Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Florida's 25th congressional district
Florida's 25th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Florida. The district stretches from suburbs west of Miami west along the northern border of The Everglades along Alligator Alley to communities east of Naples and Marco Island; the district has a large Cuban American population, making up 44.3% of the population, the most of any district in the country The prior 25th district, from 2003 through 2012, stretched across a great swath of the Everglades and included parts of Collier, Miami-Dade, Hendry counties. It took in the Miami-Dade municipalities of Homestead, Leisure City, Cutler Bay. Much of this area is now the 26th District, while the current 25th is a reconfiguration of what had been the 21st District from 1993 to 2013; the district is represented by Republican Mario Diaz-Balart. NOTE: Rory Arrojo ran as a candidate on the Tea Party platform on the ballot. NOTE: Craig Porter ran as a candidate on the Florida Whig Party platform on the ballot; as of January 2017, there is one former member of the U.
S. House of Representatives from Florida's 25th congressional district, living at this time. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Rep. David Rivera's Official House of Representatives Website
Francis A. Hendry
Francis Asbury Hendry was a Florida cattle rancher and officer in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. Asbury was born near a son of James Edward Hendry and Lydia Carlton, he was known by the nickname "Berry." In 1851, his father took the family to Hillsborough County, settling on the Alafia River about twenty-two miles east of Tampa. His father returned to Georgia to settle his affairs, died on January 3, 1852. Nineteen-year-old Berry, his mother, his siblings decided to remain in Florida. On March 25, 1852, Berry married a native of Bulloch County, Georgia. Soon thereafter, they moved to Fort Meade, where they started a cattle ranch, they marked their cattle with a split in one ear and an upper square in the other. They branded them with a large "A", Berry's middle initial, as well as his wife's first initial; the Hendrys lived with the garrison at Fort Meade for a time before building their first home about two miles north on a branch of the Peace River. It is now known as the Berry Hendry Branch.
During the Third Seminole War, Berry served with both Capt. William B. Hooker and Capt. Leroy G. Lesley in their independent companies of mounted volunteers. Muster rolls describe him as standing six feet and one inch in height, with grey eyes, dark hair and complexion. Berry survived the war having seen no action. In 1860, on the eve of the Civil War, Berry Hendry was a prosperous cattle rancher with eight slaves, he opposed secession after the election of Abraham Lincoln, but loyally supported his adopted state after it passed a secession ordinance. On February 1, 1861, before the war began in earnest, Hendry led efforts to create Polk County and was elected to its first Board of County Commissioners. Hendry spent the first three years of the war supplying cattle to the Confederate Commissary Department. But, his work was made difficult by a Federal garrison. So, in 1863, he organized his own cavalry company to keep the enemy isolated behind the walls of the fortress, he was attached to Colonel C. J. Munnerlyn's Cow Cavalry.
On October 27, 1857, he was elected to a two-year term on the Hillsborough County Commission. After Florida surrendered to Federal occupation in the spring of 1865, Hendry represented Polk County at the Second Constitutional Convention in Tallahassee, he was elected to the Florida Senate representing the 28th district in the sessions of 1865 and 1866, the 24th district in the sessions of 1875 and 1877. He was elected to the Florida House of Representatives representing Lee County for the sessions of 1893, 1895, 1897, 1899, 1901, 1903. After the Reconstruction government was installed in Tallahassee in 1868, former Confederate officers were not welcome to hold elective office on the state level. So, Berry Hendry returned to Polk County, was appointed to serve on the Board of Public Instruction. During the Reconstruction Era, Hendry continued to improve his cattle empire, he made his new headquarters in the abandoned officers' barracks at Fort Myers, made contact with buyers from Cuba. He was among the first Florida ranchers to ship cattle to that country through the port of Punta Rassa.
By 1876, he had owned about 50,000 head of cattle. On August 12, 1885, Hendry chaired a public meeting held at the schoolhouse in Fort Myers, at the corner of Second and Lee Streets. There, the electors voted to incorporate the town, Hendry became one of its first councilmen; as such, in 1887, he led efforts to create Lee County and was elected to its first Board of County Commissioners. By 1888, Hendry had moved his ranching headquarters to the vicinity of Fort Thompson, he began to dispose of much of his range cattle in favor of Jersey and other breeds in an effort to improve the quality of his stock. He acquired large tracts of marshland along the Caloosahatchee River for grazing. In 1893, Major Hendry was elected to represent Lee County in the state legislature, served for more than a decade. In 1895, he platted the town of LaBelle, which he named for his daughters Laura and Belle Hendry. During his last years, Major Hendry retired to Fort Myers for better access to medical care, he suffered from a kidney disease.
