The Lotus Exige /ɛɡˈziːʒ/ is a British two-door, two-seat sports car made by Lotus Cars since 2000. It is essentially a version of the Lotus Elise, a mid-engined roadster in production since 1996. The original Exige was launched in 2000 with a naturally aspirated 1.8 L Rover K Series engine in VHPD tune and it produces 177 bhp at 7,800 rpm in standard form. There was a track spec version with 192 bhp available, the car has a five-speed manual gearbox, and a claimed top speed of 219 km/h. Zero to sixty mph achieved was 4.7 seconds, with 0–100 km/h in 4.9 seconds, the first Exige used the round, less aggressive headlights of the first generation Elise, although the Elise was updated soon after the introduction of the Exige. The Series 1 was built until 2002, in 604 examples, in 2004, the Series 2 Exige was introduced. It features a naturally aspirated 1.8 L 16-valve DOHC Toyota/Yamaha engine that produces 190 bhp with the Toyota engine designation of 2ZZ-GE. Compared to the Series 2 Elise, it has a front splitter, fibreglass hardtop roof with roof scoop, rear engine cover, the sole purpose of these aerodynamic additions to the base Elise is to create more downforce.
In February 2005, Lotus announced a production run of 50 Exiges. This increased the output to 243 bhp. These vehicles were available in yellow or black, representing the colours of Lotus Sport. They have a projected 0-60 mph time of 3.9 seconds and 0-100 mph of 9.9 seconds, power output increased by 9% over the outgoing model to 240 bhp. The S240 received upgraded AP Racing brakes from the Exige Cup 240, 0-60 mph times improved to 4.0 seconds. The S240 base manufacturer suggested retail price was $65,690, the Exige S260 produced an additional 7% power output over the S240 resulting in 257 hp. Even with a fuel tank, extensive use of weight-saving materials such as carbon fiber reduced the vehicles gross weight to 2,020 lb compared to 2,077 lb in the S240. 0–60 mph arrived in 4.0 seconds, after 2009, both the S240 and S260 received distinctively new and enlarged rear spoilers mounted to the rear clam instead of the motor bay cover. The base manufacturer suggested retail price for the S260 was $74,995, the Exige 265E is a factory-built Exige S optimised to run on E85 fuel, which is 85% ethanol.
The higher octane of this allows for a higher compression ratio and/or more supercharger boost
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines burn a fuel to heat, which is used to create a force. Electric motors convert electrical energy into motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use energy to create forces. The word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines. In this manner, an engine in its original form was merely a water pump. Devices converting heat energy into motion are commonly referred to simply as engines, examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts.
Examples of engines which produce thrust include turbofans and rockets, the term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to set in motion, or maintain motion. Thus a motor is a device that imparts motion and engine came to be used largely interchangeably in casual discourse. However, the two words have different meanings, rocketry uses the term rocket motor, even though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by a combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, by the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times
A chassis consists of an internal vehicle frame that supports an artificial object in its construction and use, can provide protection for some internal parts. An example of a chassis is the underpart of a motor vehicle, if the running gear such as wheels and transmission, and sometimes even the drivers seat, are included, the assembly is described as a rolling chassis. In the case of vehicles, the rolling chassis means the frame plus the running gear like engine, drive shaft, differential. An under body, which is not necessary for integrity of the structure, is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. For commercial vehicles, a rolling chassis consists of an assembly of all the parts of a truck to be ready for operation on the road. The design of a car chassis will be different than one for commercial vehicles because of the heavier loads. Commercial vehicle manufacturers sell chassis only and chassis, as well as chassis cab versions that can be outfitted with specialized bodies and these include motor homes, fire engines, box trucks, etc.
