Hemocyanins are proteins that transport oxygen throughout the bodies of some invertebrate animals. These metalloproteins contain two copper atoms, they are second only to hemoglobin in frequency of use as an oxygen transport molecule. Unlike the hemoglobin in red blood cells found in vertebrates, hemocyanins are not bound to blood cells but are instead suspended directly in the hemolymph. Oxygenation causes a color change between the colorless Cu deoxygenated form and the blue Cu oxygenated form. Hemocyanins are found only in the Mollusca and Arthropoda: the earliest discoveries of hemocyanins were in the snail Helix pomatia and in the horseshoe crab, they were subsequently found to be common among cephalopods and crustaceans and are utilized by some land arthropods such as the tarantula Eurypelma californicum, the emperor scorpion, the centipede Scutigera coleoptrata. Larval storage proteins in many insects appear to be derived from hemocyanins; the arthropod hemocyanin superfamily is composed of phenoloxidases, pseudohemocyanins or cryptocyanins, hexamerin receptors.
Phenoloxidase are copper containing tyrosinases. These proteins are involved in the process of sclerotization of arthropod cuticle, in wound healing, humoral immune defense. Phenoloxidase are activated by cleaving a N-terminal peptide. Hexamerins are storage proteins found in insects; these proteins are synthesized by the larval fat body and are associated with molting cycles or nutritional conditions. Pseudohemocyanin and cryptocyanins genetic sequences are related to hemocyanins in crustaceans; these proteins have a similar structure and function, but lack the copper binding sites. The evolutionary changes within the phylogeny of the hemocyanin superfamily are related to the emergence of these different proteins in various species; the understanding of proteins within this superfamily would not be well understood without the extensive studies of hemocyanin in arthropods. Although the respiratory function of hemocyanin is similar to that of hemoglobin, there are a significant number of differences in its molecular structure and mechanism.
Whereas hemoglobin carries its iron atoms in porphyrin rings, the copper atoms of hemocyanin are bound as prosthetic groups coordinated by histidine residues. The active site of hemocyanin is composed of a pair of copper cations which are directly coordinated to the protein through the driving force of imidazolic rings of six histidine residues, it has been noted that species using hemocyanin for oxygen transportation include crustaceans living in cold environments with low oxygen pressure. Under these circumstances hemoglobin oxygen transportation is less efficient than hemocyanin oxygen transportation. There are terrestrial arthropods using hemocyanin, notably spiders and scorpions, that live in warm climates; the molecule is conformationally stable and functioning at temperatures up to 90 degrees C. Most hemocyanins bind with oxygen non-cooperatively and are one-fourth as efficient as hemoglobin at transporting oxygen per amount of blood. Hemoglobin binds oxygen cooperatively due to steric conformation changes in the protein complex, which increases hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen when oxygenated.
In some hemocyanins of horseshoe crabs and some other species of arthropods, cooperative binding is observed, with Hill coefficients of 1.6–3.0. Hill coefficients vary depending on laboratory measurement settings. Hemoglobin, for comparison, has a Hill coefficient of 2.8–3.0. In these cases of cooperative binding hemocyanin was arranged in protein sub-complexes of 6 subunits each with one oxygen binding site; each hexamer complex was arranged together to form a larger complex of dozens of hexamers. In one study, cooperative binding was found to be dependent on hexamers being arranged together in the larger complex, suggesting cooperative binding between hexamers. Hemocyanin oxygen-binding profile is affected by dissolved salt ion levels and pH. Hemocyanin is made of many individual subunit proteins, each of which contains two copper atoms and can bind one oxygen molecule; each subunit weighs about 75 kilodaltons. Subunits may be arranged in hexamers depending on species; the subunits are homogeneous, or heterogeneous with two variant subunit types.