And, the state awarded him a monthly pension of twenty dollars. Hendry died at Fort Myers. On May 11, 1923, the state legislature honored him with the creation of Hendry County, designating LaBelle as its seat of government
Lee County, Florida
Lee County is located in southwest Florida on the Gulf Coast. As of the 2010 census, the population was 618,754; the county seat is Fort Myers, the largest city is Cape Coral with an estimated 2016 population of 179,804. Lee County comprises the Cape Coral -- FL Metropolitan Statistical Area. Lee County was created in 1887 from Monroe County. Today, Fort Myers is the center of a popular tourist area in Southwest Florida and the seat of Lee County, it is about 120 miles south of Tampa at the meeting point of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caloosahatchee River. Lee County is the spring home of the Boston Red Sox and Minnesota Twins MLB teams for spring training. After Florida became a U. S. territory in 1821, a number of settlers moved into Florida, causing conflict with the local Seminole Indians. Fort Myers was built in 1850 as a military fort to fend off Seminole Indians during the Seminole Wars; the fort was named after Col. Abraham C. Myers, stationed in Florida for seven years and was the son-in-law of the fort's establisher and commander.
In 1858, after years of elusive battle, Chief Billy Bowlegs and his warriors were persuaded to surrender and move west, the fort was abandoned. Billy's Creek, which flows into the Caloosahatchee River, was named after a temporary camp where Billy Bowlegs and his men awaited ships to take them west. In 1863, the fort was reoccupied by federal troops during the Civil War. In 1865, in the Battle of Fort Myers, the fort was attacked by a small group of Confederates; the Union's garrison, led by Captain James Doyle held the fort and the Confederate forces retreated. After the war, the fort was again deserted; the fort was disassembled and some of its wood was contributed towards the building of parts of downtown Fort Myers. The first settlers in Fort Myers arrived in 1866. In the 1870s, Tervio Padilla, a wealthy merchant from the Canary Islands, came by way of Key West to Cayo Costa and established trade with natives and "ranchos" that extended northward to Charlotte Harbor, his ships made port at Cayo Costa at the entrance to the harbor.
Enchanted by the tropical island, he decided to settle there. Padilla prospered until the outbreak of the Spanish–American War, when his fleet was burned and scuttled, he turned to another means of livelihood – fishing. When the government claimed his land, he was disinclined to set up another ranch, so moved with his wife further down the island and as before homesteaded; the Padilla family is one of the first pioneer families of Lee County and many still reside within the county around the Pine Island area. In 1882, the city experienced a significant influx of settlers. By 1885, when Fort Myers was incorporated, its population of 349 residents made it the second-largest city only to Tampa on Florida's west coast south of Cedar Key larger than Clearwater and Sarasota growing cities at the time; the city of Fort Myers was incorporated in 1886. Lee County was created in 1887 from Monroe County, it was named for Confederate general in the American Civil War. Fort Myers first became a nationally known winter resort with the opening of the Royal Palm Hotel in 1898, built by New York City department store magnate Hugh O'Neill.
Fort Myers was the frequent winter home of Thomas Edison, as well as Henry Ford. Construction of the Tamiami Trail Bridge, built across the Caloosahatchee River in 1924, sparked the city's growth. After the bridge's construction, the city experienced its first real estate boom and many subdivisions sprouted around the city. In 1923, Collier and Hendry Counties were created by splitting these areas from Lee County. Following the end of World War II, the Royal Palm Hotel was closed permanently, in 1947, the hotel on the corner of First and Fowler was torn down. Lee County has been the host to several Major League Baseball teams for spring training over the past several decades; the county received a boost in 1983. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,212 square miles, of which 785 square miles is land and 428 square miles is water. Rivers and streams include the Caloosahatchee River, the Imperial River, the Estero River, Hendry Creek, Orange River. Lee County is on the southwest coast of Florida.
