Philip VI of France
Philip VI, called the Fortunate and of Valois, was the first King of France from the House of Valois. He reigned from 1328 until his death. Philip's reign was dominated by the consequences of a succession dispute; when King Charles IV died without a male heir in 1328, the nearest male relative was his maternal nephew Edward III of England. It was held in France, that Edward was ineligible to inherit the French throne through the female line according to the ancient Salic Law. Philip, being Charles IV's cousin in the male line, acceded instead. At first, Edward seemed to accept the Valois succession to the crown, but he pressed his claim to the throne of France after a series of disagreements with Philip; the result was the beginning of the Hundred Years' War in 1337. After initial successes at sea, Philip's navy was annihilated at the Battle of Sluys in 1340, ensuring that the war would occur on the continent; the English took another decisive advantage at the Battle of Crécy, while the Black Death struck France, further destabilizing the country.
In 1349, Philip VI bought the Dauphiné from its ruined ruler Humbert II and entrusted the government of this province to his grandson Charles. Philip VI was succeeded by his son John II, the Good. Little is recorded about Philip's childhood and youth, in large part because he was of minor royal birth. Philip's father Charles, Count of Valois, the younger brother of King Philip IV of France, had striven throughout his life to gain a throne for himself but was never successful, he died in 1325, leaving his eldest son Philip as heir to the counties of Anjou and Valois. In 1328, Philip's first cousin Charles IV died without a son and with his widow Jeanne d'Évreux pregnant. Philip was one of the two chief claimants to the throne; the other was King Edward III of England, the son of Charles's sister Isabella and his closest male relative. The question arose whether Isabella should have been able to transmit a claim that she herself did not possess; the assemblies of the French barons and prelates and the University of Paris decided that males who derive their right to inheritance through their mother should be excluded according to Salic law.
As Philip was the eldest grandson of Philip III of France through the male line, he became regent instead of Edward, a matrilineal grandson of Philip IV of France and great-grandson of Philip III. During the period in which Charles IV's widow was waiting to deliver her child, Philip rose to the regency with support of the French magnates, following the pattern set up by Philip V's succession over his niece Joan II of Navarre, he formally held the regency from 9 February 1328 until 1 April, when Jeanne d'Évreux gave birth to a girl, named Blanche. Upon this birth, Philip was named king and crowned at the Cathedral in Reims on 29 May 1328. After his elevation to the throne, Philip sent the Abbot of Fécamp, Pierre Roger, to summon Edward III of England to pay homage for the duchy of Aquitaine and Gascony. After a subsequent second summons from Philip, Edward arrived at the Cathedral of Amiens on 6 June 1329 and worded his vows in such a way to cause more disputes in years; the dynastic change had another consequence: Charles IV had been King of Navarre, unlike the crown of France, the crown of Navarre was not subject to Salic Law.
Philip VI was neither an heir nor a descendant of Joan I of Navarre, whose inheritance had been in personal union with the crown of France for fifty years and had long been administered by the same royal machinery established by Philip IV, the father of French bureaucracy. These counties were entrenched in the economic and administrative entity of the crown lands of France, being located adjacent to Île-de-France. Philip, was not entitled to that inheritance. Navarre thus passed to Joan II, with whom Philip struck a deal regarding the counties in Champagne: she received vast lands in Normandy in compensation, he kept Champagne as part of the French crown lands. Philip's reign was plagued with crises, although it began with a military success in Flanders at the Battle of Cassel, where Philip's forces re-seated Louis I, Count of Flanders, unseated by a popular revolution. Philip's wife, the able Joan the Lame, gave the first of many demonstrations of her competence as regent in his absence. Philip enjoyed amicable relations with Edward III, they planned a crusade together in 1332, never executed.
