. Basalt with a vesicular texture is called vesicular basalt, when the bulk of the rock is solid; this texture forms when dissolved gases come out of solution and form bubbles as the magma decompresses as it reaches the surface, yet are trapped as the erupted lava hardens before the gases can escape.
The term basalt is at times applied to shallow intrusive rocks with a composition typical of basalt, but rocks of this composition with a phaneritic groundmass are referred to as diabase or, when more coarse-grained, as gabbro. Gabbro is marketed commercially as "black granite." In the Hadean and early Proterozoic eras of Earth's history, the chemistry of erupted magmas was different from today's, due to immature crustal and asthenosphere differentiation. These ultramafic volcanic rocks, with silica contents below 45% are classified as komatiites; the word "basalt" is derived from Late Latin basaltes, a misspelling of Latin basanites "very hard stone", imported from Ancient Greek βασανίτης, from βάσανος and originated in Egyptian bauhun "slate". The modern petrological term basalt describing a particular composition of lava-derived rock originates from its use by Georgius Agricola in 1556 in his famous work of mining and mineralogy De re metallica, libri XII. Agricola applied "basalt" to the volcanic black rock of the Schloßberg at Stolpen, believing it to be the same as the "very hard stone" described by Pliny the Elder in Naturalis Historiae.
Tholeiitic basalt is rich in silica and poor in sodium. Included in this category are most basalts of the ocean floor, most large oceanic islands, continental flood basalts such as the Columbia River Plateau. High and low titanium basalts. Basalt rocks are in some cases classified after their titanium content in High-Ti and Low-Ti varieties. High-Ti and Low-Ti basalts have been distinguished in the Paraná and Etendeka traps and the Emeishan Traps. Mid-ocean ridge basalt is a tholeiitic basalt erupted only at ocean ridges and is characteristically low in incompatible elements. E-MORB, enriched MORB N-MORB, normal MORB D-MORB, depleted MORB High-alumina basalt may be silica-undersaturated or -oversaturated, it has greater than 17% alumina and is intermediate in composition between tholeiitic basalt and alkali basalt. Alkali basalt is poor in silica and rich in sodium, it may contain feldspathoids, alkali feldspar and phlogopite. Boninite is a high-magnesium form of basalt, erupted in back-arc basins, distinguished by its low titanium content and trace-element composition.
Ocean island basalt Lunar basalt The mineralogy of basalt is characterized by a preponderance of calcic plagioclase feldspar and pyroxene. Olivine can be a significant constituent. Accessory minerals present in minor amounts include iron oxides and iron-titanium oxides, such as magnetite and ilmenite; because of the presence of such oxide minerals, basalt can acquire strong magnetic signatures as it cools, paleomagnetic studies have made extensive use of basalt. In tholeiitic basalt and calcium-rich plagioclase are common phenocryst minerals. Olivine may be a phenocryst, when
Fort Hall Indian Reservation
The Fort Hall Reservation is a Native American reservation of the federally recognized Shoshone-Bannock Tribes in the U. S. state of Idaho. This is one of five federally recognized tribes in the state; the reservation is located in southeastern Idaho on the Snake River Plain about 20 miles north and west of Pocatello. It comprises 814.874 sq mi of land area in four counties: Bingham, Power and Caribou. To the east is the 60-mile-long Portneuf Range. Founded under an 1868 treaty, the reservation is named for Fort Hall, a trading post in the Portneuf Valley, established by European Americans, it was an important stop along the California trails in the middle 19th century. A monument on the reservation marks the former site of the fort. Interstate 15 serves the community of the largest population center on the reservation; the total population of the reservation was 5,762 at the 2000 census. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribes has more than 5,300 enrolled members, more than half reside on the Fort Hall Reservation.
Others have moved to urban areas for work. The tribes are governed by a seven-member elected council and maintain their own governmental services, including law enforcement, courts and health services, education; the four other federally recognized tribes in the state are the Coeur d'Alene, Nez Perce, Shoshone-Paiute at Duck Valley Indian Reservation. In July 2016, the Department of Interior made offers to 536 landowners with fractional interests at Fort Hall Reservation for buy-back of lands valued at $11 million in offers; this was under its Land Buy-Back Program as part of the government's settlement of the Cobell v. Salazar class action suit; the land purchased will be transferred into trust for the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, to restore its traditional land. About 1.5 million acres of land has been put into trust for tribes under this program. The Shoshone and Bannock had long occupied the territory of nearby areas, they were not disrupted by settlers until the late 1840s and 1850s, when emigrant wagon trains crossed their territory.
The emigrants took all water, leaving the Native Americans to struggle. In the 1850s the Shoshone, led by Chief Pocatello, attacked emigrant parties in an effort to drive them off, as the settlers encroached on their hunting grounds and game. After initial hostilities, the Mormons, led by Brigham Young, pursued a policy of reconciliation with the Shoshone, but other settlers complained, the federal government ordered the U. S. Army into the Utah Territory in 1858, resulting in full-scale conflict between the U. S. and the Shoshone. There had been escalating conflicts, with the Shoshone and Bannock tribes pitted against the increasing tide of European-American settlers; the latter encroached on the Native Americans' traditional territory, competing for resources and damaging the habitat of game they depended on. In January 1863 Colonel Patrick Edward Connor led his troops from Fort Douglas in order to "chastise" the Shoshone. In what is known as the Bear River Massacre, his US Army forces killed more than 400 Shoshone, including women and children, in present-day southeastern Idaho.
Warned of Connor's advance, Pocatello had led his people out of harm's way. Another chief and his band were attacked and destroyed. Seeing the power of US forces, Pocatello subsequently sued for peace and agreed to relocate his people in 1868 to a newly established reservation along the Snake River. Four bands of Shoshone and the Bannock band of the Northern Paiute relocated to the reservation consisting of 1.8 million acres of land. As part of the Fort Bridger Treaty of 1868, the U. S. government agreed to supply the Shoshone-Bannock tribes annually with goods and supplies annuities worth 5,000 dollars. The U. S. government failed to provide the annuity goods on time, food supplies sometimes arrived spoiled. In addition, the lands of the reservation, located on the Snake River Plain, were not appropriate for the subsistence-type agriculture that the government wanted the Shoshone-Bannock to adopt. In the years following their removal to the reservation, the Shoshone-Bannock peoples suffered from hunger and disease, with high mortality.
Hoping to relieve his people's suffering, Pocatello led a small group to a missionary farm in the Utah Territory to receive mass baptism and conversion to Mormonism. Although the Shoshone were baptized, the local settlers Mormon, agitated for removal of the Indians; the U. S. Army forced the Shoshone back onto the reservation. From 1868-1932, the federal government reduced the territory of the reservation by two thirds, taking some for such projects as railroads and roads, allowing non-Native settlers to encroach on the grounds. Most under the Dawes Act of 1887, the government attempted to impose the model of private property and subsistence farming, thinking to encourage assimilation of the tribes to the majority type farm, it registered all members of the tribes and allotted individual 160-acre plots of land to each household. Given the arid local conditions, these allotments were too small to support subsistence agriculture; the government declared the remainder of the communal land to be "surplus" and sold much of it to European-American settlers.
Some members of the tribes sold their plots because they were too small to be farmed, leading to the tribes' losing control of more lands. In 1934 during the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration, the US Congress passed the Indian Reorganization Act, created in part to end the allotment process and encourage tribes to re-establish self-government and to sta
Asotin County, Washington
Asotin County is a county in the U. S. state of Washington. As of the 2010 census, the population was 21,623; the county seat is at Asotin, its largest city is Clarkston. The county was created out of Garfield County in 1883 and derives its name from a Nez Perce word meaning "Eel Creek". Asotin County is part of the Lewiston, ID-WA metropolitan statistical area, which includes Nez Perce County and Asotin County; the area delineated by the future Washington state boundary began to be colonized at the start of the nineteenth century, both by Americans and Canadians. However, the majority of Canadian exploration and interest in the land was due to the fur trade, whereas American settlers were principally seeking land for agriculture and cattle raising; the Treaty of 1818 provided for dual control of this area by Canadian government officials. During this period, the future Washington Territory was divided into two administrative zones: Clark County and Lewis County; the dual-control concept was unwieldy and led to continual argument, occasional conflict.
The status of the Washington area was settled in 1846, when the Oregon Treaty ceded the land south of latitude 49 degrees North to American control. In 1854, Skamania County was split from the original Clark County; that year, Walla Walla County was split from the new Skamania County. In 1875, Columbia County was split from Walla Walla County, in 1881, a portion of Columbia County was set off to form Garfield County; the southeastern portion of Garfield County was partitioned in 1883 to form Asotin County. The 1883 boundary of Asotin has remained unchanged since then. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 641 square miles, of which 636 square miles is land and 4.4 square miles is water. It is the fifth-smallest county in Washington by area, it is part of a wide and rolling prairie-like region of the middle Columbia basin. Snake River Sagebrush Joseph Canyon U. S. Route 12 Whitman County - north Nez Perce County, Idaho - east Wallowa County, Oregon - south Garfield County - west Umatilla National Forest As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 21,623 people, 9,236 households, 5,914 families residing in the county.
The population density was 34.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 9,872 housing units at an average density of 15.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 94.3% white, 1.4% American Indian, 0.5% Asian, 0.4% black or African American, 0.2% Pacific islander, 0.8% from other races, 2.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 3.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 32.4% were German, 14.8% were Irish, 13.7% were English, 7.5% were American, 6.2% were Norwegian. Of the 9,236 households, 27.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.5% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.0% were non-families, 29.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.83. The median age was 43.5 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,665 and the median income for a family was $52,250. Males had a median income of $39,633 versus $28,475 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $23,731. About 9.9% of families and 13.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.1% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2000, there were 20,551 people, 8,364 households, 5,654 families residing in the county; the population density was 32 people per square mile. There were 9,111 housing units at an average density of 14 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.62% White, 0.19% Black or African American, 1.27% Native American, 0.51% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.63% from other races, 1.77% from two or more races. 1.95% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 25.9 % were of 12.4 % English, 11.9 % Irish and 11.0 % United States or American ancestry. 97.9 % spoke 1.6 % Spanish as their first language. There were 8,364 households out of which 31.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.40% were married couples living together, 11.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.40% were non-families.
27.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.91. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.50% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 26.10% from 25 to 44, 24.00% from 45 to 64, 16.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,524, the median income for a family was $40,592. Males had a median income of $35,810 versus $22,218 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,748. About 11.60% of families and 15.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.70% of those under age 18 and 6.70% of those age 65 or over. Asotin County is considered a staunchly Republican area, although it has been known to vote for Democrats on the state level.
The county is represented at the county commission level by two Republicans and one Independent. In the 2004 Presidential election over 60 percent of the vote went to Republican George W. Bush, it was one of 11 of Washington's 39 counties where Bush received a lower percentage of the vote in 2004 than in 2000. Conversely though nearly 60 percent of voters selected th