It is about 125 miles south of Tampa and 115 miles west of Fort Lauderdale via Interstate 75. S. Highway 41. Charlotte County Glades County Collier County Hendry County Caloosahatchee National Wildlife Refuge J. N. "Ding" Darling National Wildlife Refuge Matlacha Pass National Wildlife Refuge Pine Island National Wildlife Refuge Lee County has a year-round warm, monsoon-influenced climate, close to the boundary between tropical and subtropical climates, thus is either classified as a humid subtropical climate, the classification used by NOAA, or a tropical savanna climate. Lee County has short, warm winters, long, humid summers, with most of the year's rainfall occurring from June to September; the temperature rises to 100 °F or lowers to the freezing mark. At 89, Lee County leads the nation in the number of days annually in which a thunderstorm is close enough for thunder to be heard; the monthly daily average temperature ranges from 64.2 °F in January to 83.4 °F in August, with the annual mean being 75.1 °F. Records range from 24 °F on December 29, 1894 up to 103 °F on June 16–17, 1981.
On August 1
2008 United States presidential election
The 2008 United States presidential election was the 56th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 4, 2008. The Democratic ticket of Barack Obama, the junior Senator from Illinois, Joe Biden, the senior Senator from Delaware, defeated the Republican ticket of John McCain, the senior Senator from Arizona, Sarah Palin, the Governor of Alaska. Obama became the first African American to be elected as president. Incumbent Republican President George W. Bush was ineligible to pursue a third term due to the term limits established by the 22nd Amendment; as neither Bush nor Vice President Dick Cheney sought the presidency, the 2008 election was the first election since 1952 in which neither major party's presidential nominee was the incumbent president or the incumbent vice president. McCain secured the Republican nomination by March 2008, defeating Mitt Romney, Mike Huckabee, other challengers; the Democratic primaries were marked by a sharp contest between Obama and the initial front-runner, Senator Hillary Clinton.
Clinton's victory in the New Hampshire primary made her the first woman to win a major party's presidential primary. After a long primary season, Obama clinched the Democratic nomination in June 2008. Early campaigning focused on the Iraq War and Bush's unpopularity. McCain supported the war, as well as a troop surge that had begun in 2007, while Obama opposed the war. Bush endorsed McCain, but the two did not campaign together, Bush did not appear in person at the 2008 Republican National Convention. Obama campaigned on the theme that "Washington must change,"; the campaign was affected by the onset of a major financial crisis, which peaked in September 2008. McCain's decision to suspend his campaign during the height of the financial crisis backfired as voters viewed his response as erratic. Obama won a decisive victory over McCain, winning the Electoral College and the popular vote by a sizable margin, including states that had not voted for the Democratic presidential candidate since 1976 and 1964.
Obama received the largest share of the popular vote won by a Democrat since Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964; as of the 2016 presidential election Obama's total count of 69.5 million votes still stands as the largest tally won by a presidential candidate. Hillary Clinton, U. S. Senator from New York John Edwards, former U. S. Senator from North Carolina Bill Richardson, Governor of New Mexico Dennis Kucinich, U. S. Representative from Ohio Joe Biden, U. S. Senator from Delaware Mike Gravel, former U. S. Senator from Alaska Christopher Dodd, U. S. Senator from Connecticut Evan Bayh, U. S. Senator from Indiana Tom Vilsack, former Governor of Iowa Media speculation had begun immediately after the results of the 2004 presidential election were released. In the 2006 midterm elections, the Democrats regained majorities in both houses of the U. S. Congress. Early polls taken before anyone had announced a candidacy had shown Senators Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama as the most popular potential Democratic candidates.
The media speculated on several other candidates, including Al Gore, the runner-up in the 2000 election. Edwards was one of the first to formally announce his candidacy for the presidency, on December 28, 2006; this run would be his second attempt at the presidency. Clinton announced intentions to run in the Democratic primaries on January 20, 2007. Obama announced his candidacy on February 10 in his home state of Illinois. Early in the year, the support for Barack Obama started to increase in the polls, he passed Clinton for the top spot in Iowa. Obama's win was fueled by first time caucus-goers and Independents and showed voters viewed him as the "candidate of change." Iowa has since been viewed as the state that jump-started Obama's campaign and set him on track to win both the nomination and the presidency. After the Iowa caucus, Joe Biden and Christopher Dodd withdrew from the nomination contest. Obama became the new front runner in New Hampshire, when his poll numbers skyrocketed after his Iowa victory The Clinton campaign was struggling after a huge loss in Iowa and no strategy beyond the early primaries and caucuses.