However, the status of the Duchy of Aquitaine remained a sore point, tension increased. Philip provided refuge for David II of Scotland in 1334 and declared himself champion of his interests, which enraged Edward. By 1336, they were enemies, although not yet at war. Philip prevented an arrangement between the Avignon papacy and Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV, although in July 1337 Louis concluded an alliance with Edward III; the final breach with England came when Edward offered refuge to Robert III of Artois one of Philip's trusted advisers, after Robert committed forgery to try to obtain an inheritance. As relations between Philip and Edward worsened, Robert's standing in England strengthened. On 26 December 1336, Philip demanded the extradition of Robert to France. On 24 May 1337, Philip declared that Edward had forfeited Aquitaine for disobedience and for sheltering the "king's mortal enemy", Robert of Artois, thus began the Hundred Years' War, complicated by Edward's
Charles, Duke of Brittany
Charles of Blois-Châtillon "the Saint", was the legalist Duke of Brittany from 1341 to his death via his marriage to Joan of Penthiève, holding the title against the claims of John of Montfort. He was canonized as a Saint of the Roman Catholic Church for his devotion to religion; this canonization was annulled, although he remains beatified. Charles was born in Blois, son of Guy de Châtillon, count of Blois, by Margaret of Valois, a sister of king Philip VI of France. An devout ascetic from an early age, he showed interest in religious books but was forbidden from reading them by his father, as they did not seem appropriate to his position as a knight; as he grew older, Charles took piety to the extreme of mortifying his own flesh. It is said that he placed pebbles in his shoes, wore ropes tight with knots near his flesh, slept on straw instead of a bed, confessed every night in fear of sleeping in a state of sin, wore a cilice under his armor in battle, he was an accomplished military leader, who inspired loyalty by his religious fervour.
On 4 June 1337 in Paris, he married Joanna of Penthièvre and niece of duke John III. Together and Joanna de Châtillon fought the House of Montfort in the Breton War of Succession, with the support of the crown of France. Despite his piety, Charles did not hesitate in ordering the massacre of 1400 civilians after the siege of Quimper. After initial successes, Charles was taken prisoner by the English in 1347, his official captor was Thomas Dagworth. He stayed nine years as prisoner in the Kingdom of England. During that time, he used to visit English graveyards, where he prayed and recited Psalm 130 much to the chagrin of his own squire; when Charles asked the squire to take part in the prayer, the younger man refused, saying that the men who were buried at the English graveyards had killed his parents and friends and burned their houses. Charles was released against a ransom of about half a million écus in 1356. Upon returning to France, he decided to travel barefoot in winter from La Roche-Derrien to Tréguier Cathedral out of devotion to Saint Ivo of Kermartin.
When the common people heard of his plan, they placed straw and blankets on the street, but Charles promptly took another way. His feet became so sore, he resumed the war against the Montforts. Charles was killed in combat during the Battle of Auray in 1364, which with the second treaty of Guerande in 1381, determined the end of the Breton War of Succession as a victory for the Montforts. By his marriage to Joanna, he had five children: John I, Count of Penthièvre Guy Henry Mary, Lady of Guise, married in 1360 Louis I, Duke of Anjou Margaret, married in 1351 Charles de la Cerda According to Froissart's Chronicles, Charles had an illegitimate child, John of Blois, who died in the Battle of Auray. Considering Charles' extreme piety, historian Johan Huizinga regarded it unlikely that Charles had a child born outside marriage and that Jean Froissart was mistaken in identifying John as Charles' son. After his death, his family lobbied for his canonization as a Saint of the Roman Catholic church for his devotion to religion.
The canonization process was nullified by Pope Gregory XI at the request of Duke John IV of Brittany, Charles' final opponent in the Breton War of Succession and the recognized Duke of Brittany under the first Treaty of Guerande. Subsequently, in 1904, Charles de Châtillon was beatified and therefore may be referred to as the Blessed Charles of Blois, his Roman Catholic Feast Day is 30 September. Château de Blois Counts of Blois Dukes of Brittany family tree House of Châtillon Autrand, Francoise. "France under Charles V and Charles VI". In Jones, Michael; the New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 6, C.1300-c.1415. Cambridge University Press. Bruel, François-L.. "Inventaire de meubles et de titres trouvés au château de Josselin à la mort du connétable de Clisson". Bibliothèque de l'École des chartes. Librairie Droz. Huizinga, Johan. Herbst des Mittelalters. Translated by Kurt Köster. Stuttgart: Reclam. ISBN 978-3-15-020366-8. Jones, Michael. Creation of Brittany: A Late Medieval State; the Hambledon Press.
Prestwich, Michael. The Three Edwards: War and State in England, 1272-1377. Routledge. Sumption, Jonathan; the Hundred Years War, Volume 1: Trial by Battle. Faber & Faber. "Charles de Blois". The American Cyclopædia. 1879. Treccani.it, l'Enciclopedia italiana House of de Châtillon, Champagne,Bourgogne, Ponthieu & Ternois and Heraldry House of de Nanteuil Le-Haudouin and Heraldry
Sister cities or twin towns are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, counties, prefectures, regions and countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties. The modern concept of town twinning, conceived after the Second World War in 1947, was intended to foster friendship and understanding among different cultures and between former foes as an act of peace and reconciliation, to encourage trade and tourism. By the 2000s, town twinning became used to form strategic international business links among member cities. In the United Kingdom, the term "twin towns" is most used. In mainland Europe, the most used terms are "twin towns", "partnership towns", "partner towns", "friendship towns"; the European Commission uses the term "twinned towns" and refers to the process as "town twinning". Spain uses the term "ciudades hermanadas", which means "sister cities". Germany and the Czech Republic use Partnerstadt / miasto partnerskie / partnerské město, which translate as "partner town or city".
France uses ville jumelée, Italy has gemellaggio and comune gemellato. In the Netherlands, the term is stedenband. In Greece, the word αδελφοποίηση has been adopted. In Iceland, the terms vinabæir and vinaborgir are used. In the former Soviet Bloc, "twin towns" and "twin cities" are used, along with города-побратимы; the Americas, South Asia, Australasia use the term "sister cities" or "twin cities". In China, the term is 友好城市. Sometimes, other government bodies enter into a twinning relationship, such as the agreement between the provinces of Hainan in China and Jeju-do in South Korea; the douzelage is a town twinning association with one town from each of the member states of the European Union. Despite the term being used interchangeably, with the term "friendship city", this may mean a relationship with a more limited scope in comparison to a sister city relationship, friendship city relationships are mayor-to-mayor agreements. In recent years, the term "city diplomacy" has gained increased usage and acceptance as a strand of paradiplomacy and public diplomacy.
It is formally used in the workings of the United Cities and Local Governments and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group and recognised by the USC Center on Public Diplomacy. A March 2014 debate in the British House of Lords acknowledged the evolution of town twinning into city diplomacy around trade and tourism, but in culture and post-conflict reconciliation; the importance of cities developing "their own foreign economic policies on trade, foreign investment and attracting foreign talent" has been highlighted by the World Economic Forum. The earliest known town twinning in Europe was between Paderborn, Le Mans, France, in 836. Starting in 1905, Keighley in West Yorkshire, had a twinning arrangement with French communities Suresnes and Puteaux; the first recorded modern twinning agreement was between Keighley and Poix-du-Nord in Nord, France, in 1920 following the end of the First World War. This was referred to as an adoption of the French town; the practice was continued after the Second World War as a way to promote mutual understanding and cross-border projects of mutual benefit.
For example, Coventry twinned with Stalingrad and with Dresden as an act of peace and reconciliation, all three cities having been bombed during the war. The City of Bath formed an "Alkmaar Adoption committee" in March 1945, when the Dutch city was still occupied by the German Army in the final months of the war, children from each city took part in exchanges in 1945 and 1946. In 1947, Bristol Corporation sent five'leading citizens' on a goodwill mission to Hanover. Reading in 1947 was the first British town to form links with a former "enemy" city – Düsseldorf; the link still exists. Since 9 April 1956 Rome and Paris have been and reciprocally twinned with each other, following the motto: "Only Paris is worthy of Rome; the support scheme was established in 1989. In 2003 an annual budget of about €12 million was allocated to about 1,300 projects; the Council of European Municipalities and Regions works with the Commission to promote modern, high quality twinning initiatives and exchanges that involve all sections of the community.
It has launched a website dedicated to town twinning. As of 1995, the European Union had more than 7,000 bilateral relationships involving 10,000 European municipalities French and German. Public art has been used to celebrate twin town links, for instance in the form of seven mural paintings in the centre of the town of Sutton, Greater London; the five main paintings show a number of the main features of the London Borough of Sutton and its four twin towns, along with the heraldic shield of each above the other images. Each painting features a plant as a visual representation of its town's environmental awareness. In the case of Sutton this is in a separate smaller painting showing a beech tree, intended as a symbol of prosperity and from whi
Allaire is a commune in the Morbihan department in the Brittany region in northwestern France. The river Arz forms most of the commune's northeastern border. Inhabitants of Allaire are called Allairiens. Communes of the Morbihan department INSEE statistics Mayors of Morbihan Association French Ministry of Culture list for Allaire
Morbihan is a department in Brittany, situated in the northwest of France. It is named after the Morbihan, the enclosed sea, the principal feature of the coastline, it is noted for its Carnac stones. These predate and are more extensive than the ancient Stonehenge monument in Wiltshire, England, more familiar to English speakers. Three major military educational facilities are located in Guer, including École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr, the national military academy for officers. Morbihan is one of the original 83 departments created on March 4, 1790 during the French Revolution, it was created from a part of the Duchy of Brittany. In 1945 cadets from École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr, France's foremost military academy for officers, were relocated to Camp Coëtquidan in Guer; this has been developed to include the École militaire interarmes, for non-commissioned officers. Morbihan is part of the region of Brittany; the Gulf of Morbihan has many islands: 365 according to legend. There are between 30 and 40, depending on how they are counted.
