London Borough of Barnet
Barnet is a suburban London borough in North London, England. It forms part of Outer London and is the largest London borough by population with 384,774 inhabitants and covers an area of 86.74 square kilometres, the fourth highest. It borders Hertfordshire to the north and five other London boroughs: Harrow and Brent to the west and Haringey to the southeast and Enfield to the east; the borough was formed in 1965 from parts of the counties of Hertfordshire. The local authority is Barnet London Borough Council, based in Hendon; the borough was formed under the London Government Act 1963 in 1965 from the Municipal Borough of Finchley, Municipal Borough of Hendon and the Friern Barnet Urban District of Middlesex and the East Barnet Urban District and Barnet Urban District of Hertfordshire. The Act did not include a name for the new borough. A joint committee of the councils due to be amalgamated suggested "Northgate" or "Northern Heights". Keith Joseph, the Minister of Housing and Local Government chose Barnet.
The place name Barnet is derived from the Old English bærnet meaning "Land cleared by burning". The area covered by the modern borough has a long history. Evidence of 1st-century Roman pottery manufacturing has been found at Brockley Hill and Roman coins from the 3rd and 4th centuries were found at Burnt Oak. Both sites are on the Roman road Watling Street from London and St Albans which now forms the western border of the borough. Hendon is mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086, but the districts of Barnet and Finchley were not referred to because these areas were included in other manors. In 1471 the Battle of Barnet was fought in Monken Hadley, just within the present borough's boundary, it was here that Yorkist troops led by King Edward IV killed the "Kingmaker" Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick and his brother, John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu. Individual articles describe the history and development of the districts of Church End, East Finchley, Golders Green and North Finchley; the residents of London Borough of Barnet are represented at Westminster by Members of Parliament for three parliamentary constituencies.
All three MPs are Conservative. Chipping Barnet is represented by Theresa Villiers. Finchley and Golders Green is represented by Mike Freer. Hendon, in 2010 the most marginal Conservative-held seat in London with a majority of 106 votes, is represented by Matthew Offord; the borough is divided into each with 3 councillors. Following the local government election on 4 May 2006 the Conservative party gained a working majority and full control of the council. Mike Freer became leader of the council on 11 May 2006, replacing Brian Salinger as Conservative group leader, having been Salinger's deputy. Barnet had £27.4 million invested in Icelandic banks Glitnir and Landsbanki when they collapsed October 2008. A report showed; the Conservatives retained control at the 2014 local elections, after which the political composition of the council was: Conservative: 32 Labour: 30 Liberal Democrat: 1 Barnet Council along with the 31 other London boroughs and the City of London Corporation share local government powers with Greater London Authority.
The area covered by London Borough of Barnet and the London Borough of Camden is jointly represented in the London Assembly by Andrew Dismore, a Labour politician, the Member of Parliament for Hendon until 2010. Campaigning on parking, he beat Conservative politician Brian Coleman at the 2012 London Assembly election overturning a 20,000 vote deficit and turning this into a 21,000 vote majority. In 2009, the authority started to introduce a new model of local government delivery in the borough, called'Future Shape', after commissioning a six-month external study; the first stages of'Future Shape' were agreed by the council's cabinet in July 2009. The public-sector union UNISON commissioned its own report on the issues involved in'Future Shape'; the scheme has been dubbed easyCouncil because of its similarity to EasyJet's business model. It is referred to as the commissioning council; the borough covers a group of hills on the northern edge of the London Basin. The bedrock is chalk, covered with clay.
Some of the hills are formed from glacial till deposited at the farthest extent of glaciers during the Anglian glaciation. The pattern of settlement is somewhat diverse. In the north of the borough on the eastern side is Barnet known as High Barnet or Chipping Barnet and Whetstone. In the north on the western side is Edgware and Mill Hill; the central northern part of the borough is countryside. This division is because the eastern side grew around what is now the High Barnet Underground branch of the Northern line; the western side grew around the Midland Railway and what is now the Edgware branch of the Northern line. The north is affluent and rural, although it does include Edgware, a major town. Further south, around the borough's centre, the development becomes more intensive around the suburbs of Cricklewood, Colindale and Finchley. Golders Green is renowned for its Jewish minority ethnic population and forms part of the south of the borough, along with Hampstead Garden Suburb and Childs Hill, which are a mix of being affluent like the north, urban like the central areas.