According to The Vancouver Sun, Campaign strategists had "mapped a victory scenario that envisioned the former first lady wrapping up the Democratic presidential nomination by Super Tuesday on Feb. 5." In what is considered a turning point for her campaign, Clinton had a strong performance at the Saint Anselm College, ABC, Facebook debates several days before the New Hampshire primary as well as an emotional interview in a public broadcast live on TV. Clinton won that primary by 2% of the vote, contrary to the predictions of pollsters who had her trailing Obama for a few days up to the primary date. Clinton's win was the
Martin County, Florida
Martin County is a county located in the Treasure Coast region of the state of Florida, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 146,318, its county seat is Stuart. Martin County is in FL Metropolitan Statistical Area. Martin County was created in 1925 with the northern portion coming from St. Lucie County and southern portion coming from Palm Beach County, it was named for John W. Martin, Governor of Florida from 1925 to 1929; when the county was created, the western contour followed the shore of Lake Okeechobee, as did the borders of Glades and Hendry counties. Palm Beach County had claimed all of the surface of the lake as part of its area, to its benefit for the distribution of state and federal highway funds; the state representative of Martin County, William Ralph Scott of Stuart, initiated a bill to divide the lake among its adjacent counties, creating a more equitable distribution of state funds for road creation and maintenance. All bordering counties confirmed the justice of this change and supported its ratification, with the exception of Palm Beach County.
Representatives from Palm Beach County presented Representative William Scott with a jug of water, signifying "all the water Bill Scott left Palm Beach County." The jug is in the possession of Stuart Heritage. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 753 square miles, of which 543 square miles is land and is water, it is the fifth-largest county in Florida by land area, fifty-third largest by total area. St. Lucie County – north Palm Beach County – south Hendry County – southwest Glades County – southwest Okeechobee County – northwest Hobe Sound National Wildlife Refuge According to the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Martin County Shore Protection Project includes nourishment of 3.75 miles of beach extending from the St. Lucie County line south to the Stuart Public Beach Park in Martin County. Included in the project is restoration of the primary dune and a 35-foot-wide protective berm; the renourishment interval for this project is every 7 years. The last renourishment of the Martin County Shore Protection Project was completed in May 2013 and included a Flood Control and Coastal Emergency component due impacts incurred with the passage of Hurricane Sandy in 2012.
The next renourishment event is scheduled for 2019. The estimated total cost of this project is $69.9 million, $32.5 million of, to be paid for by the U. S. Federal Government. In Fiscal Year 2015, no funding was appropriated to the project by the U. S. Congress. In the Fiscal Year 2016 U. S. President's Budget Request to the U. S. Congress, no funding dollars was requested for the project; as of the census of 2000, there were 126,731 people, 55,288 households, 36,213 families residing in the county. The population density was 228 per square mile. There were 65,471 housing units at an average density of 118 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 89.88% White, 5.27% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.60% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 2.72% from other races, 1.14% from two or more races. 7.50% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. In 2000 there were 55,288 households out of which 21.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.00% were married couples living together, 7.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.50% were non-families.
29.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.71. In the county, the population was spread out with 18.60% under the age of 18, 5.30% from 18 to 24, 22.90% from 25 to 44, 24.90% from 45 to 64, 28.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $43,083, the median income for a family was $53,244. Males had a median income of $36,133 versus $27,000 for females; the per capita income for the county was $29,584. About 5.60% of families and 8.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.80% of those under age 18 and 5.20% of those age 65 or over. Indiantown Airport Naked Lady Ranch Airport Witham Field The Lake Okeechobee Scenic Trail, a segment of the Florida National Scenic Trail, passes through Martin County.
Martin County is a non-chartered county and its form of government is prescribed by the Florida Constitution and Florida Statutes, as follows: The Board of County Commissioners is the legislative body of the county and has charge of all county executive and administrative functions, except those assigned by the Constitution to independent county officers or to the independent school district. The board has some quasi-judicial functions; some of functions exercised by the board are county-wide, while others are applicable only in the unincorporated areas of the county, where the board has many of the functions of a municipality. The county commissioners are elected by county-wide vote, but each one represents a specific district; the board appoints the county administrator, responsible to it for the day-to-day operations of the county government. The current county commissioners by district number are: 1. Doug Smith, Chair 2. Ed Fielding 3. Herold Jenkins 4. Sarah Heard 5. Edward Ciampi, Vice Chair The elected Constitutional Officers are: Clerk: Carolyn Timmann Property Appraiser: Laurel Kelly Sheriff: William Snyder Supervisor of Elections: Vicki Davis Tax Collector: Ruth Pietruszewski The independent Martin County School District has an elected Sup
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa