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Helsinki Cathedral

Helsinki Cathedral is the Finnish Evangelical Lutheran cathedral of the Diocese of Helsinki, located in the neighborhood of Kruununhaka in the centre of Helsinki, Finland. The church was built from 1830-1852 as a tribute to the Grand Duke of Finland, Tsar Nicholas I of Russia, it was known as St Nicholas' Church until the independence of Finland in 1917. It is a major landmark of the city. A distinctive landmark in the Helsinki cityscape, with its tall, green dome surrounded by four smaller domes, the building is in the neoclassical style, it was designed by Carl Ludvig Engel as the climax of his Senate Square layout: it is surrounded by other, smaller buildings designed by him. The church's plan is a Greek cross, symmetrical in each of the four cardinal directions, with each arm's façade featuring a colonnade and pediment. Engel intended to place a further row of columns on the western end to mark the main entrance opposite the eastern altar, but this was never built; the cathedral was built on the site of the smaller Ulrika Eleonora Church, dedicated to its patroness, Ulrika Eleonora, Queen of Sweden.

A facsimile of this church, made from snow, was constructed on Senate Square in the early 2000s. Helsinki Old Church was built between 1824 and 1826 in nearby Kamppi to serve the parish while the Ulrika Eleonora Church was being demolished and until the consecration of the new cathedral; the building was altered by Engel's successor Ernst Lohrmann, whose four small domes emphasise the architectural connection to the cathedral's models, Saint Isaac's Cathedral and Kazan Cathedral in St. Petersburg. Lohrmann erected two free-standing bell towers, as well as larger-than-life sized zinc statues of the Twelve Apostles at the apexes and corners of the roofline; the altarpiece was painted by Carl Timoleon von Neff and donated to the church by emperor Nicholas I. The cathedral crypt was renovated in the 1980s by architects Vilhelm Helander and Juha Leiviskä for use in exhibitions and church functions. Today, the cathedral is one of Helsinki's most popular tourist attractions. More than 350,000 people visit the church each year, some to attend religious events, but as tourists.

The church is in regular use for special events such as weddings. The opening sequence of the music video for "Sandstorm" by Darude was filmed on Senate Square, prominently featuring the Cathedral in the background. Saint Isaac's Cathedral Trinity Cathedral, Saint Petersburg Uspenski Cathedral Media related to Helsinki Cathedral at Wikimedia Commons Panoramic view of Helsinki Cathedral

Bill Todd

William Laurence "Bill" Todd is a Project Manager for Exploration Analogs at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. He has served as a NASA Undersea Research Team Project Lead and Spaceflight Training Simulation Supervisor at NASA JSC. Todd is a veteran Aquanaut of 5 missions. In 2001, he commanded the first NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations mission, a joint NASA-NOAA program to study human survival in the Aquarius underwater laboratory in preparation for future space exploration. Todd has spent many years helping to develop the futuristic undersea exploration vessel SeaOrbiter, inspired by French architect Jacques Rougerie. Todd grew up watching the Apollo launches from his beachfront hometown of Cocoa Beach, where his father was employed in the space program, it was there, at a young age, that he was immersed in and captivated by both sea and space environments. Todd graduated from the University of Houston with a degree in geology in 1982, he has worked in several underwater habitats, piloted many submersibles, has conducted myriad expeditions on the parallels between living and working in outer space and "inner space".

Todd works for Universities Space Research Association at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, as the NEEMO, NEEMO NXT and SEATEST Project Manager. As a Simulation Supervisor in Spaceflight Training, Todd was responsible for developing and executing multi-national simulations used for training astronauts and flight control teams, he has worked as an Operations Lead at the Mission Control Center in Moscow, Russia. In 2000, Todd developed the NASA Undersea Research Team "NEEMO"; this program utilizes the Aquarius laboratory as a research facility for space missions such as long-term space habitation. Todd served as an aquanaut on the 2000 "NASA SEATEST" mission, NASA SEATEST 3 in 2016, SEATEST 4 in 2017, as the commander of the October 2001 NASA NEEMO 1 mission, he subsequently managed the "topside" teams for NASA missions, was the Mission Director for NEEMO 7, NEEMO 8 and NEEMO 14. As of 2016, Todd remains the project manager for NEEMO thru NEEMO 21. In June 2012, Todd piloted a DeepWorker 2000 submersible as part of the NEEMO 16 mission.

Todd was involved in the training for many spaceflights, including the first two flights to build the International Space Station, crew training for the deployment mission of the Italian-made Tethered Satellite System and for the first flight to rendezvous with the Mir Space Station. Earlier in his career, Todd worked as a Space Shuttle systems astronaut instructor for many missions including STS-31, the flight which deployed the Hubble Space Telescope. Todd led the international training activities for STS-97/ISS 4A, which flew in November 2000. Todd's wife and their two daughters and Kari, reside in Seabrook and Beaver Creek, Colorado. Todd is a Professional Association of Diving Instructors Divemaster, he is a submersible pilot, an instrument-rated pilot, seaplane pilot and Explorers Club Fellow. Todd is a member of the SeaSpace Symposium and of the advisory board for the International Association for Handicapped Divers. Todd plays guitar in his rock band, The Rockit Scientists; this article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

NASA bio Another NASA bio Video of interview with Todd about NEEMO 16

All-Ireland Junior B Club Hurling Championship

The All-Ireland Junior B Club Hurling Championship is an annual inter-county club hurling competition organised by Killeedy GAA club since 2006 for eligible hurling clubs. Clubs qualify for the competition based on their performance in their county club championships; the final held in March, serves as the culmination of a series of games played during the winter and spring months, the results determine which county's team receives the cup. The championship has always been played on a straight knockout basis whereby once a team loses they are eliminated from the series. In the present format, it begins in October with provincial championships held in Leinster and Munster, with the four respective champions and runners-up contesting the subsequent All-Ireland series. No team has won the championship on more than one occasion. Tipperary clubs have accumulated the highest number of victories, with four wins; the championship has been won by 12 different clubs. The current champions are Oylegate-Glenbrien, who secured the title after defeating Cappamore by 1-15 to 0-11 in the 2019 final.

The All-Ireland Junior B Club HurlingChampionship features four teams in the final tournament. A number of teams contest the two provincial junior club championships with the four respective champions and runners-up automatically qualifying for the All-Ireland series