A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performers music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has many roles during the recording process, the roles of a producer vary. The producer may perform these roles himself, or help select the engineer, the producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record companies budget. A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording. Producers often take on an entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, contracts. In the 2010s, the industry has two kinds of producers with different roles, executive producer and music producer. Executive producers oversee project finances while music producers oversee the process of recording songs or albums. In most cases the producer is a competent arranger, composer. The producer will liaise with the engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording.
Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record, indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation actually is music director. The music producers job is to create and mold a piece of music, at the beginning of record industry, producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1950s and 1960s due to technological developments, the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously, all of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio and the performance had to be recorded. As well, for a song that used 20 instruments, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. Examples include the rock sound effects of the 1960s, e. g. playing back the sound of recorded instruments backwards or clanging the tape to produce unique sound effects.
These new instruments were electric or electronic, and thus they used instrument amplifiers, new technologies like multitracking changed the goal of recording, A producer could blend together multiple takes and edit together different sections to create the desired sound. For example, in jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis album Bitches Brew, producers like Phil Spector and George Martin were soon creating recordings that were, in practical terms, almost impossible to realise in live performance. Producers became creative figures in the studio, other examples of such engineers includes Joe Meek, Teo Macero, Brian Wilson, and Biddu
A drum kit consists of a mix of drums and idiophones most significantly cymbals but including the woodblock and cowbell. In the 2000s, some include electronic instruments and both hybrid and entirely electronic kits are used. If some or all of them are replaced by electronic drums, the drum kit is usually played while seated on a drum stool or throne. The drum kit differs from instruments that can be used to produce pitched melodies or chords, even though drums are often placed musically alongside others that do, such as the piano or guitar. The drum kit is part of the rhythm section used in many types of popular and traditional music styles ranging from rock and pop to blues. Other standard instruments used in the section include the electric bass, electric guitar. Many drummers extend their kits from this pattern, adding more drums, more cymbals. Some performers, such as some rockabilly drummers, use small kits that omit elements from the basic setup, some drum kit players may have other roles in the band, such as providing backup vocals, or less commonly, lead vocals.
Thus, in an early 1800s orchestra piece, if the called for bass drum and cymbals. In the 1840s, percussionists began to experiment with foot pedals as a way to them to play more than one instrument. In the 1860s, percussionists started combining multiple drums into a set, the bass drum, snare drum and other percussion instruments were all played using hand-held drum sticks. Double-drumming was developed to one person to play the bass and snare with sticks. With this approach, the drum was usually played on beats one. This resulted in a swing and dance feel. The drum set was referred to as a trap set. By the 1870s, drummers were using an overhang pedal, most drummers in the 1870s preferred to do double drumming without any pedal to play multiple drums, rather than use an overhang pedal. Companies patented their pedal systems such as Dee Dee Chandler of New Orleans 1904–05, liberating the hands for the first time, this evolution saw the bass drum played with the foot of a standing percussionist.
The bass drum became the central piece around which every other percussion instrument would revolve and it was the golden age of drum building for many famous drum companies, with Ludwig introducing
The hammered dulcimer is a percussion instrument and stringed instrument with the strings typically stretched over a trapezoidal sounding board. The hammered dulcimer is set before the musician, who may sit cross legged on the floor or on a stool at a stand on legs. The player holds a small spoon shaped mallet hammer in hand to strike the strings. The Graeco-Roman dulcimer derives from the Latin dulcis and the Greek melos, the dulcimer, in which the strings are beaten with small hammers, originated from the psaltery, in which the strings are plucked. Various types of hammered dulcimers are traditionally played in Iraq, Iran, Southwest Asia and parts of Southeast Asia, Central Europe, the Balkans, Eastern Europe and Scandinavia. The instrument is played in the United Kingdom and the U. S. where its traditional use in folk music saw a notable revival in the late 20th century. A dulcimer usually has two bridges, a bridge near the right and a treble bridge on the left side. The bass bridge holds up bass strings, which are played to the left of the bridge, the treble strings can be played on either side of the treble bridge.
In the usual construction, playing them on the side gives a note a fifth higher than playing them on the right of the bridge. The dulcimer comes in sizes, identified by the number of strings that cross each of the bridges. A 15/14, for example, has 15 strings crossing the bridge and 14 crossing the bass bridge. The strings of a hammered dulcimer are usually found in pairs, each set of strings is tuned in unison and is called a course. A hammered dulcimer, like an autoharp, harp, or piano, requires a tuning wrench for tuning, the strings of the hammered dulcimer are often tuned according to a circle of fifths pattern. Typically, the lowest note is struck at the lower right-hand of the instrument, as a player strikes the courses above in sequence, they ascend following a repeating sequence of two whole steps and a half step. With this tuning, a scale is broken into two tetrachords, or groups of four notes. For example, on an instrument with D as the lowest note and this is the lower tetrachord of the D major scale.
At this point the player returns to the bottom of the instrument and shifts to the strings to the right of the treble bridge to play the higher tetrachord. See the drawing on the left above, in which DO would correspond to D, the shift from the bass bridge to the treble bridge is required because the bass bridges fourth string G is the start of the lower tetrachord of the G scale
AllMusic is an online music guide service website. It was launched in 1991 by All Media Guide which became All Media Network, AllMusic was launched in 1991 by Michael Erlewine of All Media Guide. The aim was to discographic information on every artist whos made a record since Enrico Caruso gave the industry its first big boost and its first reference book was published the following year. When first released onto the Internet, AMG predated the World Wide Web and was first available as a Gopher site, the AMG consumer web properties AllMusic. com, AllMovie. com and AllGame. com were sold by Rovi in July 2013 to All Media Network, LLC. All Media Network, LLC. was formed by the founders of SideReel. com. The following are contributors to AllMusic, as of this date, All Media Network produced the AllMusic guide series that includes the AllMusic Guide to Rock, the All Music Guide to Jazz and the All Music Guide to the Blues. Vladimir Bogdanov is the president of the series, in August 2007, PC Magazine included AllMusic in its Top 100 Classic Websites list.
All Media Network AllGame AllMovie SideReel All Music Guide to the Blues All Music Guide to Jazz Stephen Thomas Erlewine Official website
The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes. The wars paved the way for Julius Caesar to become the ruler of the Roman Republic. Still, Gaul was of significant military importance to the Romans, conquering Gaul allowed Rome to secure the natural border of the river Rhine. The Gallic Wars are described by Julius Caesar in his book Commentarii de Bello Gallico, as a result of the financial burdens of his consulship in 59 BC, Caesar incurred significant debt. When the Governor of Transalpine Gaul, Metellus Celer, died unexpectedly, Caesars governorships were extended to a five-year period, a new idea at the time. Caesar had initially four veteran legions under his command, Legio VII, Legio VIII, Legio IX Hispana. As he had been Governor of Hispania Ulterior in 61 BC and had campaigned successfully with them against the Lusitanians, Caesar had the legal authority to levy additional legions and auxiliary units as he saw fit.
His ambition was to conquer and plunder some territories to get out of debt. It is more likely that he was planning a campaign against the Kingdom of Dacia, the countries of Gaul were civilized and wealthy. Most had contact with Roman merchants and some, particularly those that were governed by such as the Aedui. The Romans respected and feared the Gallic tribes, only fifty years before, in 109 BC, Italy had been invaded from the north and saved only after several bloody and costly battles by Gaius Marius. Around 62 BC, when a Roman client state, the Arverni, conspired with the Sequani and the Suebi nations east of the Rhine, to attack the Aedui, the Sequani and Arverni sought Ariovistus’ aid and defeated the Aedui in 63 BC at the Battle of Magetobriga. The Sequani rewarded Ariovistus with land following his victory, Ariovistus settled the land with 120,000 of his people. When 24,000 Harudes joined his cause, Ariovistus demanded that the Sequani give him land to accommodate the Harudes people.
This demand concerned Rome because if the Sequani conceded, Ariovistus would be in a position to all of the Sequani land. They did not appear to be concerned about a conflict between non-client and allied states, by the end of the campaign, the non-client Suebi under the leadership of the belligerent Ariovistus, stood triumphant over both the Aedui and their coconspirators. Fearing another mass migration akin to the devastating Cimbrian War, the Helvetii was a confederation of about five related Gallic tribes that lived on the Swiss plateau, hemmed in by the mountains, and the Rhine and Rhone rivers. They began to come under increased pressure from German tribes to the north, by 58 BC, the Helvetii were well on their way in the planning and provisioning for a mass migration under the leadership of Orgetorix
A death growl is a vocal style usually employed by singers from death metal music genres, but used in a variety of other heavy metal styles, such as metalcore. Death growls are sometimes criticized for their ugliness, the harshness of death growls is in keeping with death metals abrasive music style and often dark and obscene subject matter. The progressively more forceful enunciation of metal vocals has been noted from heavy metal to metal to death metal. Death metal, in particular, is associated with growled vocals, sociologist Deena Weinstein has noted of death metal, Vocalists in this style have a distinctive sound and snarling rather than singing the words. Making ample use of the voice distortion box, Death growls are known as death metal vocals, guttural vocals, death grunts, growled vocals, unclean vocals, harsh vocals, and jocularly as Cookie Monster vocals. Growls can be obtained with various effects, but the effects are usually used to enhance rather than create. Voice teachers teach different techniques, but long-term use will take its toll if done incorrectly – these techniques are designed to reduce rather than eliminate harm.
However it has shown by many vocalists that long-term use of these techniques can occur without causing harm to the voice. The techniques usually involve using the diaphragm and air pressure on the throat to form the sound, as a person tries to squeeze their throat, the sound gets less intense. Some vocalists tend to use too much pressure on their throats, growled vocals may have been a part of Viking music. In the 10th century, Arab merchant Abraham ben Jacob visited Denmark and commented on the music as follows. The growling sound coming from their throats reminds me of dogs howling, in 1966, The Who released the song Boris the Spider, which featured death growls sung in basso profondo by bass player John Entwistle. This can be considered one of the first uses of death growl in popular music, the use of growling, monstrous vocals for ominous effect in rock music can be traced at least as far back as I Put a Spell on You by Screamin Jay Hawkins in 1956. Mike Oldfields Tubular Bells, Part Two, from 1973, contains a section from 11,55 to 16,30 featuring extensive use of guttural vocals which are close in style to the modern death growl.
In 1969 and the early 1970s, the song 21st Century Schizoid Man by King Crimson is notable for its heavily distorted vocals sung by Greg Lake. The songs Iron Man by Black Sabbath and One of These Days by Pink Floyd both contain brief passages of ominously growled, low-pitched vocals against a background of rock riffs. Other examples are Roger Waters screams in some Pink Floyd songs, such as Take Up Thy Stethoscope and Walk, Careful with That Axe, Eugene. Punk rock bands like The Clash and the Stiff Little Fingers regularly employed gruff sounding vocals, on the other hand, the low, aggressive pitch of Lemmy from Motörhead is not unlike the growl and can be thought to presage the current style
Melodic death metal
Melodic death metal is a subgenre of death metal that employs highly melodic guitar riffs, often borrowing from traditional heavy metal. The style originated and developed in Sweden and the United Kingdom during the early, the Swedish death metal scene did much to popularize the style, soon centering in the Gothenburg metal scene. The vocal style typically combines harsh screaming, sung vocals, and death growls, writer Gary Sharpe-Young considered the Gothenburg scene the commercial salvation of death metal, Gothenburg became the new Tampa and the genre received a new lease on life. Its influence lead to the diversification of modern metalcore, with melodic metalcore gaining prominence in the 2000s, stewart Mason claims that the style has become very popular in the United States, using the term Swedecore to describe Scandinavian-style metal as played by non-Nordic bands. List of melodic death metal bands Swedish death metal
Origins (Eluveitie album)
Origins is the sixth full-length album by Swiss folk metal band Eluveitie. The album was released August 1,2014 through Nuclear Blast Records and it was the last album to include Anna Murphy, Ivo Henzi and Merlin Sutter as band members. Origins deals with the Celtic mythology, “or to be precise, with aetiological tales from Gaul”, commented vocalist. It was created under the supervision of experts from the University of Zürich“. Upon its release, Origins received generally positive reviews music critics. Björn Springorum of Metal Hammer said that Origins was their strongest album to date, glenn Butler of Powerplay continued the praise saying Quite simply this album is a magnificent creation from the concept through to the delivery. On hearing the news the band commented That is just unbelievable and we are proud and most of all thankful to you, our fans. Together with you weve achieved the impossible and put metal where it belongs, in addition to this, Origins reached number one on Billboards Heatseekers Albums chart and broke the German top ten, peaking at number six
Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Hollywood Reporter-Billboard Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, events and it is known for its music charts, including the Billboard Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular singles and albums in different genres. It hosts events, owns a publishing firm, and operates several TV shows, Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegens interest in 1900 for $500, in the 1900s, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows. It created a service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the industry as the jukebox, phonograph. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment so that it could focus on music. After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegans children, until it was sold to investors in 1985.
The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio, on November 1,1894 by William Donaldson, initially, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry and was called Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production, the first issues were just eight pages long. The paper had columns like The Bill Room Gossip and The Indefatigable, a department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896. The title was changed to The Billboard in 1897, after a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegans interest in the business in 1900 for $500, to save it from bankruptcy. That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco, London and he re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment like fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of events in 1901.
Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism, economics and it had a stage gossip column covering the private lives of entertainers, a tent show section covering traveling shows and a sub-section called Freaks to order. According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published articles attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting good taste
The hurdy-gurdy is a stringed instrument that produces sound by a crank-turned, rosined wheel rubbing against the strings. The wheel functions much like a bow, and single notes played on the instrument sound similar to those of a violin. Melodies are played on a keyboard that presses tangents—small wedges, typically made of wood—against one or more of the strings to change their pitch, like most other acoustic stringed instruments, it has a sound board to make the vibration of the strings audible. Most hurdy-gurdies have multiple strings, which give a constant pitch accompaniment to the melody. Many folk music festivals in Europe feature music groups with hurdy-gurdy players, the most famous has been held since 1976 at Saint-Chartier in the Indre département in Central France. In 2009, it relocated nearby to the Château dArs at La Châtre, the hurdy-gurdy is generally thought to have originated from fiddles in either Europe or the Middle East some time before the eleventh century A. D. The first recorded reference to fiddles in Europe was in the 9th century by the Persian geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih describing the lira as an instrument within the Byzantine Empire.
One of the earliest forms of the hurdy-gurdy was the organistrum, an instrument with a guitar-shaped body. The organistrum had a melody string and two drone strings, which ran over a common bridge, and a relatively small wheel. Due to its size, the organistrum was played by two people, one of whom turned the crank while the other pulled the keys upward, pulling keys upward is cumbersome, so only slow tunes could be played on the organistrum. The pitches on the organistrum were set according to Pythagorean temperament, another 10th century treatise thought to have mentioned an instrument like a hurdy-gurdy is an Arabic musical compendium written by Al Zirikli. Later on, the organistrum was made smaller to let a player both turn the crank and work the keys. The solo organistrum was known from Spain and France, but was replaced by the symphonia. At about the time, a new form of key pressed from beneath was developed. These keys were more practical for faster music and easier to handle. Medieval depictions of the show both types of keys.
During the Renaissance, the hurdy-gurdy was a popular instrument and the characteristic form had a short neck. It was around this time that buzzing bridges first appeared in illustrations, the buzzing bridge is an asymmetrical bridge that rests under a drone string on the sound board