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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Hemimetabolism

Hemimetabolism or hemimetaboly called incomplete metamorphosis and paurometabolism, is the mode of development of certain insects that includes three distinct stages: the egg and the adult stage, or imago. These groups go through gradual changes; the nymph has a thin exoskeleton and resembles the adult stage but lacks wings and functional reproductive organs. The hemimetabolous insects differ from ametabolous taxa in that the one and only adult instar undergoes no further moulting; the Orders that contain hemimetabolous insects are: Hemiptera Orthoptera Mantodea Blattodea Dermaptera Odonata Phasmatodea Phthiraptera Ephemeroptera Plecoptera Grylloblattodea In aquatic entomology, different terminology is used when categorizing insects with incomplete metamorphosis. Paurometabolism refers to insects whose nymphs occupy the same environment as the adults, as in the family Gerridae of Hemiptera; the hemimetabolous insects are those whose nymphs, called naiads, occupy aquatic habitats while the adults are terrestrial.

This includes all members of the orders Plecoptera and Odonata. Aquatic entomologists use this categorization because it specifies whether the adult will occupy an aquatic or semi aquatic habitat, or will be terrestrial; this classification system is similar to used nomenclature in terrestrial entomology. Holometabolism Subimago Metamorphosis

Jemadia

Jemadia is a Neotropical genus of firetips in the family Hesperiidae. A comprehensive genus, in which it is rather difficult to define the species owing to the extraordinary resemblance among one another. Moreover, there are two series parallel to each other, one of which shows four white dots on the prothorax, the other exhibiting a white transverse streak instead. In order to facilitate the definition we keep to Mabille's division of the groups into "punctati" and "lineati"; the Jemadia are robust insects with blue marking and hyaline spots. The hindwings are remarkably small, in the males with tooth-like projections on the inner-marginal and lower median vein, above them with a concave excision, between the upper radial and subcostal vein with an obtuse projection; the middle radial vein is absent, the lower one comes from the lower cell-angle, the upper median vein below it separately. Jemadia fallax - fallax skipper - type locality Brazil Jemadia fallax fallax Guianas, north Brazil Jemadia fallax fiska Evans, 1951 Colombia Jemadia fallax fida Evans, 1951 Ecuador, Bolivia Jemadia fallax solaris Hayward, 1942 Colombia, Guyana, north Brazil, east Peru, Bolivia Jemadia gnetus - gnetus skipper - Suriname, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, south Brazil Jemadia brevipennis Schaus, 1902 - brevipennis skipper - Brazil, Paraguay Jemadia hospita - hospita skipper - type locality Peru Jemadia hospita hospita south Colombia, Peru, west Brazil Jemadia hospita imitator Colombia Jemadia hospita hephaestos Suriname Jemadia pseudognetus - dot-collared skipper - southeast Mexico to Venezuela and upper Amazon Jemadia hewitsonii - Hewitson's skipper - type locality Brazil Jemadia hewitsonii hewitsonii French Guiana, north Brazil, Peru Jemadia hewitsonii ovid Evans, 1951 Colombia, Ecuador Jemadia hewitsonii albescens Röber, 1925 Ecuador, Bolivia Jemadia menechmus - Menechmus skipper Jemadia menechmus menechmus Suriname, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia and west Brazil Jemadia menechmus desousai Orellana, Venezuela Jemadia pater Evans, 1951 - pater skipper - Panama, Venezuela Jemadia scomber Druce, 1908 - mammoth skipper - Peru Jemadia sosia - sosia skipper - southwest Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia Jemadia demarmelsi Orellana, - Demarmels' skipper - Venezuela Funet Natural History Museum Lepidoptera genus database images representing Jemadia at Consortium for the Barcode of Life

July 1968 United Kingdom thunderstorms

The July 1968 United Kingdom thunderstorms were the most severe dust fall thunderstorms in the British Isles for over 200 years. A layer of mineral dust blowing north from the Sahara met cold, wet air over the British Isles, resulting in thick, dense clouds and severe thunderstorms across most of England and Wales; these clouds blotted out the light in some areas and the rain and hail resulted in property damage and flooding, at least four people were killed. During the storm, Leeming Bar in North Yorkshire saw 35.7 millimetres of rain in under 10 minutes – a UK record until 2003. The Hoggar Mountains in Algeria saw a number of severe thunderstorms on 26–27 June; these appear to have blown a large quantity of Sahara dust into the atmosphere, where it was caught in a southerly wind in an atmospheric layer between 10,000 feet and 17,000 feet in altitude, forming a classic Spanish plume. Unusually, no clouds formed as this dust blew over continental Europe, the layer reached England on 30 June unrained out.

