Spartanburg, South Carolina
Spartanburg is the most populous city in and the seat of Spartanburg County, South Carolina, United States, the 12th-largest city by population in the state. The city of Spartanburg has a municipal population of 37,013, Spartanburg County has an urban population of 180,786 as of the 2010 census; the Spartanburg Metropolitan Statistical Area, including Spartanburg and Union counties, had a population of 317,057 as of the 2010-2014 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates. Spartanburg is the second-largest city in the greater Greenville–Spartanburg–Anderson Combined Statistical Area, which has a population of 1,385,045 as of 2014, it is part of a 10-county region of northwestern South Carolina known as "The Upstate," and is located 98 miles northwest of Columbia, 80 miles west of Charlotte, North Carolina, about 190 miles northeast of Atlanta, Georgia. Spartanburg is a major city in South Carolina, it is the site of headquarters for Denny's. Spartanburg is home of the BMW Spartanburg factory.
Spartanburg was formed in 1785 and was named after a local militia called the Spartan Regiment in the American Revolutionary War. The Spartan Regiment, commanded by Andrew Pickens, participated in the nearby Battle of Cowpens. In 1831, Spartanburg was incorporated becoming known as the "Hub City": railroad lines radiated from the city forming the shape of a wheel hub, it became a center of textile manufacturing in the late 19th century, with around 40 textile mills being established through the early 1900s. During World War I Camp Wadsworth was used to train 100,000 soldiers for the war. Camp Croft trained soldiers during World War II; the facility was adapted as Croft State Park. By the 1950s, the production in these mills began to decline. Most textile manufacturing jobs were moved offshore by the companies. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.2 square miles, of which 19.1 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles, or 0.47%, is water. The city of Spartanburg has a humid subtropical climate with long and humid summers, cool to semi mild winters.
The average annual temperature is 61.6 °F. In the summer season from June through September, average highs are in the 80's to low 90's F, while in the winter months average highs are in the mid 50's F. Annual rainfall is spread evenly throughout the whole year. Spartanburg sees little snowfall, with the annual average being only 1.4 inches. Average precipitation is 51.3 inches and the average growing season is 231 days. Lawson's Fork Creek, a tributary of the Pacolet River, was once known for its plentiful wildlife and crystal clear waters. Parks and woodlands line much of its banks, rocky shoals and natural waterfalls can be found throughout its course, it stretches from the northern end of the county to the eastern end, where it empties into the Pacolet. The Cottonwood Trail is a walking trail located in the Edwin M. Griffin Nature Preserve that runs along part of Lawson's Fork Creek; the trail includes picnic areas, a raised path over an extensive wetlands area and access to sporadic sandbars.
Located just east of downtown, it is used by cyclists and walkers. Since the Lawson's Fork floodplain is not suitable for development, wildlife populate the area. Larger animals that can be found here include white-tailed deer, wild turkeys, pileated woodpeckers, mallard ducks, Canada geese and snapping turtles. Hatcher Garden and Woodland Preserve, is a preserve located in the midst of an urban environment. Retired social activist Harold Hatcher and his wife Josephine transformed an eroding gully into a thick woods and flower garden which now provides a haven for birds and other wildlife. Early European settlers to this area included French fur trappers, English woodsmen, Scots-Irish farmers. Few remnants survive from these early pioneering days, but traces can be found in the more rural areas of the county. Walnut Grove Plantation, an 18th-century farmhouse, has been preserved by The Spartanburg County Historical Association; the site of a locally famous skirmish during the American Revolutionary War, it was the home of the Moore family.
The plantation lies south of Spartanburg near the town of Roebuck, is open to the public for tours and during annual festivals. The Seay House, another 18th-century home, is a more typical representative of a pioneer home, its single stone fireplace and simple construction were common traits of farmsteads from this period. The Price House, the third 18th-century home maintained by the Historical Association, is unique, its sturdy Flemish-bond brick construction and three stories are less common in this area. By examining the original inventory lists of the house, the Historical Association has been able to retrieve period pieces that approximate the original contents of the house. First established in the 1780s as a courthouse village, Spartanburg may have been named for the Spartan regiment of the South Carolina militia; the city was incorporated in 1831, at the time of the 50th anniversary of the Battle of Cowpens, a pivotal fight of the American Revolution that took place only a few miles away.
