The 1779 Sullivan Expedition known as the Sullivan-Clinton Expedition, or Sullivan Campaign was an extended systematic military campaign during the American Revolutionary War against Loyalists and the four Nations of the Haudenosaunee which had sided with the British. The campaign ordered and organized by George Washington and his staff was conducted chiefly in the lands of the Iroquois Confederacy "taking the war home to the enemy to break their morale", the expedition was successful in that goal as they destroyed more than 40 Iroquois villages and stores of winter crops, breaking the power of the six nations in New York all the way to the Great Lakes, as the terrified Indian families relocated to Canada seeking protection of the British. Today this area is the heartland of Upstate New York, with the military power of the Iroquois vanquished, the events opened up the vast Ohio Country, the Great Lakes regions, Western Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Kentucky to post-war settlements. Led by Major General John Sullivan and Brigadier General James Clinton, the expedition was conducted during the summer of 1779, beginning June 18 when the army marched from Easton, Pennsylvania, to October 3 when it abandoned Fort Sullivan, built at Tioga, to return to George Washington's main camp in New Jersey.
While the campaign had only one major battle, at Newtown along the Chemung River in western New York, the expedition damaged the Iroquois nations' economies by burning their crops and chattels, thus ruining the Iroquois technological infrastructure. With the Amerindians' shelter gone and food supplies destroyed, thereafter the strength of the Iroquois Confederacy was broken; the death toll from exposure and starvation dwarfed the casualties received in the Battle of Newtown, in which about 1,000 Iroquois and Loyalists were decisively defeated by an army of 3,200 Continental soldiers. Sullivan's army carried out a scorched earth campaign, methodically destroying at least forty Iroquois villages throughout the Finger Lakes region of western New York, to put an end to Iroquois and Loyalist attacks against American settlements as had occurred the previous year of 1778, such as the Cobleskill, Wyoming Valley and Cherry Valley massacres; the survivors fled to British regions in the Niagara Falls and Buffalo areas.
The devastation created great hardships for the thousands of Iroquois refugees who fled the region to shelter under British military protection outside Fort Niagara that winter, many starved or froze to death, despite strenuous attempts by the British authorities to import food and provide shelter via their limited resources. The Sullivan Expedition devastated the Iroquois crops and towns and left them dependent upon the mercy of the British for the harsh winter of 1779. With the Iroquois population decimated by disease and battle, the Indian morale never recovered, the Iroquois thereafter limited their incursions into the new United States to isolated hunting parties, the main populations having permanently migrated north of the border; when the American Revolutionary War began, British officials as well as the colonial Continental Congress sought the allegiance of the influential Iroquois Confederacy. The Six Nations divided over. Most Mohawks, Cayugas and Senecas chose to ally themselves with the British.
But the Oneidas and Tuscaroras, thanks in part to the influence of Presbyterian missionary Samuel Kirkland, joined the American revolutionaries. For the Iroquois, the American Revolution became a civil war; the Iroquois homeland lay on the frontier between the Province of Quebec and the provinces of New York and Pennsylvania. After a British army surrendered after the Battles of Saratoga in upstate New York in 1777, Loyalists and their Iroquois allies raided American Patriot settlements in the region, as well as the villages of American-allied Iroquois. Working out of Fort Niagara, men such as Loyalist commander Colonel John Butler, Mohawk military leader Joseph Brant, Seneca chief Cornplanter led the British-Indian raids. Commander-in-chief General George Washington never allocated more than minimal Continental Army troops for the defense of the frontier and he told the frontier settlements to use local militia for their own defense. On June 10, 1778, the Board of War of the Continental Congress concluded that a major Indian war was in the offing.