In particular applications, such as buses, a government agency like National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in the U. S. defines the design standards of chassis. An armoured fighting vehicles hull serves as the chassis and comprises the part of the AFV that includes the tracks, drivers seat. This describes the hull, although common usage might include the upper hull to mean the AFV without the turret. The hull serves as a basis for platforms on tanks, armoured carriers, combat engineering vehicles. In an electronic device, the chassis consists of a frame or other supporting structure on which the circuit boards. In the absence of a frame, the chassis refers to the circuit boards and components themselves. The combination of chassis and outer covering is called an enclosure. Vietnam Studies, Department of the Army, Washington, D. C.1978
Rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, a RMR or Rear Mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one in which the rear wheels are driven by an engine placed just in front of them, behind the passenger compartment. In contrast to the rear-engined RR layout, the center of mass of the engine is in front of the rear axle and this layout is typically chosen for its low moment of inertia and relatively favorable weight distribution. The layout has a tendency toward being heavier in the rear than the front, since there is little weight over the front wheels, under acceleration, the front of the car is prone to lift and cause understeer. Most rear-engine layouts have historically used in smaller vehicles, because the weight of the engine at the rear has an adverse effect on a larger cars handling, making it tail-heavy. It is felt that the low polar inertia is crucial in selection of this layout, the mid-engined layout uses up central space, making it impractical for any but two-seater sports cars. However, some use this layout, with a small.
This makes it possible to move the right to the front of the vehicle. In modern racing cars, RMR is the configuration and is usually synonymous with mid engine. Due to its distribution and resulting favorable vehicle dynamics, this layout is heavily employed in open-wheel Formula racing cars as well as purpose-built sports racing cars. This configuration was common in very small engined 1950s microcars, because of successes in racing, the RMR platform has been popular for road-going sports cars despite the inherent challenges of design and lack of cargo space. The 1900 NW Rennzweier was one of the first race cars with mid-engine, other known historical examples include the 1923 Benz Tropfenwagen. It was based on a design named the Rumpler Tropfenwagen in 1921 made by Edmund von Rumpler. The Benz Tropfenwagen was designed by Ferdinand Porsche along with Willy Walb and it raced in 1923 and 1924 and was most successful in the Italian Grand Prix in Monza where it stood fourth. Later, Ferdinand Porsche used mid-engine design concept towards the Auto Union Grand Prix cars of the 1930s which became the first winning RMR racers and they were decades before their time, although MR Miller Specials raced a few times at Indianapolis between 1939 and 1947.
The 718 followed similarly in 1958, but it was not until the late 1950s that RMR reappeared in Grand Prix races in the form of the Cooper-Climax, soon followed by cars from BRM and Lotus. Ferrari and Porsche soon made Grand Prix RMR attempts with less initial success, the mid-engined layout was brought back to Indianapolis in 1961 by the Cooper Car Company with Jack Brabham running as high as third and finishing ninth. Cooper did not return, but from 1963 on British built mid-engined cars from constructors like Brabham and Lola competed regularly and in 1965 Lotus won Indy with their Type 38. The first rear mid-engined road car was the 1962 Bonnet / Matra Djet, nearly 1700 were built until 1967
The GT recalls Fords historically significant GT40, consecutive four-time winner of the 24 Hours of LeMans, including a 1-2-3 finish in 1966. The Ford GT began as a car designed in anticipation of the automakers centennial year and as part of its drive to showcase and revive its heritage names such as Mustang. At the 1995 Detroit Auto Show, the Ford GT90 concept was shown, at the 2002 auto show, Ford unveiled a new GT40 Concept car. Camilo Pardo, the head of Fords Living Legends studio, is credited as the designer of the GT. Carroll Shelby was brought in by Ford to help develop the Ford GT, while the project was still secret, it was called Petunia. Although the cars are related, there is no similarity between the modern GT and the 1960s GT40 that inspired it. Three production prototype cars were shown in 2003 as part of Fords centenary, as the Ford GT was built as part of the companys 100th anniversary celebration, the left headlight cluster was designed to read 100. A British company, Safir Engineering, who built continuation GT40s in the 1980s, when they completed production, they sold the excess parts, tooling and trademark to a small Ohio company called Safir GT40 Spares.
This company licensed the use of the GT40 trademark to Ford for the initial 2002 show car, when Ford decided to make the production vehicle, negotiations between the two firms failed. The production cars do not wear the GT40 badge, the GT was produced in model years 2005 and 2006, with the first customers taking delivery in August 2004. The GT began assembly at Mayflower Vehicle Systems in Norwalk and was painted by Saleen in their Saleen Special Vehicles facility in Troy, the GT is powered by an engine built at Fords Romeo Engine Plant in Romeo, Michigan. Installation of the engine and manual transmission along with interior finishing was handled in the SVT building at Fords Wixom, of the 4,500 GTs originally planned, approximately 100 were to be exported to Europe, starting in late 2005. An additional 200 were destined for sale in Canada, production ended in 2006 without reaching the planned lot. Approximately 550 were built in 2004, nearly 1,900 in 2005, the final 11 car bodies manufactured by Mayflower Vehicle Systems were disassembled, and the frames and body panels were sold as service parts.