Because of the large size of hemocyanin, it is found free-floating in the blood, unlike hemoglobin. Hexamers are characteristic of arthropod hemocyanins. A hemocyanin of the tarantula Eurypelma californicum is made up of 24 peptide chains. A hemocyanin from the house centipede Scutigera coleoptrata is made up of 36 chains. Horseshoe crabs have an 8-hexamer hemocyanin. Simple hexamers are found in the spiny lobster Panulirus interruptus and the isopod Bathynomus giganteus. Peptide chains in crustaceans are about 660 amino acid residues long, in chelicerates they are about 625. In the large complexes there is a variety of all about the same length. Hemocyanin is homologous to the phenol oxidases since both proteins share type 3 Cu active site coordination. In both cases inactive proenzymes such as hemocyanin and catcholoxidase must be activated first; this is done by removing the amino acid that blocks the entrance channel to the active site when the proenzyme i
Thomas Wiegand is a German electrical engineer who contributed to the creation of the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC and H.265/MPEG-H HEVC video coding standards. For H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, Wiegand was one of the chairmen of the Joint Video Team standardization committee that created the standard and was the chief editor of the standard itself. He was an active technical contributor to both standards. Wiegand holds a chairmanship position in the ITU-T VCEG and in ISO/IEC MPEG standardization organizations. In July 2006, the video coding work of the ITU-T jointly led by Gary J. Sullivan and Wiegand for the preceding six years was voted as the most influential area of the standardization work of the CCITT and ITU-T in their 50-year history. Wiegand is Professor at the Technical University of Berlin and executive director of the Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute, Germany, he heads research teams working on Video processing and coding Multimedia transmission Machine learning Mobile Communications Computer Vision Thomas Wiegand was born in and spent his early life in East Germany, where he decided to make an apprenticeship as an electrician instead of studying, because everyone who wanted to go to the university had to serve for three years in the National People's Army which he chose to avoid.
After the "Wende" he started to study electrical engineering at the Technical University of Hamburg, where he earned his Diplom in 1995. In the same year Wiegand stayed for some time as a guest scientist at the University of California, Santa Barbara. In 2000 he earned his Ph. D. at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. Since 2000: Associated Rapporteur of VCEG Since 2001: Associated Rapporteur / Co-Chair of JVT Since 2002: Editor of the H.264/AVC video coding standard and its extensions 2005-2009: Associated Chair of MPEG Video Since 2018: Chair of the ITU/WHO Focus Group on Artificial Intelligence for Health 1998: SPIE VCIP Best Student Paper Award 2004: Fraunhofer Award 2004: ITG Award of the German Society for Information Technology 2006: The video coding work of the ITU-T led by Gary Sullivan and Thomas Wiegand jointly since 2000 was voted as the most influential area of the standardization work of the CCITT and ITU-T in their 50-year history 2008: Primetime Emmy Engineering Award 2009: Paired Technology & Engineering Emmy Awards 2009: Group Technical Achievement Award of EURASIP for active contributions to video coding research and standardization activities 2009: Best Paper Award of IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 2009: Innovation Award of Vodafone Foundation for Research in Mobile Communications 2010: Technology Award of Eduard Rhein Foundation 2011: Fellow of the IEEE for contributions to video coding and its standardization 2011: Best Paper Award of EURASIP 2011: Karl Heinz Beckurts Award 2012: IEEE Masaru Ibuka Consumer Electronics Award - IEEE Technical Field Award 2013: Best Paper Award of IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 2013: Best Journal Paper Award of the IEEE Communications Society MMTC 2013: International Multimedia Telecommunications Consortium Leadership Award 2013: Research Award for Technical Communication of Alcatel Lucent Foundation 2014: Best Paper Award of EURASIP 2014: Richard Theile Medal of the German Television and Cinema Technology Society 2015: ITU150 Award 2016: Elected member of the German National Academy of Engineering 2017: Primetime Emmy Engineering Award 2018: Elected member of the German National Academy of Sciences 2019: Best Poster Presentation Paper Award, Picture Coding Symposium, China 1993–1994: Visiting Researcher, Kobe University, Japan 1995: Visiting Scholar, University of California at Santa Barbara, U.
S. 1997–1998: Visiting Researcher, Stanford University, California, USA 1997–1998: Consultant to 8x8, Inc. Santa Clara, California, USA 2006–2011: Member of technical advisory board, Inc. Hackensack, New Jersey, USA 2006–2008: Member of technical advisory board, Stream Processors, Inc. Sunnyvale, California, USA 2007–2009: Consultant, Inc. (acquired by Opera Softw
James Deering Fessenden was a lawyer and soldier from the state of Maine who served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. A staff officer and operations planner until the latter stages of the war, he commanded an infantry brigade in the Western Theater in 1864 and 1865. In 1862, he organized in South Carolina what became one of the first black regiments in the Federal army, he was a member of the powerful Fessenden family, prominent in national politics during the mid-19th century. James D. Fessenden was born in Westbrook, Maine, in the early autumn of 1833, he was the son of U. S. Senator William P. Fessenden and a brother of Francis Fessenden, who would serve as a general in the Union army. Another brother, would be killed at the Second Battle of Bull Run during the war. Two uncles, Samuel C. Fessenden and T. A. D. Fessenden were U. S. Congressmen, he was educated in the local schools and graduated from Bowdoin College in 1852. He studied law, passed his bar exam, joined his father's law firm.