There are many islets that are too small for any development. Of these islands, all but two are owned: l'Île-aux-Moines and l'Île-d'Arz. Owners of the others include movie stars, fashion designers, other wealthy "glitterati". In the department of Morbihan, but outside the Gulf, there are four inhabited islands: Belle Île Groix Houat HoëdicMeaban, an island just outside the Port du Crouesty, is an ornithological reserve. Visitors are forbidden there; the largest towns in Morbihan are Lorient. Many residents support maintenance and use of the Breton language, there are numerous advocates of bilingual education; the painter Raymond Wintz depicted locations around the Gulf of Morbihan. As of 2014, the préfet of Morbihan is Jean-François Savy head of the Prefectures of Ardennes and of Hautes-Alpes; the Carnac stones, megalithic alignments of Carnac, are situated in Morbihan. Tourism office of Auray Cantons of the Morbihan department Communes of the Morbihan department Arrondissements of the Morbihan department La Baule - Guérande Peninsula Prefecture website General Council website Morbihan at Curlie Cultural Heritage Tourism website Hiking in Morbihan
Mali the Republic of Mali, is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton. Mali is the eighth-largest country in Africa, with an area of just over 1,240,000 square kilometres; the population of Mali is 18 million. Its capital is Bamako; the sovereign state of Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara Desert, while the country's southern part, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger and Senegal rivers. The country's economy centers on mining; some of Mali's prominent natural resources include gold, being the third largest producer of gold in the African continent, salt. Present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade: the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire, the Songhai Empire. During its golden age, there was a flourishing of mathematics, astronomy and art. At its peak in 1300, the Mali Empire covered an area about twice the size of modern-day France and stretched to the west coast of Africa.
In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for Africa, France seized control of Mali, making it a part of French Sudan. French Sudan joined with Senegal in 1959. Shortly thereafter, following Senegal's withdrawal from the federation, the Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent Republic of Mali. After a long period of one-party rule, a coup in 1991 led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state. In January 2012, an armed conflict broke out in northern Mali, in which Tuareg rebels took control of a territory in the north, in April declared the secession of a new state, Azawad; the conflict was complicated by a military coup that took place in March and fighting between Tuareg and rebels. In response to territorial gains, the French military launched Opération Serval in January 2013. A month Malian and French forces recaptured most of the north. Presidential elections were held on 28 July 2013, with a second-round run-off held on 11 August, legislative elections were held on 24 November and 15 December 2013.
The name Mali is taken from the name of the Mali Empire. The name was derived from the Mandinka or Bambara word mali, meaning "hippopotamus", but it came to mean "the place where the king lives"; the word carries the connotation of strength. Guinean writer Djibril Niane suggests in Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali that it is not impossible that Mali was the name given to one of the capitals of the emperors. 14th-century Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta reported that the capital of the Mali Empire was called Mali. One Mandinka tradition tells that the legendary first emperor Sundiata Keita changed himself into a hippopotamus upon his death in the Sankarani River, that it's possible to find villages in the area of this river, termed "old Mali", which have Mali for a name; this name could have been that of a city. In old Mali, there is one village called Malika which means "New Mali."Another theory suggests that Mali is a Fulani pronunciation of the name of the Mande peoples. It is suggested that a sound shift led to the change, whereby in Fulani the alveolar segment /nd/ shifts to /l/ and the terminal vowel denasalises and raises, thus "Manden" shifts to /Mali/.
Mali was once part of three famed West African empires which controlled trans-Saharan trade in gold, salt and other precious commodities. These Sahelian kingdoms had rigid ethnic identities; the earliest of these empires was the Ghana Empire, dominated by the Soninke, a Mande-speaking people. The empire expanded throughout West Africa from the 8th century until 1078, when it was conquered by the Almoravids; the Mali Empire formed on the upper Niger River, reached the height of power in the 14th century. Under the Mali Empire, the ancient cities of Djenné and Timbuktu were centers of both trade and Islamic learning; the empire declined as a result of internal intrigue being supplanted by the Songhai Empire. The Songhai people originated in current northwestern Nigeria; the Songhai had long been a major power in West Africa subject to the Mali Empire's rule. In the late 14th century, the Songhai gained independence from the Mali Empire and expanded subsuming the entire eastern portion of the Mali Empire.
The Songhai Empire's eventual collapse was the result of a Moroccan invasion in 1591, under the command of Judar Pasha. The fall of the Songhai Empire marked the end of the region's role as a trading crossroads. Following the establishment of sea routes by the European powers, the trans-Saharan trade routes lost significance. One of the worst famines in the region's recorded history occurred in the 18th century. According to John Iliffe, "The worst crises were in the 1680s, when famine extended from the Senegambian coast to the Upper Nile and'many sold themselves for slaves, only to get a sustenance', in 1738–1756, when West Africa's greatest recorded subsistence crisis, due to drought and locusts killed half the population of Timbuktu." Mali fell under the control of France during the late 19th century. By 1905, most of the area was under firm French control as a part of French Sudan. In early 1959, French Sudan and Senegal united to become the Mali Federation; the Mali Federation gained independence from France on 20 June 1960.
Senegal withdrew from the federation in August 1960, which allowed the Sudanes
Anthony Le Tallec
Anthony Le Tallec is a French professional footballer who plays as a forward or an attacking midfielder for US Orléans. Born in Hennebont, Le Tallec was signed from Le Havre AC by Liverpool in 2001, along with his cousin Florent Sinama Pongolle, by manager Gérard Houllier; this was after impressive performances for the French national youth team in the UEFA European Under-16 Championship and the FIFA U-17 World Cup, with the player being awarded the'Silver Ball' as the second best player in the latter tournament as the national team emerged champions. Le Tallec scored his first and only Liverpool goal in a UEFA Cup tie against NK Olimpija Ljubljana in October 2003. After his return, he featured in the club's victorious run in the UEFA Champions League, starting in the home leg of the quarter-final tie against Juventus F. C. but failing to appear in the squad of 18 for the final itself. For 2005–06, Le Tallec joined fellow Premier League side Sunderland on loan, in a bid to gain some more first team football.
He stated: "I am a competitor and I want to play all the time. I chose to come to Sunderland because I need to play every week". In a disappointing season for the club, who finished bottom of the table, he was its top scorer with only six goals in all competitions. In May 2006, after Sunderland announced they would not be looking to retain his services, Le Tallec returned to Liverpool but was not given a squad number by boss Rafael Benítez. At the end of the month, he joined up with the French under-21s for the European Championship which took place in Portugal, only featuring in the national team's final group match after it had secured qualification, being substituted after 61 minutes. In August 2006, Le Tallec moved to FC Sochaux-Montbéliard on another loan deal, he won the Coupe de France scoring a late equaliser in the final, which led to a penalty shootout against Olympique de Marseille – a fellow Liverpool player out on loan, Djibril Cissé, netted two goals in the match for the opposition.
On 31 August 2007, it was reported that Scottish Premier League club Heart of Midlothian were close to signing Le Tallec. However, the player ended up moving to Ligue 1 team Le Mans Union Club 72, on loan for the entire season with a view to a permanent deal for £1.1 million pounds. In July 2008, Le Mans decided signing Le Tallec to a four-year contract. On 27 June 2010, following their top flight relegation, he reached an agreement with fellow league club AJ Auxerre for a four-year deal, worth €3 million. On 19 July 2015, Le Tallec signed with Atromitos F. C. for two years. He cited the possibility of playing in the UEFA Europa League as the main reason for his signature. On 3 July 2017, 32-year-old Le Tallec joined FC Astra Giurgiu in the Romanian Liga I, he returned to his country in the following transfer window. Le Tallec's younger brother, was a footballer. Another French youth international, groomed at Le Havre, he started his professional career in Germany with Borussia Dortmund; as of match played on 6 April 2018 Sochaux Coupe de France: 2006–07Liverpool UEFA Champions League: 2004–05 France FIFA U-17 World Championship: 2001 FIFA U-17 World Championship Silver Ball: 2001 Anthony Le Tallec at L'Équipe Football Anthony Le Tallec – French league stats at LFP Anthony Le Tallec at Soccerbase