Marcus Vitruvius Pollio known as Vitruvius, was a Roman author, civil engineer and military engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled De architectura. His discussion of perfect proportion in architecture and the human body led to the famous Renaissance drawing by Leonardo da Vinci of Vitruvian Man. By his own description Vitruvius served as an artilleryman, the third class of arms in the military offices, he served as a senior officer of artillery in charge of doctores ballistarum and libratores who operated the machines. Little is known about Vitruvius' life. Most inferences about him are extracted from his only surviving work De Architectura, his first name Marcus and his cognomen Pollio are uncertain. Marcus Cetius Faventinus writes of "Vitruvius Polio aliique auctores". An inscription in Verona, which names a Lucius Vitruvius Cordo, an inscription from Thilbilis in North Africa, which names a Marcus Vitruvius Mamurra have been suggested as evidence that Vitruvius and Mamurra were from the same family.
Neither association, however, is borne out by De Architectura, nor by the little, known of Mamurra. Vitruvius was a military engineer, or a praefect architectus armamentarius of the apparitor status group, he is mentioned in Pliny the Elder's table of contents for Naturalis Historia, in the heading for mosaic techniques. Frontinus refers to "Vitruvius the architect" in his late 1st-century work De aquaeductu. Born a free Roman citizen, by his own account, Vitruvius served in the Roman army under Caesar with the otherwise poorly identified Marcus Aurelius, Publius Minidius, Gnaeus Cornelius; these names vary depending on the edition of De architectura. Publius Minidius is written as Publius Numidicus and Publius Numidius, speculated as the same Publius Numisius inscribed on the Roman Theatre at Heraclea; as an army engineer he specialized in the construction of ballista and scorpio artillery war machines for sieges. It is speculated; the locations where he served can be reconstructed from, for example, descriptions of the building methods of various "foreign tribes".
Although he describes places throughout De Architectura, he does not say. His service included north Africa, Hispania and Pontus. To place the role of Vitruvius the military engineer in context, a description of "The Prefect of the camp" or army engineer is quoted here as given by Flavius Vegetius Renatus in The Military Institutions of the Romans: The Prefect of the camp, though inferior in rank to the, had a post of no small importance; the position of the camp, the direction of the entrenchments, the inspection of the tents or huts of the soldiers and the baggage were comprehended in his province. His authority extended over the sick, the physicians who had the care of them, he had the charge of providing carriages and the proper tools for sawing and cutting wood, digging trenches, raising parapets, sinking wells and bringing water into the camp. He had the care of furnishing the troops with wood and straw, as well as the rams, onagri and all the other engines of war under his direction; this post was always conferred on an officer of great skill and long service, and, capable of instructing others in those branches of the profession in which he had distinguished himself.
At various locations described by Vitruvius and sieges occurred. He is the only source for the siege of Larignum in 56 BC. Of the battlegrounds of the Gallic War there are references to: the siege and massacre of the 40,000 residents at Avaricum in 52 BC; the broken siege at Gergovia in 52 BC. The circumvallation and Battle of Alesia in 52 BC, and the siege of Uxellodunum in 51 BC. These are all sieges of large Gallic oppida. Of the sites involved in Caesar's civil war, we find the Siege of Massilia in 49 BC, the Battle of Dyrrhachium of 48 BC, the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, the Battle of Zela of 47 BC and the Battle of Thapsus in 46 BC in Caesar's African campaign. A legion that fits the same sequence of locations is the Legio VI Ferrata, of which ballista would be an auxiliary unit. Known for his writings, Vitruvius was himself an architect. In Roman times architecture was a broader subject than at present including the modern fields of architecture, construction management, construction engineering, chemical engineering, civil engineering, materials engineering, mechanical engineering, military engineering and urban planning.
Frontinus mentions him in connection with the standard sizes of pipes. He is credited as father of architectural acoustics for describing the technique of echeas placement in theaters; the only building, that we know Vitruvius to have worked on is one he tells us about, a basi
The Munttoren or Munt is a tower in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. It stands on the busy Muntplein square, where the Amstel river and the Singel canal meet, near the flower market and the eastern end of the Kalverstraat shopping street; the tower was part of the Regulierspoort, one of the main gates in Amsterdam's medieval city wall. The gate, built in the years 1480, consisted of a guard house. After the gate went up in flames in a 1618 fire, only the guard house and part of the western tower remained standing; the tower was rebuilt in Amsterdam Renaissance style in 1620, with an eight-sided top half and elegant open spire designed by Hendrick de Keyser, featuring a clockwork with four clockfaces and a carillon of bells. The name of the tower refers to the fact that the guard house on side of it was used to mint coins in the 17th Century. In the Rampjaar of 1672, when both England and France declared war on the Dutch Republic and French troops occupied much of the country and gold could no longer be safely transported to Dordrecht and Enkhuizen, so the guard house of the Munttoren was temporarily used to mint coin.