The city's streets and architectural record reflect the changes of the 20th centuries. Morgan Square, the city's primary downtown hub, is the original courthouse village, it was founded adjacent to a small spring on the western slope of a ridge, which forms the border of the Tyger and Pacolet River watersheds. The square's name derives from Daniel Morgan, the general who commanded the American forces at Cowpens. A statue of Morgan was placed in the square in 1881; the oldest
Bat Cave, North Carolina
Bat Cave is an unincorporated community in Henderson County, North Carolina. It is part of the Asheville Metropolitan Statistical Area; the community is located along Lake Lure Highway, 14.6 miles northeast of Hendersonville, along the banks of the Broad River. The community was named after the nearby cave, inhabited by several species of bats, on Bluerock Mountain, it is the largest known granite fissure cave in North America and is a protected area, not open to the public. It has been noted on lists of unusual place names; the community is served by an all-volunteer fire department and has a bimonthly community paper called "The Bat Biz." Chimney Rock State Park Lake Lure Henderson County Visitors Information Center
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Vance County, North Carolina
Vance County is a county located in the U. S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 45,422, its county seat is Henderson. Vance County comprises the Henderson, NC Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC Combined Statistical Area, which had a 2012 estimated population of 1,998,808; the county was formed by the white Democratic-dominated legislature in 1881 following the Reconstruction Era from parts of Franklin and Warren counties. The county is named after Zebulon Baird Vance, a Governor of North Carolina and United States Senator. According to the 1955 book, Zeb's Black Baby, by Samuel Thomas Peace, Sr. this was a political decision to concentrate blacks and Republicans in one county and keep Democratic majorities in the other counties, an example of gerrymandering: The formation of Vance County was accomplished as a political expediency. It was in 1881. Granville and Franklin Counties were Democratic or Republican. From the Democratic standpoint, Warren County was hopelessly Republican.
But by taking from Granville and Warren, those sections that were Republican and out of these sections forming the new county of Vance, the Democratic party could lose Vance to the Republicans and save Granville and Franklin for the Democrats. Senator Vance was a Democrat, he took kindly to this move and thanked the Legislature for honoring him with naming the new county after him. At the same time... Vance showed his humor by always referring to Vance County as'Zeb's Black Baby.' In the 1890 Census, Vance County was more than 63 percent African American. In 1894 a biracial coalition of Populists and Republicans elected African American George M. White to the US Congress and gained control of the state house; the Democrats were determined to forestall this happening again. White opposed the new constitution, saying "I cannot live in North Carolina and be a man and be treated as a man." He left the state after his second term expired, setting up a business in Washington, DC. The Democrats in the North Carolina legislature settled the political competition with the Republicans by following other southern states and passing a law in 1896 making voting more difficult, a new constitution in 1899 that disfranchised most blacks by poll taxes, literacy tests and grandfather clauses.
Contemporary accounts estimated. In 1900 blacks numbered 630,207 citizens, about 33% of the state's total population; this situation held until past the mid-20th century and after passage of the federal Voting Rights Act of 1965. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 270 square miles, of which 254 square miles is land and 16 square miles is water. Kerr Lake and Kerr Lake State Recreation Area are located in Vance County. I-85 US 1 US 158 NC 39 From 1930 through 1970, the rural county population declined and growth slowed markedly as many blacks migrated to the North for better jobs and other opportunities in the Great Migration. Combined with other economic changes, this resulted in the county losing what had been its large African-American majority by the late 20th century. In the early 21st century, the white and black populations are nearly equal; as of the census of 2000, there were 42,954 people, 16,199 households, 11,647 families residing in the county. The population density was 169 people per square mile.