Since a defensive war would prove to be inadequate the board called for a major expedition of 3,000 men against Fort Detroit and a similar thrust into Seneca country to punish the Iroquois. Congress designated Major General Horatio Gates to lead the campaign and appropriated funds for the campaign. In spite of these plans, the expedition did not occur until the following year. On July 3, 1778, Loyalist commander Colonel Butler led his Rangers accompanied by a force of Senecas and Cayugas in an attack on Pennsylvania's Wyoming Valley annihilating 360 armed Patriot defenders lured out of their defenses at Forty Fort. In September 1778, revenge for the Wyoming defeat was taken by American Colonel Thomas Hartley who, with 200 soldiers, burned nine to twelve Seneca and Mingo villages along the Susquehanna River in northeast Pennsylvania, including Tioga and Chemung. At the same time, Butler's Rangers attacked German Flatts in the Mohawk Valley, destroying all the houses and fields in the area. Further American retaliation was soon taken by Continental Army units under William Butler and John Cantine, burning the substantial In
Cayuga Lake is the longest of central New York's glacial Finger Lakes, is the second largest in surface area and second largest in volume. It is just under 40 miles long, its average width is 1.7 miles, it is 3.5 mi wide at its widest point near Aurora. It is 435 ft deep at its deepest point; the city of Ithaca, site of Ithaca College and Cornell University, is located at the southern end of Cayuga Lake. Villages and settlements along the east shore of Cayuga Lake include Myers, King Ferry, Levanna, Union Springs, Cayuga. Settlements along the west shore of the lake include Sheldrake, Poplar Beach, Canoga; the lake has two small islands. One is near Union Springs; this island is not inhabited. The other island, Canoga Island is located near the town of Canoga; this island is inhabited during the summer months. The only other island in any of the Finger Lakes is Squaw Island in Canandaigua Lake. Cayuga Lake is located at 42°41′00″N 76°41′46″W, its depth, steep east and west sides with shallow north and south ends is typical of the Finger Lakes, as they were carved by glaciers during the last ice age.
The water level is regulated by the Mud Lock at the north end of the lake. It is connected to Lake Ontario by the Erie Seneca Lake by the Seneca River; the lake is drawn down as winter approaches, to minimize ice damage and to maximize its capacity to store heavy spring runoff. The north end is dominated by shallow mudflats. An important stopover for migratory birds, the mudflats and marsh are the location of the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge; the southern end is shallow and freezes during the winter. Cayuga Lake is popular among recreational boaters; the Allan H. Treman State Marine Park, a large state marina and boat launch, is located at the southern end of the lake in Ithaca. There are two yacht clubs on the western shore: Ithaca Yacht Club a few miles north of Ithaca, Red Jacket Yacht Club just south of Canoga. There are boat launches scattered along the lake shore. Cayuga Lake is the source of drinking water for several communities, including Lansing near the southern end of the lake along the east side, which draws water through the Bolton Point Municipal Water system.
There are several lake source cooling systems that are in operation on the lake, whereby cooler water is pumped from the depths of the lake and circulated in a closed system back to the surface. One of these systems, operated by Cornell University and began operation in 2000, was controversial during the planning and building states for potential negative environmental impact. All the environmental impact reports and scientific studies have shown that the Cornell lake source cooling system has not yet had and will not have any measurably significant environmental impact. Furthermore, Cornell's system pumps less warm water back into the lake than others further north which have been operating for decades, including the coal-fired power plant on the eastern shore; the AES Cayuga electrical generating station operates in the Town of Lansing, on the east shore of Cayuga Lake. This coal-fired plant uses Cayuga Lake as a cooling source. In the late 1960s, citizens opposed the construction of an 830-MW nuclear power plant on the shore of Cayuga Lake.
Rod Serling named his production company Cayuga Productions during the years of his TV series, The Twilight Zone. Serling and his family had a summer home at Cayuga Lake; the fish population is managed and substantial sport fishing is practiced, with anglers targeting smelt, lake trout and smallmouth bass. Fish species present in the lake include lake trout, landlocked salmon, brown trout, rainbow trout, smallmouth bass, alewife, atlantic salmon, black crappie, pickerel, largemouth bass, northern pike, pumpkinseed sunfish, rock bass, yellow perch. There are state owned hard surface ramps in Mudlock Canal Park, Long Point State Park, Cayuga Lake State Park, Dean's Cove State Marine Park, Taughannock Falls State Park, Allen H. Treman Marine Park. Demont Creek Canoga Creek Schuyler Creek Red Creek Big Hollow Creek Mack Creek Bloomer Creek Barnum Creek Groves Creek Sheldrake Creek Lively Run Bergen Creek Trumansburg Creek Taughannock Creek Willow Creek Glenwood Creek Indian Creek Williams Brook Cayuga Inlet Fall Creek Gulf Creek Minnegar Brook Salmon Creek Morrow Creek Paines Creek Little Creek Dean Creek Glen Creek Great Gully Brook Yawger Creek The lake is the subject of local folklore.
Cornell's alma mater makes reference to its position "Far Above Cayuga's Waters", while that of Ithaca College references "Cayuga's shore". A tradition at Wells College in Aurora holds that if the lake freezes over, classes are canceled. According to Wells College records, this most happened in 1979 and 2015. However, other sources suggest that the only time the entire lake froze over solid end to end in the 20th century was in 1912. Cayuga Lake, like nearby Seneca Lake, is the site of a phenomenon known as the Guns of the Seneca, mysterious cannon-like booms heard in the surrounding area. Many of these booms may be attributable to bird-scarers, automated cannon-like devices used by farmers to scare birds away from the many vineyards and crops. There is however no proof of this. Cayuga Lake is included in the American Viticultural Area. Established in 1988, the AVA now boasts over a dozen wineries, four distilleries, a cidery, a meadery. Taughannock Falls World Lakes Database entry for Cayuga Lake.
Cayugalake.org Cayuga Lake Defense Fund Montez
The brown trout is a European species of salmonid fish, introduced into suitable environments globally. It includes both purely freshwater populations, referred to as the riverine ecotype, Salmo trutta morpha fario, a lacustrine ecotype, S. trutta morpha lacustris called the lake trout, as well as anadromous forms known as the sea trout, S. trutta morpha trutta. The latter migrates to the oceans for much of its life and returns to fresh water only to spawn. Sea trout in the Ireland and Britain have many regional names: sewin in Wales, finnock in Scotland, peal in the West Country, mort in North West England, white trout in Ireland; the lacustrine morph of brown trout is most potamodromous, migrating from lakes into rivers or streams to spawn, although evidence indicates stocks spawn on wind-swept shorelines of lakes. S. trutta morpha fario forms stream-resident populations in alpine streams, but sometimes in larger rivers. Anadromous and nonanadromous morphs. What determines whether or not they migrate remains unknown.
The scientific name of the brown trout is Salmo trutta. The specific epithet trutta derives from the Latin trutta, meaning "trout". Behnke relates that the brown trout was the first species of trout described in the 1758 edition of Systema Naturae by Swedish zoologist Carl Linnaeus. Systema Naturae established the system of binomial nomenclature for animals. Salmo trutta was used to describe sea-run forms of brown trout. Linnaeus described two other brown trout species in 1758. Salmo fario was used for riverine forms. Salmo lacustris was used for lake-dwelling forms; the native range of brown trout extends from northern Norway and White Sea tributaries in Russia in the Arctic Ocean to the Atlas Mountains in North Africa. The western limit of their native range is Iceland in the north Atlantic, while the eastern limit is in Aral Sea tributaries in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Brown trout have been introduced into suitable environments around the world, including North and South America, Australasia and South and East Africa.
Introduced brown trout have established self-sustaining, wild populations in many introduced countries. The first introductions were in Australia in 1864 when 300 of 1500 brown trout eggs from the River Itchen survived a four-month voyage from Falmouth, Cornwall, to Melbourne on the sailing ship Norfolk. By 1866, 171 young brown trout were surviving in a Plenty River hatchery in Tasmania. Thirty-eight young trout were released in the river, a tributary of the River Derwent in 1866. By 1868, the Plenty River hosted a self-sustaining population of brown trout which became a brood source for continued introduction of brown trout into Australian and New Zealand rivers. Successful introductions into the Natal and Cape Provinces of South Africa took place in 1890 and 1892, respectively. By 1909, brown trout were established in the mountains of Kenya; the first introductions into the Himalayas in northern India took place in 1868, by 1900, brown trout were established in Kashmir and Madras. The first introductions in Canada occurred in 1883 in Newfoundland and continued up until 1933.
The only Canadian regions without brown trout are Northwest Territories. Introductions into South America began in 1904 in Argentina. Brown trout are now established in Chile and the Falklands. In the 1950s and 1960s, Edgar Albert de la Rue, a French geologist, began the introduction of several species of salmonids on the remote Kerguelen Islands in the southern Indian Ocean. Of the seven species introduced, only brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, brown trout survived to establish wild populations. Sea-run forms of brown trout exceeding 20 lb are caught by local anglers on a regular basis; the first introductions into the U. S. started in 1883 when Fred Mather, a New York pisciculturist and angler, under the authority of the U. S. Fish Commissioner, Spencer Baird, obtained brown trout eggs from a Baron Lucius von Behr, president of the German Fishing Society; the von Behr brown trout came from both mountain streams and large lakes in the Black Forest region of Baden-Württemberg. The original shipment of "von Behr" brown trout eggs were handled by three hatcheries, one on Long Island, the Cold Spring Hatchery operated by Mather, one in Caledonia, New York operated by pisciculturalist Seth Green, other hatchery in Northville, Michigan.
Additional shipments of "von Behr" brown trout eggs arrived in 1884. In 1885, brown trout eggs from Loch Leven, arrived in New York; these "Loch Leven" brown trout were distributed to the same hatcheries. Over the next few years, additional eggs from Scotland and Germany were shipped to U. S. hatcheries. Behnke believed all life forms of brown trout—anadromous and lacustrine—were imported into the U. S. and intermingled genetically to create what he calls the American generic brown trout and a single subspecies the North European brown trout. In April 1884, the U. S. Fish Commission released 4900 brown trout fry into the Baldwin River, a tributary of the Pere Marquette River in Michigan; this was the first release of brown trout into U. S. waters. Between 1884 and 1890, brown trout were introduced into suitable habitats throughout the U. S. By 1900, 38 states and two territories had received stocks of brown trout, their adaptability resulted in most of these introductions establishing wild, self-sustaining populations.
The fish is not considered to be endangered, although, in some cases, individual stocks are under various degrees of stress through habitat degradation and artificial propagation leading to introgression. Increased frequency of excessively warm water
The black crappie is a freshwater fish found in North America, one of the two crappies. It is similar to the white crappie in size and habits, except that it is darker, with a pattern of black spots. Black crappies are most identified by the seven or eight spines on its dorsal fin. Crappies have a laterally compressed body, they are silvery-gray to green in color and show irregular or mottled black splotches over the entire body. Black crappies have rows of dark spots on their dorsal and caudal fins; the dorsal and anal fins resemble each other in shape. Both crappies have large mouths extending to below the eye, thin lips—both suggestive of their piscivorous feeding habits. Crappies are about 4–8 inches long; the current all-tackle fishing world record for a black crappie is 2.25 kg. The maximum length reported for a black crappie is 19.3 inches and the maximum published weight is just under 6 pounds. The black crappie's range is uncertain, since it has been transplanted, but it is presumed to be similar to the white crappie's.
Its native range is suspected to be in the eastern United States and Canada, as of 2005, populations existed in all of the 48 contiguous U. S. states. Introduced populations exist in Mexico and Panama; the black crappie's habitats are lakes, borrow pits, navigation pools in large rivers. They prefer areas with little or no current, clear water, abundant cover such as submerged timber or aquatic vegetation, as well as sand or mud bottoms like those found in lakes, ponds and sloughs. Like P. annularis, P. nigromaculatus is prolific and can tend to overpopulate its environment, with negative consequences both for the crappie and for other fish species. A commercial supplier of the fish, claims that it can be safely stocked in ponds as small as one acre in area. Crappies feed early in the morning and from about midnight until 2 am. Individuals smaller than about 16 cm in length eat plankton and minuscule crustaceans, while larger individuals feed on small fish, as well as minnows. Adult black crappie feed on fewer fish than white crappie do.
According to scientific studies carried out in California, mysid shrimp, Neomysis awatschensis, as well as amphipods, Corophium, were the most eaten by all sizes of black crappie. Although this diet is popular among black crappies in general, their diet may change based on habitat, availability of food, other biotic factors such as amount of resource competition; the same study showed that young, small crappie tend to feed on small aquatic invertebrate animals and changed to a fish-filled diet as they matured to adulthood. Its diet, as an adult, tends to be less dominated by other fish than that of the white crappie. Crappies are a popular sport fish, as they are easy to catch during their feeding times. There are minimal size restriction limits for fishing the crappie species. Black crappies can be safely harvested under minimal, reasonable regulations, as long as there is no permanent damage to the fishery or environment; the black crappie is not listed as a species under threat on the IUCN Red List.
Black crappies mature at 2–4 years. Growth during the first four years of their life is faster in the warm waters of the southern part of its range than in cooler waters in the north. White crappie have a higher growth rate in terms of length than black crappie. Most fish that are caught for sport are between 5 years old; the breeding season varies by location, due to the species' great range. Breeding temperature is 14‒20 °C and spawning occurs in spring and early summer. Spawning occurs in a nest built by the male. Males use their bodies and tails to sweep out an area of sand or mud in shallow water near a shoreline and vegetation to create a nest. Black crappies appear to nest in the most protected areas possible. Female crappies produce an average of 40,000 spherical eggs, the number depending on their age and size. After spawning, the male watches over the nest until eggs hatch, about 2–3 days. Newly hatched fish larvae appear translucent, they stay in the nest for several days before moving to sheltered waters.
The oldest recorded age of a specimen is fifteen years, although seven years is a more typical life span for the species. Pomoxis, the genus name, is Greek: "- atos" and "oxys" meaning sharp operculum; this references. The species name, nigromaculatus, is derived from Latin and means "black-spotted"
Livingston County, New York
Livingston County is a county in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 65,393, its county seat is Geneseo. The county is named after Robert R. Livingston, who helped draft the Declaration of Independence and negotiated the Louisiana Purchase. Livingston County is part of the Rochester Metropolitan Statistical Area. On February 23, 1821, Livingston County, New York was formed from Genesee Counties; the twelve original towns were: Avon, Conesus, Groveland, Lima, Mount Morris, Sparta and York. Part of North Dansville was annexed from Steuben County in 1822 and became a separate town when Sparta was divided in 1846. At the same time, the town of West Sparta was formed from Sparta; the towns of Nunda and Portage were annexed in 1846 and the town of Ossian in was annexed 1857 from Allegany County. Avon and the hamlet of Lakeville competed for the honor of becoming the Livingston County seat, but the distinction was bestowed upon Geneseo, the principal village and center of commerce.
The Wadsworths donated a suitable lot, beautifully situated at the north end of the village. The brick courthouse faced Main Street, the jail of wood construction was built directly west, a one-story cobblestone building for the County Clerk's office was built east of the courthouse; until construction was completed in 1823, court was held in the upper story of the district school on Center Street and prisoners were housed in Canandaigua. In 1829 the county opened a poor house farm just outside the village; the County Flag was adopted in 1971 for the county's 150th anniversary. The significance of the colors and design relates to features and history of the county: Yellow – the golden grain of the northern towns; the Seneca Nation of Indians, once the most numerous and powerful of the Six Nations of the Iroquois, were called the "Keepers of the Western Door" because they guarded the western boundaries of the Iroquois territory, which included the lands around Seneca Lake west to Lake Erie. Many of their principle towns were in the fertile Genesee Valley, part of what is now Livingston County.
Little Beard's Town, or Genesee Castle, located near present-day Cuylerville, in the Town of Leicester, was one of the largest. In 1779, General George Washington ordered General John Sullivan to organize the largest American offensive movement of the Revolutionary War to displace the Iroquois and gain control of New York's western frontier. Sullivan's army of 5000 men trekked into the heart of the Seneca territory with orders to destroy all settlements. On September 13, 1779 hundreds of Indians and Loyalists ambushed 25 of Sullivan's scouts on a hill overlooking Conesus Lake at a site now known as the Ambuscade in the town of Groveland. At least 16 Americans were massacred including an Oneida guide. Scout leader Lt. Thomas Boyd and Sgt. Michael Parker were captured and their mutilated remains were discovered a day when the army reached Little Beard's Town in Cuylerville, a hamlet in the town of Leicester; this site was the largest Indian settlement in western New York and the western limit of the Sullivan Campaign.
Sullivan's army found the village deserted as most the Indians and Loyalists had retreated west to Fort Niagara to avoid confrontation. The army buried Boyd and Parker burned the village and thousands of surrounding acres of crops. Upon retreat, the army discovered the bodies of the soldiers of Lt. Boyd's scouting party at the Ambuscade and buried them with military honors. After fulfilling General Washington's instructions to destroy more than 40 Indian settlements and food supplies throughout the Finger Lakes, Sullivan's army returned to Easton, Pennsylvania; the mission was considered successful and helped to lessen the threat to white settlers across the state. The enthusiasm generated by soldiers of General Sullivan's army prompted the rapid development of the Genesee Valley and the area that now comprises Livingston County. Within five years following the Treaty of Paris in 1783, ending the Revolutionary War, colonists branched out from well-established settlements in New England and the Mid-Atlantic states, with visions of reaping the benefits this vast wilderness land had to offer.
News of the beauty and fertility of the area spread as far as Western Europe. The destruction of the Iroquois villages during the Sullivan Campaign impoverished the Senecas but did not deprive them of title to the land; this led to the creation of a series of treaties in order to facilitate westward expansion of white settlers. These treaties were not all supported by the Iroquois and forever altered their culture. After the Treaty of Paris, Messrs. Phelps and Gorham purchased from Massachusetts the rights to eight million acres west of what is referred to as the old Pre-emption Line; the two men negotiated a treaty with the Seneca, intended to extinguish Indian claims to this land. Two-thirds of present-day Livingston County was covered by this treaty. In 1790, Phelps and Gorham sold about 1,200,000 acres to Robert Morris, known as the "financier of the American Revolution." Morris sold the land to a company of English capitalists, with Sir William Pulteney obtaining the majority interest. Charles Williamson, agent for Pulteney, took an absolute conveyance of the "Genesee Tract."
The first permanent white settlement he established was the small village Williamburgh in Groveland at the confluence of
In hydrology, the inflow of a body of water is the source of the water in the body of water. It can refer to the average volume of incoming water in unit time, it is contrasted with outflow. All bodies of water have multiple inflows, but one inflow may predominate and be the largest source of water. However, in many cases, no single inflow will predominate and there will be multiple primary inflows. For a lake, the inflow may be a river or stream that flows into the lake. Inflow may be speaking, not flows, but rather precipitation, like rain. Inflow can be used to refer to groundwater recharge; the dictionary definition of inflow at Wiktionary
Body of water
A body of water or waterbody is any significant accumulation of water on a planet's surface. The term most refers to oceans and lakes, but it includes smaller pools of water such as ponds, wetlands, or more puddles. A body of water contained. Most are occurring geographical features, but some are artificial. There are types. For example, most reservoirs are created by engineering dams, but some natural lakes are used as reservoirs. Most harbors are occurring bays, but some harbors have been created through construction. Bodies of water that are navigable are known as waterways; some bodies of water collect and move water, such as rivers and streams, others hold water, such as lakes and oceans. The term body of water can refer to a reservoir of water held by a plant, technically known as a phytotelma. Bodies of water are affected by gravity, what creates the tidal effects on Earth. Note that there are some geographical features involving water that are not bodies of water, for example waterfalls and rapids.
Arm of the sea – sea arm, used to describe a sea loch. Arroyo – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Artificial lake or artificial pond – see Reservoir. Barachois – a lagoon separated from the ocean by a sand bar. Bay – an area of water bordered by land on three sides, similar to, but smaller than a gulf. Bayou – a slow-moving stream or a marshy lake. Beck – a small stream. Bight – a large and only receding bay, or a bend in any geographical feature. Billabong – an oxbow lake in Australia. Boil – see Seep Brook – a small stream. Burn – a small stream. Canal – an artificial waterway connected to existing lakes, rivers, or oceans. Channel – the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean strait consisting of a bed and banks. See stream bed and strait. Cove – a coastal landform. Earth scientists use the term to describe a circular or round inlet with a narrow entrance, though colloquially the term is sometimes used to describe any sheltered bay.
Creek – a small stream. Creek – an inlet of the sea, narrower than a cove. Delta – the location where a river flows into an ocean, estuary, lake, or reservoir. Distributary or distributary channel – a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. Drainage basin – a region of land where water from rain or snowmelt drains downhill into another body of water, such as a river, lake, or reservoir. Draw – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Estuary – a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, with a free connection to the open sea Firth – a regional term of Scotland used to denote various coastal waters, such as large sea bays, estuaries and straits. Fjord – a narrow inlet of the sea between cliffs or steep slopes. Glacier – a large collection of ice or a frozen river that moves down a mountain. Glacial pothole – a kettle Gulf – a part of a lake or ocean that extends so that it is surrounded by land on three sides, similar to, but larger than a bay.
Headland – an area of water bordered by land on three sides. Harbor – an artificial or occurring body of water where ships are stored or may shelter from the ocean's weather and currents. Impoundment – an artificially-created body of water, by damming a source. Used for flood control, as a drinking water supply, ornamentation, or other purpose or combination of purposes. Note that the process of creating an "impoundment" of water is itself called "impoundment." Inlet – a body of water seawater, which has characteristics of one or more of the following: bay, estuary, fjord, sea loch, or sound. Kettle – a shallow, sediment-filled body of water formed by retreating glaciers or draining floodwaters. Kill – used in areas of Dutch influence in New York, New Jersey and other areas of the former New Netherland colony of Dutch America to describe a strait, river, or arm of the sea. Lagoon – a body of comparatively shallow salt or brackish water separated from the deeper sea by a shallow or exposed sandbank, coral reef, or similar feature.
Lake – a body of water freshwater, of large size contained on a body of land. Lick — a small watercourse or an ephemeral stream Loch – a body of water such as a lake, sea inlet, fjord, estuary or bay. Mangrove swamp – Saline coastal habitat of mangrove trees and shrubs. Marsh – a wetland featuring grasses, reeds, typhas and other herbaceous plants in a context of shallow water. See Salt marsh. Mediterranean sea – a enclosed sea that has limited exchange of deep water with outer oceans and where the water circulation is dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds Mere – a lake or body of water, broad in relation to its depth. Mill pond – a reservoir built to provide flowing water to a watermill Moat – a deep, broad trench, either dry or filled with water and protecting a structure, installation, or town. Ocean – a major body of salty water that, in totality, covers about 71% of the Earth's surface. Oxbow lake – a U-shaped lake formed when a wide meander from the mainstem of a riv