The present guard house is not the original medieval structure but a 19th-century fantasy. The original guard house, which had survived the fire of 1618 unscathed, was replaced with a new building during 1885-1887 in Neo-Renaissance style; the architect was Willem Springer An underpass between the tower and the building was made during the 1938-1939 renovation. The Munttoren received new extra foundations to prevent it from sagging during construction of the Noord/Zuidlijn, the new metro line; the city has allocated 1.9 million euros for this purpose, according to a May 17, 2006 report in the newspaper Het Parool. The carillon was made in 1668 by Pieter Hemony, who added new bells to the instrument that he and his brother François had made earlier for the tower of the Amsterdam stock exchange in 1651, he made a bronze drum for automatic music to announce the strike of the hour and half hour bell. It chimes on the quarter with a short melody; the old drum is still in function. In 1873, the original baton keyboard was removed from the carillon, in favor of changes to the clockwork mechanism.
Since that year the Munt clock had a minute arm. In 1960 when the carillon was restored by Petit & Fritsen from Aarle Rixtel, a baton keyboard as a manual playing system was re-installed; some of the original smaller Hemony bells have been damaged over the years by pollution from the traffic round the tower and have been replaced by new bells in 1959 and 1993. The original smaller Hemony bells are now on display in the Amsterdam museum; the current carillon consists of 38 bells. Only 13 original Hemony bells remained. A mechanism causes the bells to chime every quarter of an hour. Twice a year the pins on the drum are changed by the city carilloneur. Weekly on Saturdays, between 2 and 3 p.m. Gideon Bodden, the Amsterdam city carillonneur gives a live concert on the bells. Just after the renovation around 1961, cinema organist played weekly on the Munt bells and made a recording of the bells together with the City Theater orchestra directed by Lex van Weren; this EP, titled It's in the air, was released by Phillips Records.
Scale models of the tower are exhibited at Mini-Europe in Brussels. Ian F. Finlay. "The Carillons of Amsterdam". Galpin Society Journal. 6
The Heiligeweg is the street in Amsterdam that used to lead from the Kapel ter Heilige Stede to the Kalverstraat. Increasing numbers of pilgrims to this shrine made necessary a new street leading from Sloten to the shrine, this new street became known as the Holy Way. Between the Kalverstraat and the Singel may be seen part of the Holy Way in its original medieval form, for constructions built during medieval city expansion may be found here, outside the Holy Way Gate); the way continued along the line of the present Leidsestraat, further, via the Heiligewegse Vaart. From the Overtoom via the Schinkel the Heiligeweg went on via the Sloterkade and Sloterstraatweg to Sloten; the sections between Sloten and Haarlem has been eaten up by the Haarlemmermeer. Much of the route between Sloten and the Overtoomse Sluis is still present. A large part has vanished due to the construction of a business park. Up to around 1500 this was one of the most important overland routes between Amsterdam and Kennemerland and, from there, with the rest of Holland.
In 1904 electric tram number 1 replaced the horse-drawn tram from Leidscheplein – Amstelveenscheweg that had run since 1877. Today the Holy Street is a shopping street connecting the two popular shopping streets Kalverstraat and Leidsestraat to each other. Halfway along the Heiligeweg may be found the Voetboogstraat with its 1603 Rasphuispoortje
The Singel is a canal in Amsterdam which encircled the city in the Middle Ages. It served as a moat around the city until 1585; the canal runs from the IJ bay, near the Central Station, to the Muntplein square, where it meets the Amstel river. It is now the inner-most canal in Amsterdam's semicircular ring of canals; the canal should not be confused with the Singelgracht, which became the outer limit of the city during the Dutch Golden Age in the 17th Century. Other Dutch towns have ring-shaped canals named Singel; the name is related to the Dutch word omsingelen, "to surround", comes from Latin cingulum, meaning "belt". Amsterdam's famous flower market, Bloemenmarkt, is located along the Singel between Koningsplein and Muntplein squares; the market stalls are boats floating in the canal. Part of the Singel has developed into a red-light district, with prostitutes offering their services from behind red-lit windows; the area, known as the Singelgebied, is located near Oude Nieuwstraat. Yab Yum, one of Amsterdam's most exclusive brothels until closed by the local authority in January 2008, was located at Singel 295.
The Singel is lined by many beautiful, richly decorated canal houses built during the Dutch Golden Age. Notable buildings along the canal include: A house said to be the narrowest in the world — only one meter wide, at Singel 7. De Dolphijn, at Singel 140-142, a monumental canalside house built in ca. 1600, once inhabited by Frans Banning Cocq, the central figure in Rembrandt's painting The Night Watch. The Oude Lutherse Kerk, at Singel 411, built in 1632-1633; the Ronde Lutherse Kerk known as Koepelkerk or Nieuwe Lutherse Kerk, built in 1668-1671. The library of the University of Amsterdam, at Singel 425; the Kalvertoren shopping center, between Koningsplein and Muntplein squares. The Munttoren tower part of a gate in the Medieval city walls, on Muntplein square, where the Singel meets the Amstel River; the Haringpakkerstoren tower was part of Amsterdam's Medieval city defenses. The tower stood at the beginning of the Singel, near the IJ, it was demolished in 1829. The municipal government is considering a plan to rebuild the tower and adjacent houses.
However, this plan remains controversial. The Torensluis, built in 1648, is an exceptionally wide bridge across the Singel. Now covered by cosy café terraces and a bust of Dutch writer Multatuli, the Torensluis is the oldest remaining bridge in Amsterdam, the widest bridge in Amsterdam; the Jan Roodepoortstoren tower stood on one end of the bridge but was torn down in 1829. However, the tower's foundations remain part of the bridge; the entrance and barred windows of the tower's dungeon are still visible. The bridge known as Brug 9, crosses the Singel near Dam square, at Oude Leliestraat. Up until the 15th century, the Singel was known as the Stedegracht. In the 17th century the canal was known for some time as Koningsgracht, in honor of King Henry IV of France, an important ally of the Dutch Republic during the early part of the 17th century. Part of the canal, stretching from Spui square to Lijnbaanssteeg / Blauwburgwal, was known at one time as Londense Kaai or Engelse Kaai because many ships sailing between Amsterdam and London moored there.
Binnenvestgracht, a related canal system in Leiden Wikipedia.nl: Singel Amsterdam.nl Vrienden van de Amsterdamse Binnenstad: Torensluis Monumenten.nl: Haringpakkerstoren Amsterdam Monumenten: Ronde Lutherse Kerk
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Thomas de Keyser
Thomas de Keyser was a Dutch painter and architect. He excelled as a portrait painter, was the most in-demand portrait painter in the Netherlands until the 1630s, when Rembrandt eclipsed him in popularity. Rembrandt was influenced by his work, many of de Keyser's paintings were falsely attributed to Rembrandt; the Stedelijk Museum modern art museum in Amsterdam carries a statue of de Keyser on its facade. A street in Enschede is named for him. A contemporary namesake of the painter was Thomas de Keyser, an actor and nephew of Hendrick de Keyser, his portraiture is full of character and masterly in handling, distinguished by a rich golden glow of color and Rembrandtesque chiaroscuro. Some of his portraits are life-size, but the artist preferred to keep them on a smaller scale, like the famous Four Amsterdam burgomasters assembled to receive Marie de Medici in 1638, now on display at the Mauritshuis museum in The Hague. In addition to portraits, he executed some historical and mythological pictures, such as the Theseus and Ariadne in the Amsterdam town hall, now the Royal Palace.
De Keyser worked as an architect. From 1662 until his death in 1667 he oversaw construction of the new Amsterdam town hall, now Royal Palace; the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam has the largest collection of paintings by de Keyser. His work can be seen at the Louvre in Paris, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, the Hermitage in Saint Petersburg and the National Gallery in London, among others. De Keyser was died in Amsterdam, he was a son of sculptor Hendrik de Keyser. We have no definite knowledge of his training, but scant information as to the course of his life. According to the Netherlands Institute for Art History, he was a pupil of Cornelis van der Voort; the painters Aert Pietersz, Werner van den Valckert and Nicolaes Eliaszoon Pickenoy have been accredited by different authorities with having developed his talent, sometimes his works have been confused with these painters, who painted portraits in similar styles. The landscape painter Jacob Isaakszoon van Ruisdael painted a landscape as a background to one of his group portraits.
In the 1640s, de Keyser received few painting commissions, was forced to seek income elsewhere. He owned a basalt business from 1640 until 1654. Balthasar van der Ast Jan Gerritsz van Bronckhorst David Bailly This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "De Keyser, Thomas". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7. Cambridge University Press. P. 938. Works and literature on Thomas de Keyser Artcyclopedia list of museums with works by Thomas de Keyser Works at WGA