There were 18,196 housing units at an average density of 72 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 48.21% White, 48.31% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.39% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.03% from other races, 0.84% from two or more races. 4.56% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 16,199 households out of which 33.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.00% were married couples living together, 20.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.10% were non-families. 24.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.06. The county had the highest teen pregnancy rate in the state for the year 2005 as researched by the Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Coalition of North Carolina; the rate was 110.4 per 1000 teens above the state average of 61.7 per 1000 teens. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.10% under the age of 18, 8.90% from 18 to 24, 28.80% from 25 to 44, 22.60% from 45 to 64, 12.60% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 89.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,301, the median income for a family was $36,389. Males had a median income of $28,284 versus $21,433 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,897. About 16.30% of families and 20.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.70% of those under age 18 and 19.30% of those age 65 or over. Vance County is governed by a seven-member board of Commissioners. Vance County is a member of the Kerr-Tar Regional Council of Governments. Vance County Schools Henderson Collegiate Vance Charter School Kerr-Vance Academy Crossroads Christian School Victory Christian Academy Vance-Granville Community College Kittrell College - was a two-year black college located in Kittrell, North Carolina from about 1886 until 1975. Henderson (county s
North Carolina Supreme Court
The Supreme Court of the State of North Carolina is the state's highest appellate court. Until the creation of the North Carolina Court of Appeals in the 1960s, it was the state's only appellate court; the Supreme Court consists of six associate justices and one chief justice, although the number of justices has varied from time to time. The primary function of the Supreme Court is to decide questions of law that have arisen in the lower courts and before state administrative agencies; the first North Carolina appellate court, created in 1799, was called the Court of Conference and consisted of several Superior Court judges sitting en banc twice each year to review appeals from their own courts. In 1805 it was named the Supreme Court, a seal and motto were to be procured. From the time the North Carolina General Assembly created the Court as a distinct body in 1818 to 1868, the members of the Court were chosen by the General Assembly and served for life, or "during good behavior." The legislature appointed John Louis Taylor, Leonard Henderson, John Hall as the first Supreme Court judges.
The three judges were allowed to select their own Chief Justice, they chose Taylor. The Court first met on January 1, 1819. Since the adoption of the 1868 state constitution, each justice has been elected by the people to an eight-year term. There are no term limits; the General Assembly made Supreme Court elections non-partisan starting with the 2004 elections, but made them partisan again after the 2016 elections. Susie Sharp became the court's first female justice in 1962. In 2011, the court had a female majority for the first time; the Supreme Court is housed in the Law and Justice Building, located across from the North Carolina State Capitol in Raleigh, North Carolina. The building was built in 1940 and underwent major renovations in 2005–2007. In 1975 a new seal was adopted; the old Latin phrase Suum cuique was amended to Suum cuique tribuere. The Court's current members are: Note. Many Chief Justices have served as associate justices. John Louis Taylor Leonard Henderson Thomas Ruffin Frederick Nash Richmond Mumford Pearson William Nathan Harrell Smith Augustus Summerfield Merrimon James E. Shepherd William T. Faircloth David M. Furches Walter Clark William A. Hoke Walter P.
Stacy William A. Devin M. V. Barnhill J. Wallace Winborne Emery B. Denny R. Hunt Parker William H. Bobbitt Susie Sharp Joseph Branch Rhoda Billings James G. Exum Burley Mitchell Henry Frye I. Beverly Lake, Jr. Sarah Parker Mark Martin Cheri Beasley North Carolina Court of Appeals North Carolina Supreme Court official page History of the NC Supreme Court Video: Reflections on the History of the Supreme Court of North Carolina History of the Supreme Court by Chief Justice Walter Clark NC Supreme Court Historical Society NC Manual of 1913 by Robert Digges Wimberly Connor
French Broad River
The French Broad River flows 218 miles from near the town of Rosman in Transylvania County, North Carolina, into the state of Tennessee. Its confluence with the Holston River at Knoxville is the beginning of the Tennessee River; the river flows through the counties of Transylvania, Buncombe and Madison in North Carolina, Cocke, Jefferson and Knox in Tennessee, drains large portions of the Pisgah National Forest and the Cherokee National Forest. The headwaters of the French Broad River are near the town of Rosman in Transylvania County, North Carolina, just northwest of the Eastern Continental Divide near the northwest border of South Carolina, they spill from a 50-foot waterfall called Courthouse Falls at the terminus of Courthouse Creek near Balsam Grove. The waterfall feeds into a creek that becomes the North Fork, which joins the West Fork west of Rosman. South of Rosman, the stream is joined by the Middle Fork and East Fork to form the French Broad River. From there it flows northeast through the Appalachian Mountains into Henderson, Buncombe counties.
In Buncombe County, the river flows through the city of Asheville, where it receives the water of the Swannanoa River. Downstream of Asheville, the river proceeds north through Madison County, where it flows through its county seat, Marshall. After passing through the mountain resort of Hot Springs in the Bald Mountains, the river enters Cocke County, Tennessee. In Cocke County, the river passes through the community of Del Rio, receives the waters of both the Pigeon River and the Nolichucky River northwest of Cocke's county seat, Newport; the river enters the slack waters of Douglas Lake, created by the Tennessee Valley Authority's Douglas Dam in Sevier County 32 miles upstream from the river's mouth. Near Sevierville, at Kodak, the French Broad River receives the flow of the Little Pigeon River, which drains much of the Tennessee section of the Great Smoky Mountains. After flowing through a wide gap in Bays Mountain, it enters Knox County, it joins the Holston River to form the Tennessee at a place known as "Forks of the River" at the eastern edge of Knoxville.
North Fork West Fork East Fork Middle Fork Pigeon River Nolichucky River Mills River Davidson River Swannanoa River Little River The French Broad River is believed to be one of the oldest in the world based on dating of rocks. Jeff Wilcox of UNC-Asheville described it as "a meandering river, which form in flat landscapes." He said this meant the river predated the Appalachian Mountains and was lifted up as the mountains formed eroding the rocks it passed through. The French Broad River was named by European settlers centuries ago because it was one of the two broad rivers in western North Carolina; the one which flowed into land claimed by France at that time was named the "French Broad River", whereas the other, which stayed in land claimed by England – the Colony of North Carolina – was named the "English Broad River".. The Indigenous Americans of this area, the Cherokee Indians, called it different names: Poelico, Agiqua in the mountains, Tahkeeosteh from Asheville down and Zillicoah above Asheville.
The French called borrowing one of the Cherokee names. Douglas Dam, built on the lower French Broad by the Tennessee Valley Authority during the 1940s, is one of the larger TVA developments on a tributary of the Tennessee River. In 1987, the North Carolina General Assembly established the French Broad River State Trail as a blueway which follows the river for 67 miles; the paddle trail is a part of North Carolina State Trails Program, a section of the NC Division of Parks and Recreation. A system of launch point locations was created along the river for the trail; the portion of the French Broad River in Tennessee was designated a state scenic river by the Tennessee Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. 33 miles of the river in Cocke County, starting at the North Carolina border and extending downstream to the place where it flows into Douglas Lake, are designated as a Class III, Partially Developed River. The following is a partial list of crossings of the French Broad from Brevard to the confluence with the Tennessee River.
Transylvania and Henderson counties Patton Bridge Crab Creek Road Blantyre Road Etowah School Road in Etowah McLean Bridge in Etowah Johnson Bridge Fannings Bridge Butler Bridge Kings Bridge Boylston Highway at the Asheville Regional Airport Buncombe County/Asheville Glenn Bridge Long Shoals Road in Skyland Blue Ridge Parkway Interstate 26 Interstate 40 at the Biltmore Estate Carrier Bridge in Asheville Haywood Road in Asheville Smith Bridge in Asheville Bowen Bridge Douglas Lake to Knoxville Interstate 40 and Swann Bridge over Douglas Lake James D. Hoskins Bridge in Dandridge Douglas Dam Road TN 66 at Sevierville Several golf cart path bridges over the Cain Islands Doctor JH Gammondale Bridg
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol