Kingdom of Prussia
The Kingdom of Prussia was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918. It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire until its dissolution in 1918. Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, where its capital was Berlin; the kings of Prussia were from the House of Hohenzollern. Prussia was a great power from the time it became a kingdom, through its predecessor, Brandenburg-Prussia, which became a military power under Frederick William, known as "The Great Elector". Prussia continued its rise to power under the guidance of Frederick II, more known as Frederick the Great, the third son of Frederick William I. Frederick the Great was instrumental in starting the Seven Years' War, holding his own against Austria, Russia and Sweden and establishing Prussia's role in the German states, as well as establishing the country as a European great power.
After the might of Prussia was revealed it was considered as a major power among the German states. Throughout the next hundred years Prussia went on to win many battles, many wars; because of its power, Prussia continuously tried to unify all the German states under its rule, although whether Austria would be included in such a unified German domain was an ongoing question. After the Napoleonic Wars led to the creation of the German Confederation, the issue of more unifying the many German states caused revolution throughout the German states, with each wanting their own constitution. Attempts at creation of a federation remained unsuccessful and the German Confederation collapsed in 1866 when war ensued between its two most powerful member states and Austria; the North German Confederation, which lasted from 1867 to 1871, created a closer union between the Prussian-aligned states while Austria and most of Southern Germany remained independent. The North German Confederation was seen as more of an alliance of military strength in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War but many of its laws were used in the German Empire.
The German Empire lasted from 1871 to 1918 with the successful unification of all the German states under Prussian hegemony, this was due to the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71. The war united all the German states against a common enemy, with the victory came an overwhelming wave of nationalism which changed the opinions of some of those, against unification. In 1871, Germany unified into a single country, minus Austria and Switzerland, with Prussia the dominant power. Prussia is considered the legal predecessor of the unified German Reich and as such a direct ancestor of today's Federal Republic of Germany; the formal abolition of Prussia, carried out on 25 February 1947 by the fiat of the Allied Control Council referred to an alleged tradition of the kingdom as a bearer of militarism and reaction, made way for the current setup of the German states. However, the Free State of Prussia, which followed the abolition of the Kingdom of Prussia in the aftermath of World War I, was a major democratic force in Weimar Germany until the nationalist coup of 1932 known as the Preußenschlag.
The Kingdom left a significant cultural legacy, today notably promoted by the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation, which has become one of the largest cultural organisations in the world. In 1415 a Hohenzollern Burgrave came from the south to the March of Brandenburg and took control of the area as elector. In 1417 the Hohenzollern was made an elector of the Holy Roman Empire. After the Polish wars, the newly established Baltic towns of the German states, including Prussia, suffered many economic setbacks. Many of the Prussian towns could not afford to attend political meetings outside of Prussia; the towns were poverty stricken, with the largest town, having to borrow money from elsewhere to pay for trade. Poverty in these towns was caused by Prussia's neighbours, who had established and developed such a monopoly on trading that these new towns could not compete; these issues led to feuds, trade competition and invasions. However, the fall of these towns gave rise to the nobility, separated the east and the west, allowed the urban middle class of Brandenburg to prosper.
It was clear in 1440 how different Brandenburg was from the other German territories, as it faced two dangers that the other German territories did not, partition from within and the threat of invasion by its neighbours. It prevented partition by enacting the Dispositio Achillea, which instilled the principle of primogeniture to both the Brandenburg and Franconian territories; the second issue was resolved through expansion. Brandenburg was surrounded on every side by neighbours whose boundaries were political. Any neighbour could consume Brandenburg at any moment; the only way to defend herself was to absorb her neighbours. Through negotiations and marriages Brandenburg but expanded her borders, absorbing neighbours and eliminating the threat of attack; the Hohenzollerns were made rulers of the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1518. In 1529 the Hohenzollerns secured the reversion of the Duchy of Pomerania after a series of conflicts, acquired its eastern part following the Peace of Westphalia. In 1618 the Hohenzollerns inherited the Duchy of Prussia, since 1511 ruled by Hohenzollern Albrecht of Brandenburg Prussia, who in 1525 converted the Teutonic Order ruled state to a Protestant Duchy by accepting fiefdom of the crown of Poland.
It was ruled in a personal union with Brandenburg
Peter Roquette is a German mathematician working in algebraic geometry and number theory. Roquette studied in Erlangen and Hamburg. In 1951 he defended a dissertation at the University of Hamburg under Helmut Hasse, providing a new proof of the Riemann hypothesis for algebraic function fields over a finite field. In 1951/1952 he was an assistant at the Mathematical Research Institute at Oberwolfach and from 1952 to 1954 at the University of Munich. From 1954 to 1956 he worked at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. In 1954 he was Privatdozent at Munich, from 1956 to 1959 he worked in the same position at Hamburg. In 1959 he became an associate professor at the University of Saarbrucken and in the same year at the University of Tübingen. From 1967 he was professor at the Ruprecht-Karls-University of Heidelberg, where he retired in 1996. Roquette worked on number and function fields and local p-adic fields, he applied the methods of model theory in number theory, joint with Abraham Robinson, with whom he worked on Mahler's theorem using non-standard methods.
He authored a number of works on the history of mathematics, in particular on the schools of Helmut Hasse and Emmy Noether. In 1975 Roquette was co-editor of the collected essays by Helmut Hasse. Since 1978 Roquette is member of the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and since 1985, the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina, he has an honorary doctorate from the University of Duisburg-Essen and is honorary member of the Mathematical Society of Hamburg. In 1958 he was an invited speaker at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Edinburgh, his doctoral students include Volker Weispfenning. Analytic theory of elliptic functions over local fields. Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht 1970. With Franz Lemmermeyer: The Correspondence of Helmut Hasse and Emmy Noether 1925-1935 Göttingen State and University Library, 2006.. with Günther Frei: Emil Artin and Helmut Hasse - correspondence 1923-1934, University of Göttingen Publisher 2008 The Brauer-Hasse-Noether Theorem in Historical Perspective. Mathem. The-Naturwiss writings.
Class of the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences, Springer-Verlag, 2005. Anthony V. Geramita, Paulo Ribenboim: Collected Papers of Peter Roquette 3 volumes. Queens Papers in Pure and Applied Mathematics Bd.118, Ontario, Queen's University, 2002. With Alexander Prestel: Formally p-adic Fields. Lecture Notes in Mathematics, Springer-Verlag 1984. Robinson, A.. On the finiteness theorem of Siegel and Mahler concerning Diophantine equations. J. Number Theory 7, 121–176. Homepage Peter Roquette at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work to solve mathematical problems. Mathematics is concerned with numbers, quantity, space and change. One of the earliest known mathematicians was Thales of Miletus, he is credited with the first use of deductive reasoning applied to geometry, by deriving four corollaries to Thales' Theorem. The number of known mathematicians grew when Pythagoras of Samos established the Pythagorean School, whose doctrine it was that mathematics ruled the universe and whose motto was "All is number", it was the Pythagoreans who coined the term "mathematics", with whom the study of mathematics for its own sake begins. The first woman mathematician recorded by history was Hypatia of Alexandria, she succeeded her father as Librarian at the Great Library and wrote many works on applied mathematics. Because of a political dispute, the Christian community in Alexandria punished her, presuming she was involved, by stripping her naked and scraping off her skin with clamshells.
Science and mathematics in the Islamic world during the Middle Ages followed various models and modes of funding varied based on scholars. It was extensive patronage and strong intellectual policies implemented by specific rulers that allowed scientific knowledge to develop in many areas. Funding for translation of scientific texts in other languages was ongoing throughout the reign of certain caliphs, it turned out that certain scholars became experts in the works they translated and in turn received further support for continuing to develop certain sciences; as these sciences received wider attention from the elite, more scholars were invited and funded to study particular sciences. An example of a translator and mathematician who benefited from this type of support was al-Khawarizmi. A notable feature of many scholars working under Muslim rule in medieval times is that they were polymaths. Examples include the work on optics and astronomy of Ibn al-Haytham; the Renaissance brought an increased emphasis on science to Europe.
