Henan is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Henan is referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou, which means "central plain" or "midland", although the name is applied to the entirety of China proper. Henan is a birthplace of Chinese civilization, with over 3,000 years of recorded history, remained China's cultural and political center until 1,000 years ago. Henan Province is home to many heritage sites which have been left behind, including the ruins of Shang dynasty capital city Yin and the Shaolin Temple. Four of the Eight Great Ancient Capitals of China, Anyang and Zhengzhou, are located in Henan; the practice of tai chi began in Chen Jia Gou Village, as did the Yang and Wu styles. Although the name of the province means "south of the river" a quarter of the province lies north of the Yellow River known as the Huang He. With an area of 167,000 km2, Henan covers a large part of the fertile and densely populated North China Plain.
Its neighboring provinces are Shaanxi, Hebei, Shandong and Hubei. Henan is China's third most populous province with a population of over 94 million. If it were a country by itself, Henan would be the 14th most populous country in the world, ahead of Egypt and Vietnam. Henan is the largest among inland provinces. However, per capita GDP is low compared to other central provinces. Henan is considered to be one of the less developed areas in China economically; the economy continues to grow based on aluminum and coal prices, as well as agriculture, heavy industry and retail. High-tech industries and service sector is underdeveloped and is concentrated around Zhengzhou and Luoyang. Regarded as one of the Cradles of Chinese civilization along with Shanxi and Shaanxi provinces, Henan is known for its historical prosperity and periodic downturns; the economic prosperity resulted from its extensive fertile plains and its location at the heart of the country. However, its strategic location means that it has suffered from nearly all of the major wars in China.
In addition, the numerous floods of the Yellow River have caused significant damage from time to time. Kaifeng, in particular, has been buried by the Yellow River's silt seven times due to flooding. Archaeological sites reveal that prehistoric cultures such as the Yangshao Culture and Longshan Culture were active in what is now northern Henan since the Neolithic Era; the more recent Erlitou culture has been controversially identified with the Xia dynasty, the first and legendary Chinese dynasty, established in the 21st century BC. The entire kingdom existed within what is now north and central Henan; the Xia dynasty collapsed around the 16th century BC following the invasion of Shang, a neighboring vassal state centered around today's Shangqiu in eastern Henan. The Shang dynasty was the first literate dynasty of China, its many capitals are located at the modern cities of Shangqiu and Zhengzhou. Their last and most important capital, located in modern Anyang, is where the first Chinese writing was created.
In the 11th century BC, the Zhou dynasty of Shaanxi arrived from the west and overthrew the Shang dynasty. The capital was moved to Chang'an, the political and economical center was moved away from Henan for the first time. In 722 BC, when Chang'an was devastated by Xionites invasions, the capital was moved back east to Luoyang; this Autumn period, a period of warfare and rivalry. What is now Henan and all of China was divided into a variety of small, independent states at war for control of the central plain. Although regarded formally as the ruler of China, the control that Zhou king in Luoyang exerted over the feudal kingdoms had disappeared. Despite the prolonged period of instability, prominent philosophers such as Confucius emerged in this era and offered their ideas on how a state should be run. Laozi, the founder of Taoism, was born in part of modern-day Henan. On, these states were replaced by seven large and powerful states during the Warring States period, Henan was divided into three states, the Wei to the north, the Chu to the south, the Han in the middle.
In 221 BC, state of Qin forces from Shaanxi conquered all of the other six states, ending 800 years of warfare. Ying Zheng, the leader of Qin, crowned himself as the First Emperor, he abolished the feudal system and centralized all powers, establishing the Qin dynasty and unifying the core of the Han Chinese homeland for the first time. The empire collapsed after the death of Ying Zheng and was replaced by the Han dynasty in 206 BC, with its capital at Chang'an. Thus, a golden age of Chinese culture and military power began; the capital moved east to Luoyang in 25 AD, in response to a coup in Chang'an that created the short-lived Xin dynasty. Luoyang regained control of China, the Eastern Han dynasty began, extending the golden age for another two centuries; the late Eastern Han dynasty saw rivalry between regional warlords. Xuchang in central Henan was the power base of Cao Cao, who succeeded in unifying all of northern China under the Kingdom of Wei. Wei moved its capital to Luoyang, which remained the capital after the unification of China by the Western Jin dynasty.
During this period Luoyang became one of the largest and most prosperous cities in the world, despite being damaged by warfare. With the fall of the Western Jin dynasty in the 4th and 5th centuries, nomadic people
Mount Bonnell known as Covert Park, is a prominent point alongside the Lake Austin portion of the Colorado River in Austin, Texas. It has been a popular tourist destination since the 1850s; the mount provides a vista for viewing the city of Austin, Lake Austin, the surrounding hills. It was designated a Recorded Texas Historic Landmark in 1969, bearing Marker number 6473, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2015. Mount Bonnell is located at 30.3210°N, 97.7736°W. The mount is described as the highest point in Austin, with the elevation at its peak about 775 feet above mean sea level. If Mount Bonnell held this distinction, it was only because the city limits did not include the next summit to the north, Mount Barker, which has an elevation of about 840 feet above mean sea level. Many other areas now in the city of Austin are higher than Mount Bonnell, but few publicly accessible spots offer such a sweeping view of the downtown area. A historical marker was placed at Mount Bonnell in 1969 by State Historical Survey Committee.
The marker reads: Rising 775 feet above sea level, this limestone height was named for George W. Bonnell, who came to Texas with others to fight for Texas independence, 1836. Was commissioner of Indian affairs in Republic of Texas under President Sam Houston. Moved in 1839 to Austin. Member Texan-Santa Fe expedition, 1841. Was captured but released in time to join Mier expedition, 1842. Was killed in camp on Rio Grande, Dec, 26, 1842. Frontiersman W. A. A. "Bigfoot" Wallace killed an Indian he met face to face while crossing a narrow ledge 50 feet above river, 1839. He took refuge in a Mount Bonnell cave to recover from "flux", but was missing so long his sweetheart eloped. In the mid-1800s Mormons built a mill on the Colorado river at foot of Mount Bonnell. Mill was destroyed by flood and the Mormons moved on west. Mount Bonnell was site of outings in 1850s and 1860s; as it is today. Legend has it that an excursion to the place in the 1850s inspired the popular song "Wait for the Wagon and We'll All Take a Ride".
As a stunt in 1898, Miss Hazel Keyes slid down a cable stretched from the top of Mount Bonnell to south bank of Lake McDonald below. Years after Bigfoot Wallace's refuge in the cave on Mount Bonnell, when asked why he had chosen the cave as a refuge, he responded "Well the cave was right on the old Indian trail leading down to Austin, I thought I would be able to keep my hand in by'upping' one now and then. Julia L. Sinks and historian, was an early settler to Austin, arriving in the spring of 1840. Before meeting and marrying George Sinks, chief clerk of the Post Office Department during the Republic years, she lived on West Pecan, present day 6th street, wrote "Our home was on the beaten track of the Indians into town from the pass of Mount Bonnell; the knolls beyond the quarry branch were interspersed with timber, sometimes though not we would see galloping past the open spaces beyond the blanketed Indian. The path along the quarry branch, secluded as it was, became their main inlet to the town.
It was a sheltered road, never traveled at night by whites, so the Indians claimed right of way, all full moons brought moccasin tracks in abundance". If Mount Bonnell was on an Indian trail into Austin, it was a trail out, as illustrated in another story included in Wilbarger's book, Indian Depredations of Texas. In 1842, a Mrs. Simpson living on that same street as Julia Lee Sinks, West Pecan, about three blocks west of Congress, had two children – a daughter 14, a son 12—abducted by Indians while the children were in the adjacent "valley". Wilbarger says that; the Indians "seized the children, mounted their horses and made off for the mountains going in the direction of Mt. Bonnell". A posse gave pursuit. Wilbarger says "At one time the citizens came within sight of the redskins just before reaching Mt. Bonnell, but the Indians, after arriving at the place, passed on just beyond to the top of the mountain, which being rocky, the citizens lost the trail and were never able to find where the savages went down the mountain".