The warm desert air brought a heatwave over Southern England, with temperatures in London on 1 July measured at 32 °C, until it met the much cooler, moister Atlantic airstream. The boundary between the two formed a squall line stretching from Devon, along the England–Wales border and up across Northern England to the River Tees. Thick clouds, darkened by the Sahara dust, rose to 44,000 feet, plunging areas along the squall line into total darkness. In some areas, the lightning continued for 24 hours, ball lightning was seen at RAF Chivenor in Devon; the dust particles served as seeds for nucleation, causing water to precipitate out and form large raindrops and hailstones. The thunderstorms resulted in one of the most widespread intense hail falls recorded in the UK, with hail events in 9 separate places reported as "severe" or greater on the TORRO hail scale, the strongest rated "destructive". Hailstones 75 millimetres across – the size of a tennis ball – were measured at Cardiff Airport, the local newspaper for Hartland, reported the finding of "a piece of ice 4 inches long".

Along with the hail came heavy rain, with the 9 minute 35.7 millimetres fall at Leeming Bar setting a record for a sub-10-minute total. The Isle of Man measured 184 millimetres of rain over the 48 hour time period associated with the storms. Areas south and east of the squall line saw less severe storms, but the rain that fell in the night of 1–2 July 1968 was rich in Saharan dust, turning it blood red and leaving dusty deposits on the surfaces it fell on – only the south coast and uplands of Wales avoided the red rain; the last comparable storm associated with Saharan dust was seen in October 1755. The storms resulted in at least four fatalities. Three people were struck by lightning – a 72-year-old woman in Northallerton, a 14-year-old girl in Oldham, an unnamed woman in Hampsthwaite – while an 80-year-old man drowned in flooding in Welshpool. Hail broke windows and dented cars across a wide swathe of the country, damage was reported at both Cardiff Airport and RAF Chivenor. At Yeadon, West Yorkshire, the accumulated hail piled 450 millimetres deep, in parts of Yorkshire the ice was so severe that roads had to be cleared with bulldozers.

Bradford saw severe flooding on 2 July, with many streets in the centre left underwater, as did the Isle of Man. The Met Office noted that many rivers across the West Country and the Midlands burst their banks, said that every town and village in Devon was flooded, with damage to property and crops assessed as "a major disaster"; the summer of 1968 would prove to be one of the worst recorded for flooding in the UK, with further storms causing the Chew Stoke flood of 1968 just a week and the Great Flood of 1968 that September, would not be equalled until the 2007 floods. In the wake of the storm, a number of rare African and Southern European insects were reported across England, having been blown across with the Sahara dust. New England's Dark Day Red rain in Kerala

Battle of Arcadiopolis (970)

The Battle of Arcadiopolis was fought in 970 between a Byzantine army under Bardas Skleros and a Rus' army, the latter including allied Bulgarian and Hungarian contingents. In the preceding years, the Rus' ruler Sviatoslav had conquered Bulgaria, was now menacing Byzantium as well; the Rus' force had been advancing through Thrace towards Constantinople when it was met by Skleros' force. Having fewer men than the Rus', Skleros prepared an ambush and attacked the Rus' army with a portion of his force; the Byzantines feigned retreat, succeeded in drawing off the Pecheneg contingent into the ambush, routing it. The remainder of the Rus' army panicked and fled, suffered heavy casualties from the pursuing Byzantines; the battle was important as it bought time for the Byzantine emperor John I Tzimiskes to settle his internal problems and assemble a large expedition, which defeated Sviatoslav the next year. In 965 or 966, a Bulgarian embassy visited the Byzantine emperor Nikephoros II Phokas at Constantinople to receive the annual tribute, agreed by the two powers as the price of peace in 927.

Phokas and self-confident from a series of victories against the Arabs in the East that had led to the recovery of Crete and Cilicia, refused to comply, had the envoys beaten up. He followed this up with a show of military strength, by sending a small force to raze a number of Bulgarian border posts in Thrace, it was a clear declaration of war, but Nikephoros' forces were preoccupied in the East. Thus the emperor turned to the traditional Byzantine expedient of turning one of the peoples living further north, in modern-day Ukraine, against Bulgaria, he sent an ambassador, the patrikios Kalokyros, to Sviatoslav, ruler of the Rus' with whom the Byzantines had maintained close relations. Sviatoslav enthusiastically responded, invaded Bulgaria in 967 or 968 in a devastating raid, before returning home to defend his capital against a Pecheneg attack; this forced the Bulgarian tsar, Peter I, to the negotiating table, agreeing to terms favourable to Byzantium. However, this brief sojourn awakened in Sviatoslav the desire to conquer Bulgaria and establish his own realm there.

He conquered the country within a few months. Nikephoros' scheme had backfired dramatically: instead of peace, a new and formidable foe had appeared in the Balkans, a large part of the Bulgarian nobility appeared to side with the Rus' prince; the emperor, was murdered in December 969, it fell to his successor, John I Tzimiskes, to deal with the Rus' threat. Sviatoslav now turned his sights on Byzantium, to John's entreaties for peace he answered that the Empire should abandon its European territories to him and withdraw to Asia Minor. Tzimiskes himself was preoccupied with consolidating his position and with countering the unrest of the powerful Phokas clan and its adherents, delegated the war in the Balkans to his brother-in-law, the Domestic of the Schools Bardas Skleros, to the eunuch stratopedarches Peter, they were to winter in Thrace and raise an army, whilst sending spies to discover Sviatoslav's intentions. At the news of this, a powerful Rus' force, along with many Bulgarians and a Pecheneg contingent, was sent south over the Balkan Mountains.

After sacking the city of Philippopolis in Thrace, they bypassed the defended city of Adrianople and turned towards Constantinople. The size of the Rus' army, whether it comprised the entirety of Sviatoslav's forces or just a division, is unclear. John Skylitzes, for instance, implies that this was the entire Rus' army, numbering an incredible 308,000 men, but the contemporary Leo the Deacon reports that it was a detachment of "over 30,000 men", it is clear, that the Byzantines were outnumbered, that the Rus' force at Arcadiopolis included significant numbers of Bulgarians, as well as allied contingents of Pechenegs and "Turks". Skleros quickly assembled a force of ten to twelve thousand men and set out to meet the Rus'; the two armies met near some 80 km west of Constantinople. The two primary accounts on the Byzantine side differ on the preliminaries of the battle: Leo the Deacon reports that Skleros sent a scouting detachment ahead under the patrikios John Alakaseus, gave battle after only a day, but the chronicle of Skylitzes reports that for a few days, Skleros with his men remained within the walls of Arcadiopolis as the Rus' encamped nearby, refused to come out and meet them in battle despite their repeated challenges for him to do so.

According to Skylitzes, the Rus' became convinced that the imperial army was too afraid to face them. Skleros set out from the city, divided his forces into three groups: two divisions were placed in ambush on the wooded sides of the road leading towards the Rus' camp, while another some 2,000–3,000 men, was placed under himself and went forth to attack the Rus' host; the Byzantine detachment came into contact with the Rus' army, charged the Pecheneg contingent. The Byzantines executed a gradual orderly retreat, turning at intervals to charge back at the pursuing Pechenegs, who had thus become separated from the main body of the Rus' army; this conflict was fierce and bloody, taxing the discipline a