After the outbreak of the Civil War in early 1861, Fessenden spent the summer recruiting and organizing a company of skilled riflemen and marksmen that became a company in the United States Sharpshooters. In November of that year, he received a commission as a captain in the sharpshooter company and served in the defenses of Washington, D. C. Through the influences of his powerful father, he received a promotion to lieutenant colonel and a new position as a staff officer and aide-de-camp to Union Maj. Gen. David Hunter, he held that position from March 1862 until January 1863, serving in the Department of the South and the X Corps. During that period, he was promoted to colonel in July 1862, he was involved in planning the Union operations against the Confederate defenses of Charleston, South Carolina, but missed participating in the major attacks while recovering in Washington, D. C. from a riding accident suffered in the field. During his recuperation, he used his oratory and organizational skills to recruit new volunteers for military service.
In November 1863, Fessenden became an aide-de-camp to Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, sent to Tennessee with two corps of the Army of the Potomac to reinforce the Army of the Cumberland. Hooker commended him for his bravery at the Battle of Missionary Ridge and recommended his promotion to brigadier general, he was commended three times for his actions during the Atlanta Campaign and again recommended for higher rank by Hooker. In August 1864, he received his long desired promotion to brigadier general, but did not get a field command as his sponsor Hooker had since left the army, he was assigned to command a brigade in the Army of the Shenandoah in the Shenandoah Valley region of Virginia, an assignment meant for his brother, who lost a leg in the Red River Campaign that precluded his taking the assignment. James Fessenden arrived in Virginia and assumed command of a brigade in the XIX Corps under Maj. Gen. William H. Emory, he participated in the Battle of Cedar Creek in October, engaged in scouting duty, was assigned command of the Union garrison in the defenses of Winchester, Virginia, in January 1865.
In May 1865, he led his brigade in the Grand Review of the Armies in Washington, D. C. following the surrender of the two leading Confederate armies in the Eastern Theater. He subsequently commanded troops under Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock and an occupation garrison in South Carolina before mustering out of the army on January 15, 1866, he received a brevet promotion to major general before leaving the service. Fessenden returned to Maine, where he resumed his law career in partnership with his surviving brother Francis, he entered local and state politics, was elected to serve three terms in the Maine State Legislature. He served the Federal government as the Register of Bankruptcy for his district. Late in his life, he edited his brother's book and Services of William Pitt Fessenden, published posthumously in 1907, he was a member of the Maine Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States - a military society for officers who has served in the Union during the Civil War.
James D. Fessenden died in Portland, where he is buried in Evergreen Cemetery. List of American Civil War generals Eicher, John H.. Civil War High Commands. Palo Alto, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3. Heidler, David S.. Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political and Military History. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-04758-X. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list U. S. War Department, The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, U. S. Government Printing Office, 1880–1901
The Rakatu Wetlands is a 270 ha wetland restoration project in the South Island of New Zealand. They were opened on 18 March 2006, it is administered by Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Trust. The Trust was set up in 1996 to address the environmental effects of the construction of the Manapouri Power Station. Since much of the natural flow of the Waiau River was diverted through the power station and out to sea the ecological characteristics of the river and the wetlands were changed due to lower river levels; the Trust has constructed walkways and interpretation panels at the wetland. Wetlands of New Zealand Conservation in New Zealand Waiau Fisheries and Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Trust
The left colic artery is a branch of the inferior mesenteric artery that runs to the left behind the peritoneum and in front of the psoas major muscle, after a short, but variable, course divides into an ascending and a descending branch. The ascending branch crosses in front of the left kidney and ends, between the two layers of the transverse mesocolon, by anastomosing with the middle colic artery. From the arches formed by these anastomoses branches are distributed to the descending colon and the left part of the transverse colon; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 610 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Lotti M. Anatomy in relation to left colectomy sup&infmesentericart at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman Anatomy photo:39:05-0105 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Intestines and Pancreas: Branches of the Inferior Mesenteric Artery" Anatomy image:8585 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Anatomy image:8658 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center
The SS Race and Settlement Main Office, was the organization responsible for "safeguarding the racial'purity' of the SS" within Nazi Germany. One of its duties was to oversee the marriages of SS personnel in accordance with the racial policy of Nazi Germany. After Heinrich Himmler introduced the "marriage order" on December 31, 1931, the RuSHA would only issue a permit to marry once detailed background investigations into the racial fitness of both prospective parents had been completed and proved both of them to be of Aryan descent back to 1800; the RuSHA was founded in 1931 by Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler and Richard Walther Darré, who rose to the rank of SS-Obergruppenführer. In 1935, it was upgraded to an SS Main Office. Under its first director, Darré, it propagated the Nazi ideology of soil. Darré was dismissed by Himmler in 1938 and was succeeded by SS-Gruppenführer Günther Pancke, SS-Gruppenführer Otto Hofmann in 1940, SA-Gruppenführer Richard Hildebrandt in 1943; the RuSHA was created in part to monitor Himmler's 1931 order that the marital decisions of unmarried SS men should be supervised by the Nazi state.
SS men would thereafter have to apply for a marriage permit three months before getting married so that the parents of the fiancée could be investigated to ensure her racial purity. With time, the marriage laws became less strict. Thereafter, in December 1935 Himmler ordered the RuSHA to establish the Lebensborn network of maternity homes, whose purpose was "to accommodate and look after racially and genetically valuable expectant mothers." The RuSHA focused on processing SS marriage applications, genealogy, "racial-biological" investigations and the social welfare services of SS members. In 1935 the RuSHA consisted of seven departments: Amt Organisation und Verwaltungsamt Amt Rassenamt Amt Schulungsamt Amt Sippen und Heiratsamt Amt Siedlungsamt Amt für Archiv und Zeitungswesen Amt für Bevölkerungspolitik In 1940 it was reorganized to create four main departments: Verwaltungsamt. Rassenamt, it conducted racial selections. Heiratsamt it controlled the selection of suitable wives by SS men. Siedlungsamt, it dealt with the settlement of discharged SS men in the annexed eastern areas.
The Race and Settlement Departments were further divided into the Hauptabteilungen. One of these managed welfare and pensions in cooperation with the SS-Hauptfürsorge- und Versorgungsamt at the Reich Ministry of the Interior. By 1937 more than 300 SS men had been expelled from the SS for violating Nazi race laws, although an order stated that they could remain if they were married and could satisfy racial criteria. In November 1940, Himmler reinstated all SS personnel expelled under the marriage laws, provided they met racial requirements of the Nazi Party. Following the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, the RuSHA worked in partnership with VOMI in the "germanization" of captured territory, monitoring of settler welfare, the plantation of ethnic Germans in areas designated for settlement by the SS in occupied Ukraine; this involved in part, the resetting of Germans in the Nazi occupied Eastern territories and ejecting the native families from those lands. The RuSHA was an advisory and executive office for all questions of racial selection.
Racial examinations were performed by Rasse und Siedlungs leaders or their racial examiners in connection with: Cases where sexual intercourse had occurred between Eastern European POWs or workers and Germans Children born to Eastern European workers Classification of people of German descent Selection of enemy nationals Poles, for slave labour and Germanization Kidnapping of children suitable for Germanization Population transfers The persecution and liquidation of JewsThe RuSHA employed Josef Mengele for a short time from November 1940 to early 1941, in Department II of its Family Office, where he was responsible for "care of genetic health" and "genetic health tests". He went on to become one of the team of doctors responsible for the selection of victims to be killed in the gas chambers and for performing deadly human experiments on prisoners at Auschwitz concentration camp. In July 1947, 14 officials from the organization were indicted in the RuSHA Trial and tried by the Allied powers at Nuremberg.
All were charged with crimes against war crimes and membership of a criminal organization. All but one were sentenced to between three and 25 years imprisonment. Generalplan Ost – the Nazi plan to ethnically-cleanse occupied Eastern Europe. SS Collections: RuSHA - www.stengerhistorica.com Law Reports of Trials of War Criminals: United Nations War Crimes Commission. Wm. S. Hein Publishing. 1997. P. 5. ISBN 1-57588-403-8. Snyder, Louis. Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-1-56924-917-8. Zentner, Christian; the Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. New York: MacMillan. ISBN 0-02-897500-6