The A5 forms the border between Barnet and the boroughs of Brent and Harrow, with an exception being the West Hendon area and part of the Welsh Harp. There are 15 council run libraries in the London Borough of Barnet, mobile library and home library services, a local studies an
London Buses is the subsidiary of Transport for London that manages bus services within Greater London. It was formed following the Greater London Authority Act 1999 that transferred control of bus services in Greater London and its surrounding areas from the UK Government's London Regional Transport to TfL, controlled by the locally elected Mayor of London. Transport for London's key areas of direct responsibility through London Buses are the following: planning new bus routes revising existing bus routes specifying service levels monitoring service quality management of bus stations and bus stops assistance in'on ground' set up of diversions, bus driver assistance in situations over and above job requirements, for example Road Accidents providing information for passengers in the form of timetables and maps at bus stops and online, an online route planning service producing leaflet maps, available from Travel Information Centres, libraries etc. and as online downloads. Operating CentreComm London Buses' 24‑hour command-and-control centre based in Southwark All bus operations are undertaken under a tendering system in which operators bid for routes in return for a set price per route operated.
Contracts are for five years, with two-year extensions available if performance criteria is met. Routes are set up, controlled and tendered out by Transport for London and they provide day to day assistance via CentreComm which coordinates a large scale network of Network Traffic Controllers to help with any traffic issues that may occur. Operators provide staff to drive the buses, provide the buses to operate and adhere to set TfL guidelines. Operators are in return paid per mile that each bus runs, the pricing is announced on new tenders. London Buses publishes a variety of bus maps; some are traditional street maps of London marked with bus numbers. In 2002, TfL introduced the first "spider" maps. Rather than attempting to cover the entire city, these maps are centred on a particular locality or bus station, convey the route information in the schematic style of Harry Beck's influential Tube map, capitalising on TfL's iconic style of information design; the arachnoid form of bus routes radiating from a centre earned them the nickname "spider" maps, although TfL refer to them on their website as route maps.
The maps are displayed at most major bus stops, can be downloaded in PDF format via the Internet from the TfL website. The legal identity of London Buses is London Bus Services Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Transport for London. East Thames Buses was the trading name of another wholly owned subsidiary of TfL called, rather confusingly, London Buses Limited. LBL was formed on 1 April 1985 as part of the privatisation of London bus services, acted as an arm's-length subsidiary of TfL's precursor organisation, London Regional Transport, holding twelve bus operating units and other assets; the operating units were sold off in 1994/95, their purchasers make up the majority of companies awarded bus operating tenders from the current London Buses. After 1994/95, the LBL company lay dormant, passing from LRT to TfL, it was resurrected when East Thames Buses was formed, separated by a chinese wall from LBSL, acted as a London bus operator by proxy. The local bus network in London is one of the most comprehensive in the world.
Over 8000 scheduled buses operate on over 700 different routes. Over the year this network carries over 1.8 billion passenger journeys. Buses in the London Buses network accept Travelcards, Oyster card products and contactless debit and credit cards. Cash fares have not been available since 6 July 2014, but Day Bus passes were re-introduced on 2 January 2015. Single journey fares used to be charged in relation to length of journey, but are now charged as single flat fares for any length of journey. From 2000, the flat fare was higher for journeys in Zone 1 than in outer zones, although from 2004 this difference was eliminated, the change coinciding with the introduction of Oyster card flat fares. With Oyster pay as you go, users are charged a set amount for single journeys, although there is a "daily cap", which limits the maximum amount of money that will be deducted from the balance, regardless of how many buses are taken that day. Alternatively and monthly passes may be purchased and loaded onto an Oyster card.
Passengers using contactless payment cards are charged the same fares as on Oyster pay. Unlike Oyster cards, contactless cards have a 7-day fare cap though it only operates on a Monday-Sunday basis. Under 11s can travel free on London buses and trams at any time unaccompanied by an adult. Children aged 11 to 15 travel free on buses with an 11–15 Oyster photocard. Visitors can have a special discount added to an ordinary Oyster card at TfL's Travel Information Centres. There are concessions for London residents aged 16 to 18; the Freedom Pass scheme allows Greater London residents over state pension age, those with a disability, to travel free at any time on buses and TfL's rail services. People who have concessionary bus passes issued by English local authorities travel free on TfL bus services at any time. Bus services in London are operated by Abellio London, Arriva London, CT Plus, Go-Ahead London, London Sovereign, London United, Quality Line, Stagecoach London, Sullivan Buses, Tower Transit and Uno.