During this period of transition from a feudal and ecclesiastical culture to a predominantly secular one, many notable mathematicians had other occupations: Luca Pacioli. As time passed, many mathematicians gravitated towards universities. An emphasis on free thinking and experimentation had begun in Britain's oldest universities beginning in the seventeenth century at Oxford with the scientists Robert Hooke and Robert Boyle, at Cambridge where Isaac Newton was Lucasian Professor of Mathematics & Physics. Moving into the 19th century, the objective of universities all across Europe evolved from teaching the “regurgitation of knowledge” to “encourag productive thinking.” In 1810, Humboldt convinced the King of Prussia to build a university in Berlin based on Friedrich Schleiermacher’s liberal ideas. Thus and laboratories started to evolve. British universities of this period adopted some approaches familiar to the Italian and German universities, but as they enjoyed substantial freedoms and autonomy the changes there had begun with the Age of Enlightenment, the same influences that inspired Humboldt.
The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge emphasized the importance of research, arguably more authentically implementing Humboldt’s idea of a university than German universities, which were subject to state authority. Overall, science became the focus of universities in the 20th centuries. Students could conduct research in seminars or laboratories and began to produce doctoral theses with more scientific content. According to Humboldt, the mission of the University of Berlin was to pursue scientific knowledge; the German university system fostered professional, bureaucratically regulated scientific research performed in well-equipped laboratories, instead of the kind of research done by private and individual scholars in Great Britain and France. In fact, Rüegg asserts that the German system is responsible for the development of the modern research university because it focused on the idea of “freedom of scientific research and study.” Mathematicians cover a breadth of topics within mathematics in their undergraduate education, proceed to specialize in topics of their own choice at the graduate level.
In some universities, a qualifying exam serves to test both the breadth and depth of a student's understanding of mathematics. Mathematicians involved with solving problems with applications in real life are called applied mathematicians. Applied mathematicians are mathematical scientists who, with their specialized knowledge and professional methodology, approach many of the imposing problems presented in related scientific fields. With professional focus on a wide variety of problems, theoretical systems, localized constructs, applied mathematicians work in the study and formulation of mathematical models. Mathematicians and applied mathematicians are considered to be two of the STEM careers; the discipline of applied mathematics concerns
University of Hamburg
The University of Hamburg is a comprehensive university in Hamburg, Germany. It was founded on 28 March 1919, having grown out of the previous General lecture system and the Colonial Institute of Hamburg as well as the Akademic Gymnasium. In spite of its short history, six Nobel Prize Winners and serials of scholars are affiliated to the university; the University of Hamburg is the biggest research and education institution in Northern Germany and one of the most extensive universities in Germany. The main campus is located in the central district of Rotherbaum, with affiliated institutes and research centres spread around the city state; the institution is classified as a global top 200 university by cited ranking systems such as the Times Higher Education Ranking, the Shanghai Ranking and the CWTS Leiden Ranking, placing it among the top 1% of global universities. On a national scale, U. S. News & World Report ranks UHH 7th and QS World University Rankings 14th out of a total of 426 German institutions of higher education.
At the beginning of the 20th century, wealthy individuals made several petitions to the Hamburg Senate and Parliament requesting the establishment of a university, however those were made to no avail. Although for a time, senator Werner von Melle supported the merger of existing institutions into one university, this plan failed because of the parliaments composition due to the effects of class voting. Much of the establishment wanted to see Hamburg limited to its dominant role as a trading center and shunned both the costs of a university and the social demands of the professors that would have to be employed. Progress was made however, since proponents of a university founded the Hamburg Science Foundation in 1907 and the Hamburg Colonial Institute in 1908; the former institution supported the recruitment of scholars for the chairs of the General lecture system and funding of research cruises, the latter was responsible for all education and research questions concerning overseas territories.
In the same year, the citizenry approved a construction site on the Moorweide for the establishment of a lecture building, which opened in 1911 and became the main building of the university. However, the plans for the foundation of the university itself had to be shelved, following the outbreak of the First World War. After the war, the first elected senate chose von Melle as mayor, he and Rudolf Ross made a push for education reform in Hamburg, their law establishing the university and an adult high school went through. On March 28, 1919 the University of Hamburg opened its gates; the number of full professorships in Hamburg was increased from 19 to 39. Both the Colonial Institute and the General lecture system were absorbed into the university; the first faculties created by the university were Law and Political Science, Medicine and Natural Sciences. During the Weimar Republic, the university grew into importance. Several thousand students were continuously enrolled, it drew scholars like Albrecht Mendelssohn Bartholdy, Aby Warburg and Ernst Cassirer to Hamburg.
The number of full professors had by 1931 grown to 75. Because many students were suffering due to the bad economic situation that prevailed in the early republic, the Hamburg Association of Student Aid was founded in 1922. Ernst Cassirer became principal of the university in 1929, one of the first Jewish scholars with that role in Germany; the academic situation shifted after the general election in March 1933. On May 1 of that year – the university held a ceremony to honor Adolf Hitler as its leader. Massive political influence by the Nazis followed, including the removal of books from the libraries and harassment against alleged enemies of the people. About fifty scientists, including Ernst Cassirer and William Stern, had to leave the university. At least ten students working with the White Rose in Hamburg were arrested. In the foyer of the lecture hall a design by Fritz Fleer commemorative plate was taken in 1971 in memory of the four resistance fighters. Once the Second World War was over, the university was reopened in the winter of 1945 with 17,800 employees.
Out of the 2,872 students who were enrolled at the University of Hamburg in the first postwar semester of 1945/46, 601 had been admitted at the Philosophical, 952 at the Medical and 812 to the Faculty of Law and Political Science. The smallest number joined the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences with 506 students in total; the first student association during this period was elected in 1946 under British supervision, it formed the foundation of the AStA in 1947. During the West German era, new departments were added to the university, most notably the Faculty of Theology as well as the Faculty of Economic and Social Sciences in 1954; the late 1950s and early 1960s saw a lot of construction: the Auditorium and the Philosopher's Tower where inaugurated near the Von-Melle-Park, while the Botanical Institute and Botanical Garden were relocated to Flottbeck. The university grew from 12,600 students in 1960 to 19,200 in 1970. A wave of protests during the student movements of 1968 sparked a reform of the university structure, in 1969 the faculties were dissolved in favor of more interdisciplinary departments.
Student and staff involvement in the administration was strengthened, the office of Rektor abolished in favor of a university president. However, parts of the reform were rescinded in 1979. Further construction in the 1970s built up the remaining space on the main campus of Rotherbaum quarter, with the Geomatikum
Ahrensburg is a town in the district of Stormarn, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is part of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region, its population is around 31,000. Schloss Ahrensburg, the town's symbol, is a Renaissance castle dating from 1595. Ahrensburg is situated in the Tunneltal, in which Alfred Rust excavated many items dating back to the ice age. Ahrensburg is situated next to the Autobahn A1 and on the railway route between the Hanseatic cities of Hamburg and Lübeck; the Ahrensburger Tunneltal is a place of numerous excavations from the Upper Paleolithic culture. The culture is called Ahrensburg culture by archaeologists; the town dates back to the 13th Century, when the Counts of Schauenburg founded the village of Woldenhorn and the neighbouring villages Ahrensfelde and Beimoor. Woldenhorn is first mentioned in the year 1314; the village came into the possession of the Cistercian Reinfeld Abbey in 1327, Woldenhorn became the seat of the monastery reeve until the middle of the 16th century. The "Arx Arnsburga" called Arnesvelde castle, was built around the year 1200.
Ruins of the castle are still visible in the Hagen forest to the south of the town. The town coat of arms shows the castle in the upper field. There are records of reeves based in the castle in 1295 and 1304. In 1326, Count John III of Schauenburg abandoned the castle. After the dissolution of the monasteries due to the Reformation, the whole area came into the possession of the king of Denmark, he rewarded his general Daniel Rantzau 1567 with lordship over these villages. His brother and heir Peter Rantzau built the Renaissance Ahrensburg Palace in the form of a water castle, now the symbol of the town, the castle church around 1595; the construction of almshouses directly by the church was exemplary. The "Ahrensburg Estate" belonged to the so-called Noble Estates, which possessed a large amount of freedom and self-administration; the Rantzaus' estate was indebted by the middle of the 18th century and, in 1759, was acquired by the businessman Heinrich Carl von Schimmelmann. Schimmelmann remodelled the castle and village in the baroque style and the current layout of the town reflects these plans.
On the 7 June 1867 the estate village Woldenhorn became an independent Prussian country community and renamed itself Ahrensburg after a decision by the community council. It belonged to the "Amt Ahrensburg", from which the "amtsfreie" community once more seceded in 1912; the construction of the railway between Hamburg and Lübeck in the year 1865 made Ahrensburg a popular destination for outings outside Hamburg and the number of inhabitants increased. By 1910, the population had reached 2,750; the incorporation of various surrounding communities in the year 1928 led to an increase in the town area to about 5 km2. Building of the settlements "Daheim/Heimgarten" and "Am Hagen" commenced in 1933; the rush of settlers from around Hamburg lead to the creation of the current housing layout. When Ahrensburg received city rights in 1949, the town had some 17,775 inhabitants – around half of which were refugees from the former eastern German regions. Erica Keck, elected mayor in 1950, became the first female elected mayor in Germany.
Ahrensburg was the seat of the Stormarn Provost of the Lutheran church from 1823 until 1899. Ahrensburg had a small Jewish community until the beginning of the 1930s; the Synagogue was burnt down in the Kristallnacht in 1938 during the period of Nazism. The Jewish cemetery can still be seen at the edge of town. Since the local election on 26 May 2013, the town council is made up as follows: Ahrensburg is twinned with: 1965 – Alfred Rust, controversial because of his membership in the NS-group Ahnenerbe Waldemar Bonsels, author of Maya the Bee and her adventures Jonathan Meese, grew up in Ahrensburg, attended the Stormarn School and lives in Ahrensburg Stacie Ahrens, author Christian Bass, photographer & poet. Dagmar Berghoff, television presenter and actress Wolfgang Kieling, actor Hellmuth von Mücke, naval officer and writer Benedikt Pliquett, goalkeeper Christian Tümpel, university lecturer and art historian in Nijmegen Daniela Ziegler, actress Axel Zwingenberger, boogie-woogie pianist evj-ahrensburg.de Official website Schloss Ahrensburg
Cahit Arf was a Turkish mathematician. He is known for the Arf invariant of a quadratic form in characteristic 2 in topology, the Hasse–Arf theorem in ramification theory, Arf semigroups, Arf rings. Cahit Arf was born on 11 October 1910 in Selanik, a part of the Ottoman Empire, his family migrated to Istanbul with the outbreak of the Balkan War in 1912. The family settled in İzmir where Cahit Arf received his primary education. Upon receiving a scholarship from the Turkish Ministry of Education he continued his education in Paris and graduated from École Normale Supérieure. Returning to Turkey, he taught mathematics at Galatasaray High School. In 1933 he joined the Mathematics Department of Istanbul University. In 1937 he went to Göttingen, where he received his PhD from the University of Göttingen and he worked with Helmut Hasse and Josue Cruz de Munoz, he returned to Istanbul University and worked there until his involvement with the foundation work of Scientific and Technological Research Council upon President Cemal Gursel's appointment in 1962.
After serving as the founding director of the council in 1963, he joined the Mathematics Department of Robert College in Istanbul. Arf spent the period of 1964–1966 working at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, he visited University of California, Berkeley for one year. Upon his final return to Turkey, he joined the Mathematics Department of the Middle East Technical University and continued his studies there until his retirement in 1980. Arf received numerous awards for his contributions to mathematics, among them are: İnönü Award in 1948, Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey Science Award in 1974, Commandeur des Palmes Academiques in 1994. Arf was the Turkish Academy of Sciences, he was the president of the Turkish Mathematical Society from 1985 until 1989. Arf died on December 26, 1997 in Bebek, Istanbul, at the age of 87, his collected works were published, by the Turkish Mathematical Society. Arf's influence on science in general and mathematics in particular was profound.
Although he had few formal students, many of the mathematicians of Turkey, at some time of their careers, had fruitful discussions on their field of interest with him and had received support and encouragement. He facilitated the now-celebrated visit of Robert Langlands to Turkey. Arf's portrait is depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 10 lira banknote issued in 2009. Middle East Technical University Department of Mathematics organizes a special lecture session called the Cahit Arf lecture each year in memory of Arf. Previous Cahit Arf lectures held at Middle East Technical University include: 2013/14: Persi Diaconis of Stanford University 2012: David E. Nadler of Northwestern University and University of California, Berkeley 2011: Jonathan Pila of University of Oxford: Diophantine Geometry via O-minimality 2010: John W Morgan of Simons Center for Geometry and Physics at Stony Brook University 2009: Ben Joseph Green of University of Cambridge 2008: Günter Harder of Mathematisches Institut der Universitat Bonn and Max Planck Institute for Mathematics 2007: Hendrik Lenstra of Universiteit Leiden Mathematisch Instituut 2006: Jean-Pierre Serre of Collège de France 2005: Peter Sarnak of Princeton University and the Institute for Advanced Study 2004: Robert Langlands of the Institute for Advanced Study 2003: David Mumford of Brown University Division of Applied Mathematics 2002: Don Zagier of University of Utrecht / Collège de France 2001: Gerhard Frey of University of Essen Institute for Experimental Mathematics Hasse–Arf theorem Arf invariant Arf semigroup Arf ring Arf, The collected papers of Cahit Arf, Turkish Mathematical Society, archived from the original on 2009-05-01 Ikeda, Masatoshi G. "Cahit Arf's contribution to algebraic number theory and related fields", Turkish Journal of Mathematics, 22: 1–14, ISSN 1300-0098, MR 1631730, archived from the original on 2011-08-22 Sertöz, Ali Sinan, A scientific biography of Cahit Arf, arXiv:1301.3699, Bibcode:2013arXiv1301.3699S Terzioğlu, Tosun.
"Cahit Arf: Exploring His Scientific Influence Using Social Network Analysis, Author Co-citation Maps and Single Publication h Index", Journal of Scientometric Research, 2: 37–51. Roquette, Peter, "Cahit Arf and his invariant", Contributions to the history of number theory in the 20th century, Heritage of European Mathematics, Zürich: European Mathematical Society, pp. 189–222, ISBN 978-3-03719-113-2, Zbl 1276.11001 Cahit Arf Lectures homepage Page and links on Cahit Arf A documentary on Cahit Arf O'Connor, John J.. Cahit Arf at the Mathematics Genealogy Project Author profile in the database zbMATH
Harold Davenport FRS was an English mathematician, known for his extensive work in number theory. Born in Huncoat, Lancashire, he was educated at Accrington Grammar School, the University of Manchester, where he graduated in 1927, Trinity College, Cambridge, he became a research student of John Edensor Littlewood, working on the question of the distribution of quadratic residues. The attack on the distribution question leads to problems that are now seen to be special cases of those on local zeta-functions, for the particular case of some special hyperelliptic curves such as Y 2 = X …. Bounds for the zeroes of the local zeta-function imply bounds for sums ∑ χ, where χ is the Legendre symbol modulo a prime number p, the sum is taken over a complete set of residues mod p. In the light of this connection it was appropriate that, with a Trinity research fellowship, Davenport in 1932–1933 spent time in Marburg and Göttingen working with Helmut Hasse, an expert on the algebraic theory; this produced the work on the Hasse–Davenport relations for Gauss sums, contact with Hans Heilbronn, with whom Davenport would collaborate.
In fact, as Davenport admitted, his inherent prejudices against algebraic methods limited the amount he learned, in particular in the "new" algebraic geometry and Artin/Noether approach to abstract algebra. He took an appointment at the University of Manchester in 1937, just at the time when Louis Mordell had recruited émigrés from continental Europe to build an outstanding department, he moved into the areas of diophantine geometry of numbers. These were fashionable, complemented the technical expertise he had in the Hardy-Littlewood circle method, he was President of the London Mathematical Society from 1957 to 1959. After professorial positions at the University of Wales and University College London, he was appointed to the Rouse Ball Chair of Mathematics in Cambridge in 1958. There he remained of lung cancer. Davenport married Anne Lofthouse, whom he met at the University College of North Wales at Bangor, in 1944. James is Medlock Professor of Information Technology at the University of Bath.
From about 1950 he was the obvious leader of a "school", somewhat unusually in the context of British mathematics. The successor to the school of mathematical analysis of G. H. Hardy and J. E. Littlewood, it was more narrowly devoted to number theory, indeed to its analytic side, as had flourished in the 1930s; this implied problem-solving, hard-analysis methods. The outstanding works of Klaus Roth and Alan Baker exemplify what this can do, in diophantine approximation. Two reported sayings, "the problems are there", "I don't care how you get hold of the gadget, I just want to know how big or small it is", sum up the attitude, could be transplanted today into any discussion of combinatorics; this concrete emphasis on problems stood in sharp contrast with the abstraction of Bourbaki, who were active just across the English Channel. The Higher Arithmetic: An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers Analytic methods for Diophantine equations and Diophantine inequalities Multiplicative number theory The collected works of Harold Davenport in four volumes, edited by B. J. Birch, H. Halberstam, C. A. Rogers