Like many exotic vehicles, when the Ford GT was first released, the demand outpaced supply, and the cars initially sold for premium prices. The first private sale of Fords new mid-engine sports car was completed on August 4,2004, Shirley earned the right to purchase the first production Ford GT at a charity auction at the Pebble Beach Concours dElegance Auction after bidding over $557,000. A few other cars sold for as much as a US$100,000 premium over the suggested retail price of $139,995. Optional equipment available included a McIntosh sound system, racing stripes, painted brake calipers, the production run of 4,038 GTs ended the 2006 model year on September 21,2006, short of the originally planned 4,500
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for innumerable purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details commonly used classification schemes in use worldwide, vehicles can be categorized in numerous ways. Regulatory agencies may establish a vehicle classification system for determining a tax amount, in the United Kingdom, a vehicle is taxed according to the vehicles construction, weight, type of fuel and emissions, as well as the purpose for which it is used. Other jurisdictions may determine vehicle tax based upon environmental principles, such as the user pays principle, another standard for road vehicles of all types that is used internationally, is ISO 3833-1977. In the United States, since 2010 the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety uses a scheme it has developed that takes into account a combination of both shadow and weight. The United States Federal Highway Administration has developed a scheme used for automatically calculating road use tolls.
There are two categories depending on whether the vehicle carries passengers or commodities. Vehicles that carry commodities are further subdivided by number of axles and number of units, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a classification scheme used to compare fuel economy among similar vehicles. Passenger vehicles are classified based on a total interior passenger. Trucks are classified based upon their gross vehicle weight rating, heavy duty vehicles are not included within the EPA scheme. A similar set of classes is used by the Canadian EPA, in Australia, the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries publishes its own classifications. This is a table listing several different methods of vehicle classification. Straddling the boundary between car and motorbike, these vehicles have engines under 1.0 litre, typically only two passengers, and are sometimes unorthodox in construction. Some microcars are three-wheelers, while the majority have four wheels, microcars were popular in post-war Europe, where their appearance led them to be called Bubble cars.
More recent microcars are often electric powered, the size of ultracompact cars will be less than minicars, but have engine greater than 50cc displacement and able to transport 1 or 2 persons. Ultracompact cars cannot use standard, because of strict safety standards for minicars. The regulation about running capacity and safety performance of cars will be published in early autumn. Today, there are smaller than ultracompact cars, called category-1 motorized vehicles which it has 50cc displacement or less
A headlamp is a lamp attached to the front of a vehicle to light the road ahead. Other vehicles, such as trains and aircraft, are required to have headlamps, bicycle headlamps are often used on bicycles, and are required in some jurisdictions. They can be powered by a battery or a small generator mechanically integrated into the workings of the bicycles, the earliest headlamps were fueled by acetylene or oil, and were introduced in the late 1880s. Acetylene lamps were popular because the flame is resistant to wind, the first electric headlamps were introduced in 1898 on the Columbia Electric Car from the Electric Vehicle Company of Hartford and were optional. Prest-O-Lite acetylene lights were offered by a number of manufacturers as standard equipment for 1904, in 1912, Cadillac integrated their vehicles Delco electrical ignition and lighting system, creating the modern vehicle electrical system. The 1924 Bilux bulb was the first modern unit, having the light for both low and high beams of a headlamp emitting from a single bulb, a similar design was introduced in 1925 by Guide Lamp called the Duplo.
In 1927, the foot-operated dimmer switch or dip switch was introduced, 1933–34 Packards were equipped with tri-beam headlamps, the bulbs having three filaments. From highest to lowest, the beams were called country passing, country driving, the last vehicle with a foot-operated dimmer switch were the 1991 Ford F-Series and E-Series vans. Fog lamps were new for 1938 Cadillacs, and their 1954 Autronic Eye system automated the selection of high, directional lighting was introduced in the rare, one-year-only 1935 Tatra 77a, and popularised by the Citroen DS. This made it possible to turn the light in the direction of travel when the wheel was turned. Because the law was written to prevent bad headlights, it by design looks backwards and has not been able to deal with improved. In 1957, the law changed slightly, permitting Americans to possess vehicles with four 5. 75-inch round sealed beam headlamps, and in 1974, these lights were permitted to be rectangular as well. Clear aerodynamic headlight covers were illegal in the U. S. until 1983, so a work-around was used for the U. S. market, the pop-up headlight.
This headlamp format was not widely accepted in continental Europe, which found replaceable bulbs and variations in the size and this led to different front-end designs for each side of the Atlantic for decades. Technology moved forward in the rest of the world, the first halogen lamp for vehicle headlamp use, the H1, was introduced in 1962 by a European consortium of bulb and headlamp makers. Shortly thereafter, headlamps using the new light source were introduced in Europe and these were effectively prohibited in the US, where standard-size sealed beam headlamps were mandatory and intensity regulations were low. US lawmakers faced pressure to act, both due to lighting effectiveness and vehicle aerodynamics/fuel savings, halogen sealed beams now dominate the sealed beam market, which has declined steeply since replaceable-bulb headlamps were permitted in 1983. High-intensity discharge systems were introduced in the early 1990s, first in the BMW 7-series, 1996s Lincoln Mark VIII was an early American effort at HIDs, and was the only car with DC HIDs
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed. In British English, the term refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft, differential. In American English, the term more specifically to the gearbox alone. The most common use is in vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping. The transmission reduces the engine speed to the slower wheel speed. Transmissions are used on bicycles, fixed machines. Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies and this switching may be done manually or automatically. Directional control may be provided, single-ratio transmissions exist, which simply change the speed and torque of motor output.
The output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, while a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation, automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in conjunction with an ecm. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in speed with a reduction of torque. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the rotational direction of power transmission.
Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios, in this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque
Top Gear (2002 TV series)
Top Gear is a British television series about motor vehicles, primarily cars. It is a version of the original 1977 show of the same name, airing since 2002. Following negative feedback for the series, Evans resigned, with the BBC choosing to retain the other five presenters and assigning LeBlanc, first-run episodes are broadcast in the United Kingdom on BBC Two and BBC Two HD. From series 14–19, before the launch of the dedicated BBC Two HD channel, the series is carried on cable television systems in the United States via BBC America, in Latin America via BBC Entertainment and in Europe and South-East Asia via BBC Knowledge. Following the decision by the BBC to cancel Top Gear in 2001, Jeremy Clarkson, Lotus assisted in the design of a race circuit at the site for use by the programme. While the celebrity segment was referred to as Star in a Reasonably Priced Car, addition segments were added in – The Cool Wall, in most of the early series, the presenters regularly destroyed a caravan. As a direct result, the ordered that filming continued at Dunsfold during May of that year, despite having no permit to do so.
Both the BBC and the Health and Safety Executive carried out inquiries into the accident, that summer, on 25 July, the BBC aired a special edition episode entitled Top Gear, Polar Special. Popularity the show rose to levels, that the waiting list to get a ticket for a recording was extensive. Featuring breath-taking stunts, amazing special effects and blockbusting driving sequences featuring some of the worlds best precision drivers, the Live tour began on 30 October 2008 in Earls Court, moving on to Birmingham in November before being performed in at least 15 other countries worldwide. But ironically, that does mean trying new things to the last, even if they screw up, well, it means you never stopped trying. On 1 April 2015, it was announced that the Top Gear Live stage shows were to continue under the banner of Clarkson and May Live, shortly afterwards, Richard Hammond confirmed he would not be returning to the show. On 16 June, that year, the BBC confirmed that the final films would air as a compilation on 28 June, anchored by Hammond.
Production delays and scheduling conflicts led to the series being aired on 29 May 2016. Newspaper articles highlighted that the show struggled with viewing figures, on 4 July, following the series finale, Evans announced that he would be leaving Top Gear after having hosted only six episodes. The most common used in the show are Car Reviews, Power Laps, Star in a Reasonably Priced Car, Cool Wall. One of the segments of Top Gear, Car Reviews focuses on the presenters conducting a road-test of a car, looking at such factors as ride quality, handling, practicality. Their reviews are conducted on and around Top Gears test track, or on the roads of Britain
Sealy is a city in Austin County in southeastern Texas, United States, within the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan area. The population was 6,019 at the 2010 census, Sealy is located 50 miles west of the downtown Houston area. Sealy is located at 29°46′27″N 96°9′27″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 15.5 square miles, of which,13.38 square miles of it is land and 0.16 square miles is water. Sealy is 50 miles west of Downtown Houston, san Felipe, sold part of its original 22, 000-acre township to the Gulf and Santa Fe Railroad to create Sealy in 1879. Sealy gets its name after business tycoon and majority stock holder of the GCSF RR, in 1881, Daniel Haynes, a cotton gin builder, filled a request for a cotton-filled mattress which started a company. He named this the Sealy Mattress Company after the town, business grew exponentially, which led to more innovation and several patents, such as a machine that compressed cotton. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,248 people,1,882 households, the population density was 759.3 people per square mile.
There were 2,077 housing units at a density of 300.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 75. 1% White,12. 3% African American,0. 30% Native American,0. 55% Asian,12. 88% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 30. 43% of the population. 24. 5% of all households were made up of individuals and 11. 7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.30. In the city, the population was out with 30. 2% under the age of 18,9. 3% from 18 to 24,28. 9% from 25 to 44,19. 2% from 45 to 64. The median age was 33 years, for every 100 females there were 91.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.8 males, the median income for a household in the city was $34,277, and the median income for a family was $40,348. Males had an income of $28,720 versus $20,793 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,986, about 11. 2% of families and 15. 6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18. 9% of those under age 18 and 13. 5% of those age 65 or over.
People who live in Sealy are zoned to schools in Sealy Independent School District, the schools in Sealy ISD are Selman Elementary School, Selman Intermediate School, Sealy Junior High School, and Sealy High School. All of the schools are in Sealy, blinn College has a Sealy Campus located along Interstate 10 east of State Highway 36. The Greyhound Bus Lines operates the Sealy Station at Mazac Muffler City AC
Michelin is a French tire manufacturer based in Clermont-Ferrand in the Auvergne région of France. It is one of the four largest tire manufacturers in the world along with Goodyear, Continental, in addition to the Michelin brand, it owns the BFGoodrich, Tigar, Riken and Uniroyal tire brands. Michelins numerous inventions include the removable tire, the pneurail and the radial tire, Michelin manufactures tires for space shuttles, automobiles, heavy equipment and bicycles. In 2012, the Group produced 166 million tires at 69 facilities located in 18 countries, in 1889 two brothers, Édouard Michelin and André Michelin, ran a rubber factory in Clermont-Ferrand, France. One day, a cyclist whose pneumatic tire needed repair turned up at the factory, the tire was glued to the rim, and it took over three hours to remove and repair the tire, which needed to be left overnight to dry. The next day, Édouard Michelin took the repaired bicycle into the yard to test. After only a few hundred metres, the tire failed, despite the setback, Édouard was enthusiastic about the pneumatic tire, and he and his brother worked on creating their own version, one that did not need to be glued to the rim.
Michelin was incorporated on 28 May 1889, in 1891 Michelin took out its first patent for a removable pneumatic tire which was used by Charles Terront to win the worlds first long distance cycle race, the 1891 Paris–Brest–Paris. In the 1920s and 1930s, Michelin operated large rubber plantations in Vietnam, conditions at these plantations led to the famous labour movement Phu Rieng Do. In 1934, Michelin introduced a tire which, if punctured, would run on a special foam lining, the radial was initially marketed as the X tire. It was developed with the front-wheel-drive Citroën Traction Avant and Citroën 2CV in mind, Michelin had bought the then-bankrupt Citroën in the 1930s. Because of its superiority in handling and fuel economy, use of this quickly spread throughout Europe. In the U. S. the outdated bias-ply tire persisted, in 1968, Consumer Reports, an influential American magazine, acknowledged the superiority of the radial construction, setting off a rapid decline in Michelins competitor technology.
In the U. S. the radial tire now has a share of 100%. In 1989, Michelin acquired the recently merged tire and rubber manufacturing divisions of the American firms B. F. Goodrich Company and Uniroyal, Uniroyal Australia had already been bought by Bridgestone in 1980. This purchase included the Norwood, North Carolina manufacturing plant which supplied tires to the U. S, Michelin controls 90% of Taurus Tire in Hungary, as well as Kormoran, a Polish brand. As of 1 September 2008, Michelin is again the worlds largest tire manufacturer after spending two years as number two behind Bridgestone. Michelin produces tires in France, Germany, the USA, on 15 January 2010, Michelin announced the closing of its Ota, Japan plant, which employs 380 workers and makes the Michelin X-Ice tire