Each company has its own operating code, every bus garage in London has its own garage
Woodside Park tube station
Woodside Park is a London Underground station in Woodside Park, north London. The station is on the High Barnet branch of the Northern line, between West Finchley and Totteridge and Whetstone stations, in Travelcard Zone 4. Woodside Park is the last station in an alphabetical list of London Underground stations. Woodside Park station was planned by the Edgware and London Railway and was opened as Torrington Park on 1 April 1872 by the Great Northern Railway; the station was on a branch of a line. The station was renamed within a month of opening, again in 1882. After the 1921 Railways Act created the Big Four railway companies the line was, from 1923, part of the London & North Eastern Railway; the section of the High Barnet branch north of East Finchley was incorporated into the London Underground network through the "Northern Heights" project begun in the late 1930s. The station was first served by Northern line trains on 14 April 1940 and, after a period where the station was serviced by both operators, LNER services ended in 1941.
The station still retains much of its original Victorian architectural character today. British Rail freight trains continued to serve the station's goods yard until 1 October 1962, when it was closed; the Provisional IRA exploded a bomb at the station's car park on 10 December 1992, during the afternoon rush hour. Commuters and residents were evacuated; the station is close to the Inglis Barracks, where a British soldier was killed by an IRA bombing in 1988. London Buses route 383 serves the station; the station has a large adjacent area for storing coal and now used as a car park. Until about 2000, there was a second car park. A block of flats has now been built on this area; the station is above ground. Both platforms are accessible from the street by wheelchair; the main entrance, with ticket office, is at the end of a cul-de-sac, adjacent to the car park entrance. This leads on to the southbound platform. A Victorian post box is set into the front wall of the station; the entrance leading on to the northbound platform is at the end of the cul-de-sac, a turning off Holden Road.
The station is unique in the district. There are no retail stores around it; this is due to residential pressures against commercial activity in the area. Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt and stopping place and present. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Railway Atlas of Great Britain and Ireland: From Pre-Grouping to the Present Day. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-086-0. OCLC 22311137. Rose, Douglas; the London Underground, A Diagrammatic History. Capital Transport Publishing. ISBN 1-8541-4219-4. OCLC 59556887. London Transport Museum Photographic Archive Station in 1937 during LNER period prior to London Transport's take over Station in 1944 showing LNER and London Underground signs
The London Underground is a public rapid transit system serving London and some parts of the adjacent counties of Buckinghamshire and Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom. The Underground has its origins in the Metropolitan Railway, the world's first underground passenger railway. Opened in January 1863, it is now part of the Metropolitan lines; the network has expanded to 11 lines, in 2017/18 carried 1.357 billion passengers, making it the world's 11th busiest metro system. The 11 lines collectively handle up to 5 million passengers a day; the system's first tunnels were built just below the surface. The system has 250 miles of track. Despite its name, only 45% of the system is underground in tunnels, with much of the network in the outer environs of London being on the surface. In addition, the Underground does not cover most southern parts of Greater London, with fewer than 10% of the stations located south of the River Thames; the early tube lines owned by several private companies, were brought together under the "UndergrounD" brand in the early 20th century and merged along with the sub-surface lines and bus services in 1933 to form London Transport under the control of the London Passenger Transport Board.
The current operator, London Underground Limited, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Transport for London, the statutory corporation responsible for the transport network in Greater London. As of 2015, 92% of operational expenditure is covered by passenger fares; the Travelcard ticket was introduced in 1983 and Oyster, a contactless ticketing system, in 2003. Contactless card payments were introduced in 2014, the first public transport system in the world to do so; the LPTB was a prominent patron of art and design, commissioning many new station buildings and public artworks in a modernist style. The schematic Tube map, designed by Harry Beck in 1931, was voted a national design icon in 2006 and now includes other TfL transport systems such as the Docklands Light Railway, London Overground and Tramlink. Other famous London Underground branding includes the roundel and Johnston typeface, created by Edward Johnston in 1916; the idea of an underground railway linking the City of London with the urban centre was proposed in the 1830s, the Metropolitan Railway was granted permission to build such a line in 1854.
To prepare construction, a short test tunnel was built in 1855 in Kibblesworth, a small town with geological properties similar to London. This test tunnel was used for two years in the development of the first underground train, was in 1861, filled up; the world's first underground railway, it opened in January 1863 between Paddington and Farringdon using gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives. It was hailed as a success, carrying 38,000 passengers on the opening day, borrowing trains from other railways to supplement the service; the Metropolitan District Railway opened in December 1868 from South Kensington to Westminster as part of a plan for an underground "inner circle" connecting London's main-line stations. The Metropolitan and District railways completed the Circle line in 1884, built using the cut and cover method. Both railways expanded, the District building five branches to the west reaching Ealing, Uxbridge and Wimbledon and the Metropolitan extended as far as Verney Junction in Buckinghamshire, more than 50 miles from Baker Street and the centre of London.
For the first deep-level tube line, the City and South London Railway, two 10 feet 2 inches diameter circular tunnels were dug between King William Street and Stockwell, under the roads to avoid the need for agreement with owners of property on the surface. This opened in 1890 with electric locomotives that hauled carriages with small opaque windows, nicknamed padded cells; the Waterloo and City Railway opened in 1898, followed by the Central London Railway in 1900, known as the "twopenny tube". These two ran electric trains in circular tunnels having diameters between 11 feet 8 inches and 12 feet 2.5 inches, whereas the Great Northern and City Railway, which opened in 1904, was built to take main line trains from Finsbury Park to a Moorgate terminus in the City and had 16-foot diameter tunnels. While steam locomotives were in use on the Underground there were contrasting health reports. There were many instances of passengers collapsing whilst travelling, due to heat and pollution, leading for calls to clean the air through the installation of garden plants.
The Metropolitan encouraged beards for staff to act as an air filter. There were other reports claiming beneficial outcomes of using the Underground, including the designation of Great Portland Street as a "sanatorium for asthma and bronchial complaints", tonsillitis could be cured with acid gas and the Twopenny Tube cured anorexia. With the advent of electric Tube services, the Volks Electric Railway, in Brighton, competition from electric trams, the pioneering Underground companies needed modernising. In the early 20th century, the District and Metropolitan railways needed to electrify and a joint committee recommended an AC system, the two companies
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
London Buses route 83
London Buses route 83 is a Transport for London contracted bus route in London, England. Running between Golders Green and Alperton stations, it is operated by Metroline. Twenty new Northern Counties Palatine bodied Volvo Olympians bought by First London for the route in 1999, were among the last non-low-floor buses bought for use in London; the Sunday daytime service was increased to every 10 minutes, with the daily evening service increased to every 12 minutes in May 2009. On 12th September 2009 First Centrewest were awarded the contract again for another 5 years. On 22 June 2013, route 83 was included in the sale of First London's Alperton garage to Metroline. In 2015/16 route 83 was the sixth-busiest TfL bus route with 12.6 million passengers. From 10 September 2016, the daytime service was withdrawn between Alperton Station and Ealing Hospital and replaced by route 483; the night service continues to run from Golders Green to Ealing Hospital. Route 83 operates via these primary locations: Golders Green station bus station Hendon The Bell Hendon Central station Hendon Station West Hendon Broadway Kingsbury Green Wembley Park station Wembley Stadium station Wembley Central station Alperton station Media related to London Buses route 83 at Wikimedia Commons Timetable
Hendon is a London urban area in the Borough of Barnet, 7 miles northwest of Charing Cross. Hendon was an ancient parish in the county of Middlesex and has been part of Greater London since 1965. Hendon had a population of 52,972 in 2011 which includes the West Hendon and Colindale wards that are separated from Hendon by the NW9 postcode area Hendon was a civil parish in the county of Middlesex; the manor is described in Domesday, but the name'Hendun' – meaning'at the highest hill' – is of earlier origin. Evidence of Roman settlement was discovered by members of the Hendon and District Archaeological Society and others; the Midland Railway and the Great Northern Railways were built through Hendon in the 1860s. The underground arrived at Golders Green to the south in 1907, the line being extended to Hendon Central and Edgware in 1923/24. Much of the area developed into a suburb of London and now the area is built-up with some countryside in the Mill Hill area, such as the Copthall Playing fields.