The Tech Interactive

The Tech Interactive known as The Tech is a science and technology center in San Jose, California, in Silicon Valley. It is located adjacent to the Plaza de César Chávez in Downtown San Jose; the Tech Interactive's architecture is the work of Mexican architect Ricardo Legorreta. The front wall is inscribed with quotations from iconic Silicon Valley entrepreneurs Bill Hewlett, David Packard, Bob Noyce, Gordon Moore; the building has a distinctive mango and azure color, has three floors. The ground floor includes The Tech Store, The Tech Cafe, the IMAX Dome Theater, a recreational area, reserved for special events. Four major theme galleries fill the Upper Level and Lower Level: Communication, Exploration and Life Tech; these galleries are being revamped and changed to fit the theme and exhibits. On occasion, nearby Parkside Hall is rented from the City of San Jose, to provide extra space for special temporary exhibits. On the Lower Level there is a complex multi-story sculpture titled Origin, inside a 45-foot-tall cylindrical tower.

The artwork portrays relationships among art and natural resources of the earth. Near the entrance to the building, there is Science on a Roll, a popular rolling ball sculpture by George Rhoads; the Tech is a registered 501 nonprofit. Planning began in 1978 by members of the Junior League of Palo Alto, with assistance by the San Jose Junior League; the City of San Jose promised funding for a Technology Center of Silicon Valley in the 1980s, but progress was slow. The first 20,000-square-foot temporary exhibit opened in 1990. On October 31, 1998, a brand-new 132,000-square-foot facility was inaugurated, named The Tech Museum of Innovation. In May 2019, the organization was rebranded as The Tech Interactive, announced a new partnership with Discovery Education; the Tech Interactive reflects its social context, capturing Silicon Valley's celebration of technology with a fascination with what the institution's literature refers to as the "gizmos and gadgets" produced by Valley companies. Early reviews, criticized The Tech for failing to provide a coherent direction or message.

In 2018, an expansion of Tech Interactive by 63,000 square feet was proposed, as part of a major high-rise office development in Museum Place. The Tech Interactive has many exhibits dealing with energy efficiency, customization and genetics; the Tech Interactive offers a new approach to viewing galleries from a wide variety of different media. Most of these exhibits allow the viewer to engage in the learning experience; the Tech has joint partnerships with local attractions, ranging from jazz festivals to the Global Festival of Art. The IMAX Dome Theater, opened in 1998 and upgraded since shows mainstream movies as well as educational films, it is Northern California's only domed IMAX Theater, can seat up to 280 people. The Tech has an interactive exhibit where people can build robots; the Tech created an open-to-the-public workshop space where the in-house prototypers build new exhibits. The Tech Virtual launched in December 2007. On June 4, 2008, the world's first museum exhibits developed using this open source method opened in the museum's own Virtual Test Zone gallery.

The seven exhibits, all contributed under a Creative Commons license and prototyped in the virtual world of Second Life, became part of the museum's Art, Film and Games exhibition. The Virtual Test Zone gallery itself is a prototype exhibit area that will feature virtual-to-real-world exhibits on specific themes resulting from The Tech Virtual programs. In 2017, Tech Interactive opened. Sponsored by venture capitalist John Doerr and his wife Ann, the exhibit features plastinated human anatomical specimens supplemented by augmented reality and a digital anatomy table; the exhibit is intended to run for at least 10 years. On special occasions The Tech will rent out Parkside Hall from the City of San José to host special larger exhibits. In 2007, this hall was the home to the exhibit known as Body Worlds 2, which brought in over 280,000 guests. In winter of 2008, there was a special Leonardo da Vinci exhibit that displayed some of his inventions and artwork; the Tech hosted Star Wars: Where Science Meets Imagination.

The Tech opened a new exhibition on Digital Music in March 2014, called REBOOT:music, including Tim Thompson's Space Palette. The Tech Awards is a program of The Tech wherein a yearly ceremony is held for individuals and organizations to get recognition for their technological contributions to improving the human condition; the Tech Challenge is a signature program of The Tech. It is a design challenge competition for students Grades 4–12. Over the past 32 years, The Tech Challenge had around 25,000 students compete by building devices to solve issues such as wildfires, fish removal and landing on an asteroid. Children's Discovery Museum of San Jose Exploratorium Website The Tech Interactive's About Us web page

Rutan v. Republican Party of Illinois

Rutan v. Republican Party of Illinois, 497 U. S. 62, was a United States Supreme Court decision that held that the First Amendment forbids a government entity from basing its decision to promote, recall, or hire low-level public employees based upon their party affiliation. Illinois Governor James Thompson issued an executive order instituting a hiring freeze, whereby state officials were prohibited from hiring any employee, filling any vacancy, creating any new position, or taking any similar action without the Governor's "express permission." It affected 60,000 state positions. More than 5,000 of these become available each year as a result of resignations, deaths and reorganizations; the order proclaimed that "no exceptions" were permitted without the Governor's "express permission after submission of appropriate requests to office." Petitioner alleged. Permission had been granted or withheld through an agency expressly created for that purpose, the Governor's Office of Personnel. Agencies had been screening applicants under Illinois' civil service system, making their personnel choices, submitting them as requests to be approved or disapproved by the Governor's Office.

Among the employment decisions for which approvals had been required are new hires, promotions and recalls after layoffs. By means of the freeze, according to petitioners, the Governor had been using the Governor's Office to operate a political patronage system to limit state employment and beneficial employment-related decisions to those who were supported by the Republican Party of the United States. In reviewing an agency's request that a particular applicant be approved for a particular position, the Governor's Office looked at whether the applicant voted in Republican primaries in past election years, whether the applicant had provided financial or other support to the Republican Party and its candidates, whether the applicant had promised to join and work for the Republican Party in the future, whether the applicant had the support of Republican Party officials at state or local levels. Five people brought suit against various Illinois and Republican Party officials in the United States District Court for the Central District of Illinois.

They alleged that they had suffered discrimination with respect to state employment because they had not been supporters of the State's Republican Party and that this discrimination violated the First Amendment. At issue was whether the decision of the governor to make hiring decisions contingent upon party affiliation violated the petitioner's First Amendment rights to freedom of speech and of freedom of association. In an opinion by Justice Brennan and decided 5-4, the Court held that a government agency cannot constitutionally base employment-related decisions upon an employee or prospective employee's party affiliation. Citing Elrod v. Burns, the Court reasoned that conditioning public employment on the provision of support for the favored political party "unquestionably inhibits protected belief and association."In Elrod v. Burns, the Court had reasoned that conditioning employment on political activity pressures employees to pledge political allegiance to a party with which they prefer not to associate, to work for the election of political candidates they do not support, to contribute money to be used to further policies with which they do not agree.

The latter, the plurality noted, had been recognized as "tantamount to coerced belief."The Court acknowledged that a government entity has a significant interest in ensuring that it has effective and efficient employees. However, the Court expressed doubt that the "mere difference of political persuasion motivates poor performance." In any case, the government can ensure employee effectiveness and efficiency through the less drastic means of discharging staff members whose work is inadequate. Although the preservation of the democratic process "may in some instances justify limitations on First Amendment freedoms," the "process functions as well without the practice even better." Patronage "can result in the entrenchment of one or a few parties to the exclusion of others," and "is a effective impediment to the associational and speech freedoms which are essential to a meaningful system of democratic government." Citing Speiser v. Randall, the Court noted that "for at least a quarter-century, this Court has made clear that though a person has no'right' to a valuable governmental benefit, though the government may deny him the benefit for any number of reasons, there are some reasons upon which the government may not rely.

It may not deny a benefit to a person on a basis that infringes his constitutionally protected interests - his interest in freedom of speech. For if the government could deny a benefit to a person because of his constitutionally protected speech or associations, his exercise of those freedoms would in effect be penalized and inhibited; this would allow the government to `produce a result which could not command directly.' Such interference with constitutional rights is impermissible."The Court further reasoned that employees who find themselves in dead-end positions due to their political backgrounds would be adversely affected by the Governor's order. They would feel a significant obligation to support political positions held by their superiors, to refrain from acting on the political views they hold, in order to progress up the career ladder. Employees denied transfers to workplaces reasonably close to their homes until they join and work for the Republican Party would feel a daily pressure from their long commutes to do so.

And employees who have been laid off may well ha