The Simpson girl was killed, but the boy survived and was "traded off to some Indian traders, who returned him to his mother". It is because the boy survived and was returned home that we know what happened after the posse lost the trail of the Indians on Mount Bonnell. From Mt. Bonnell they stopped at Spicewood Springs, "which is situated in the edge of the mountains"; this is. Spicewood Springs is located about 5 miles north of Mount Bonnell, at the present day intersections of Mopac Expressway and Spicewood Springs Road. Mount Bonnell is believed to have been named after early Texas newspaper publisher George W. Bonnell, who moved to Texas in 1836. George W. Bonnell was publisher of the local paper The Texas Sentinel and was prominent in early Texas and Travis County affairs after the War for Independence. Though sources have long credited George Bonnell as the mountain's namesake, Albert Sidney Johnston may have named Mount Bonnell in present-day Austin for his friend and fellow West Point graduate Joseph Bonnell, a Captain in the Texas Army during the War for Independence.
There is little contemporaneous evidence to support either derivation of the name. Legend has it that Mount Bonnell was once called Antoinette's Leap, after a young woman who leaped to her death to avoid being captured by Native Americans who had killed her fiancé. Mt. Bonnell forms part of the Balcones Fault Escarpment and these "balconies" were first des
The 1940 Eastern Suburbs DRLFC season was the 33rd in the club's history. Coached by Dave Brown and captained by Ray Stehr they competed in the New South Wales Rugby Football League's 1940 season, finishing the season in 1st place and defeating Canterbury-Bankstown in the final to claim their 8th premiership. Led by forward Ray Stehr, there was still plenty of talent left in the East's side of 1940 and they went on to take the minor premiership, before gaining revenge on Canterbury, claiming their fourth titles in six seasons; the line-up for the 1940 season included: Jack Arnold * Wal Bamford * Doug Bartlett * Dave Brown * William Brew * S. Callaghan * Owen Campbell * John Clarke * Dick Dunn * Noel Hollingdale * Sel Lisle * Fred May * K. McLean * Andy Norval * Rod O'Loan * Henry'harry' Pierce * Sid'Joe' Pearce * Ray Stehr. Premiership Round 1, Eastern Suburbs 23 defeated 9 at the Sydney Cricket Ground. Premiership Round 2, St George 12 defeated Eastern Suburbs 9 at Sydney Cricket Ground. Premiership Round 3, Eastern Suburbs 19 defeated South Sydney 12 at Sydney Sports Ground.
Premiership Round 4, Newtown Jets 21 defeated Eastern Suburbs 13 at Henson Park. Premiership Round 5, Eastern Suburbs 33 defeated North Sydney 3 at the Sydney Sports Ground. Premiership Round 6, Eastern Suburbs 26 defeated Western Suburbs 11 at the Sydney Sports Ground. Premiership Round 7, Eastern Suburbs 26 beat Balmain 10 at Sydney Cricket Ground. Premiership Round 8, Canterbury Bankstown 13 beat Eastern Suburbs 7 at Belmore Oval. Premiership Round 9, St George 8 drew with Eastern Suburbs 8 at Sydney Cricket Ground. Premiership Round 10, Newtown 8 beat Eastern Suburbs 6 at Sydney Cricket Ground. Premiership Round 11, Eastern Suburbs 38 beat South Sydney 7 at Sydney Sports Ground. Premiership Round 12, Eastern Suburbs 16 beat Western Suburbs 12 at Pratten Park. Premiership Round 13, Eastern Suburbs 10 beat North Sydney 5 at North Sydney Oval. Premiership Round 14, Eastern Suburbs 16 beat Balmain 5 at Sydney Cricket Ground. Eastern Suburbs semi-final against St George was played at the Sydney Cricket Ground.
The match was played in heavy rain. The Tricolurs progressed to the premiership decider by defeating St George 10 points to 3. Eastern Suburbs 10 defeated Saint George 3 Eastern Suburbs captain-coach Dave Brown, still suffering the effects of a leg injury that had kept him out of the Roosters semi-final victory over St George, was forced to withdraw on the morning of the match, his replacement, William Brew, scored the opening try early in the match, after backing up second rower Sid "Joe" Pearce. At the break Canterbury only trailed by two; however East's ended any hopes of a comeback. The match was never in any danger of being lost from that point, with Eastern suburb's burly forwards storming away in the latter stages; the young Easts side had an average age of just 20 years. They overcame Canterbury by six tries to two. Eastern Suburbs 24 defeated Canterbury-Bankstown 14 Rugby League Tables and Statistics