Hendon's industry was centred on manufacturing, included motor and aviation works, developed from the 1880s. In 1931 the civil parish of Edgware was abolished and its area was added to the great civil parish of Hendon. Hendon became an urban district in 1894. In 1932 the urban district became the Municipal Borough of Hendon; the municipal borough was abolished in 1965 and the area became part of the London Borough of Barnet. Hendon's main claim to fame is in the early days of flying and Hendon Aerodrome is now the RAF Museum; the area is associated with pioneer aviator Claude Grahame-White. Another part of the Aerodrome site is the Hendon Police College, the training centre for the Metropolitan Police; the Metropolitan Police Book of Remembrance is displayed in the entrance of Simpson Hall at the centre. There is a memorial garden, it is ancient parish. The name means the high place or down, Hendon's motto is Endeavour; the Burroughs is a civic centre for the London Borough of Barnet, the site of Middlesex University Business School.
The River Brent runs through Hendon. On 30 November 2009 the Environment Agency warned residents of flooding along River Brent from Hendon to Brentford, after a day of notably heavy rain. Several premises were temporarily flooded in Perivale. Hendon and District Archaeological Society has found a number of interesting Roman artifacts at Church End but nothing conclusive, the Saxon settlement near to St Mary's Church may not be a continuation of its Roman predecessor; the Domesday Survey mentions a priest, a church building was documented in 1157. The oldest fabric of the present church is 13th century; the 50 ft tower was much restored in the 18th century when the weathercock in the form of a "Lamb and Flag", the badge of St John, was added. However, the church is dedicated to an enigma that defies local historians to this day, it may be a sign of the cult of Mary Magdalene said to have been promoted by the Templars and their successors. Eastern extensions carried out between 1913–15 to designs by architect Temple Moore have expanded the church.
Sir Stamford Raffles, founder of Singapore in 1819, is buried in the church. Another grave of distinction in the churchyard is that of football manager Herbert Chapman who had great success in charge of Northampton Town, Leeds City, Huddersfield Town and Arsenal before his sudden death from pneumonia in 1934. Bram Stoker may well have had St Mary's graveyard in mind when he created the fictional "Kingstead", the uneasy resting place of Lucy Westenra, in his book Dracula. However, St Mary's graveyard is the resting place of a more benign spirit, Coventry Patmore's wife Emily, the model for the poem The Angel in the House, upon whom the Victorian ideal of domesticity "the Angel of the Hearth" is based. Adjacent to the church at the top of Greyhound Hill is the Greyhound pub, rebuilt in 1898. Called the Church House, it was used for vestry meetings from the 1600s to 1878. In 1676 the inn, by known as the Greyhound, burned down in a fire. In 1855 a fire brigade was established, renamed the Hendon volunteer fire brigade in 1866, a manual fire engine was kept in a building near the church.
Further west, adjacent to the Greyhound pub, is the oldest building in Hendon, a seventeenth-century farmhouse which became the former Church Farmhouse Museum, now part of the campus of nearby Middlesex University. The Claddagh Ring pub known as The Midland Arms, in Church Road, Hendon, is somewhat more than nine miles from Athenry; the sign is genuinely Irish, giving pleasure to a significant Irish community in this area. Another pub, the Midland Hotel, close to Hendon station, was opened in 1890 by The Midland Railway Company to provide liquid refreshment for commuters using the Midland Railway. At the time when both of these pubs were open The Midland Arms was known as The Upper Midland and The Midland Hotel was known as The Lower Midland; the Irish connection with Hendon goes back at least to the early 19th century when many of that country came here to make the hay, for which Hendon was famous. The Burroughs was a distinct hamlet until the 1890s, known from 1316 until the 19th century as'the burrows', which no doubt referred to the keeping of rabbit warrens.
After the UK outbreak of myxomatosis in the 1950s, rabbits were smoked out of the area using steam engines. During the 18th century, some of the immediate estate surrounding Hendon Place was auctioned off for large houses, with much of the land being used for building other mansions. Of these, Hendon Hall (now a hot