Copenhagen Opera House
The Copenhagen Opera House is the national opera house of Denmark, and among the most modern opera houses in the world. It is one of the most expensive houses ever built with construction costs well over US$500 million. It is located on the island of Holmen in central Copenhagen, the A. P. Møller and Chastine Mc-Kinney Møller Foundation donated the Opera House to the Danish state in August 2000. Architect Henning Larsen and engineers Ramboll and Buro Happold and Theatre Consultant Theatreplan designed the facility, the acoustics were designed by Arup Acoustics and Speirs and Major Associates designed the architectural lighting. A. P. Møller had the say in the design of the building, adding steel to the glass front. Construction began in June 2001 and was completed on October 1,2004 and it opened on January 15,2005, in the presence of Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller, Danish Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen, and Queen Margrethe II. The tenor Plácido Domingo made a gala guest appearance as Sigmund in Wagners Die Walküre on April 7,2006, in a production by Kasper Bech Holten), the Denmark leg of the Red Bull Cliff Diving World Series takes place here.
The Opera is located in Copenhagen just opposite the main castle Amalienborg at the shore of the harbour, the specific part of the island where the Opera was built is named Dokøen, which means the Dock Island. Just a few meters west of the opera, one can see an old dock. The house is administered by the Royal Danish Theatre and is one of the best-equipped in the world and it has a main stage with five other stages directly connected, where large setups can be moved easily in and out. The theatre can seat between 1492 and 1703, depending on the size of the orchestra, the 1492 seats are all individually angled in order to provide the best experience. The orchestra pit is one of the largest in any house, with room for 110 musicians. However, the overhang is very slight and the authorities have permitted this to happen, if the orchestra is small or absent, the pit can be covered and additional seats can be added to the auditorium. Just like the old Royal Danish Theatre in Copenhagen, The Queen has her own box on the side of the auditorium.
Guided tours cover most of the building, including both the auditorium and backstage areas, besides the main stage, the building includes a small stage for experimental theatre, a so-called black box theatre called Takkelloftet. It was named after the original Takkelloftet, a building just south of the Opera 280 meters long, thus the opera maintains a connection to the marine history of its location. Everything on the stage and in the area is totally black. There are up to approximately 200 seats for this stage, in this room, some of the walls are decorated using the same Jura Gelb limestone as outdoor
Riyadh is the capital and most populous city of Saudi Arabia. It is the capital of Riyadh Province and belongs to the regions of Najd. It is situated in the center of the Arabian Peninsula on a large plateau, the current mayor of Riyadh is Ibrahim Mohammed Al-Sultan. He was appointed mayor in 2015 and it has been designated a global city. During the Pre-Islamic era the city at the site was called Hajr, Hajr served as the capital of the province of Al Yamamah, whose governors were responsible for most of central and eastern Arabia during the Umayyad and Abbasid eras. Al-Yamamah broke away from the Abbasid Empire in 866 and the area fell under the rule of the Ukhaydhirites, the city went into a long period of decline. In the 14th century, North African traveller Ibn Battuta wrote of his visit to Hajr, describing it as the city of Al-Yamamah. Later on, Hajr broke up several separate settlements and estates. The most notable of these were Migrin and Mikal, though the name Hajr continued to appear in local folk poetry, the earliest known reference to the area by the name Riyadh comes from a 17th-century chronicler reporting on an event from the year 1590.
In 1737, Deham ibn Dawwas, a refugee from neighboring Manfuha, Ibn Dawwas built a single wall to encircle the various quarters of Riyadh, making them effectively a single town. In 1744, Muhammad ibn Abdel Wahhab formed an alliance with Muhammad ibn Saud, Ibn Saud set out to conquer the surrounding region with the goal of bringing it under the rule of a single Islamic state. Ibn Dawwas of Riyadh led the most determined resistance, allied forces from Al Kharj, Al Ahsa. However, Ibn Dawwas fled and Riyadh capitulated to the Saudis in 1774, ending years of wars. The First Saudi State was destroyed by forces sent by Muhammad Ali of Egypt, Ottoman forces razed the Saudi capital Diriyah in 1818. They had maintained a garrison at Najd and this marked the decline of the House of Saud for a short time. In 1823, Turki ibn Abdallah chose Riyadh as the new capital, following the assassination of Turki in 1834, his eldest son Faisal killed the assassin and took control, and refused to be controlled by the Viceroy of Egypt.
Najd was invaded and Faisal taken captive and held in Cairo, in 1889, Abdul Rahman bin Faisal, the third son of Faisal again regained control over Najd and ruled till 1891, where after the control was regained by Muhammad bin Raschid. Internecine struggles between Turkis grandsons led to the fall of the Second Saudi State in 1891 at the hand of the rival Al Rashid clan, the al-Masmak fort dates from that period
Arne Emil Jacobsen, Hon. FAIA was a Danish architect and designer. He is remembered for his contribution to architectural Functionalism as well as for the success he enjoyed with simple. Arne Jacobsen was born on 11 February 1902 in Copenhagen and his father Johan was a wholesale trader in safety pins and snap fasteners. His mother Pouline was a bank teller whose hobby was painting floral motifs and he first hoped to become a painter but was dissuaded by his father who encouraged him to opt instead for the more secure domain of architecture. Still a student, in 1925 Jacobsen participated in the Paris Art Deco fair, Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes, on that trip, he was struck by the pioneering aesthetic of Le Corbusiers LEsprit Nouveau pavilion. Before leaving the Academy, Jacobsen travelled to Germany, where he acquainted with the rationalist architecture of Mies van der Rohe. Their work influenced his early designs including his graduation project, an art gallery, after completing architecture school, he first worked at city architect Poul Holsøes architectural practice.
It was a spiral-shaped, flat-roofed house in glass and concrete, incorporating a private garage, a boathouse, other striking features were windows that rolled down like car windows, a conveyor tube for the mail and a kitchen stocked with ready-made meals. A Dodge Cabriolet Coupé was parked in the garage, there was a Chris Craft in the boathouse, Jacobsen immediately became recognised as an ultra-modern architect. The year after winning the House of the Future award, Arne Jacobsen set up his own office and he designed the functionalist Rothenborg House, which he planned in every detail, a characteristic of many of his works. Soon afterwards, he won a competition from Gentofte Municipality for the design of a resort complex in Klampenborg on the Øresund coast just north of Copenhagen. The various components of the resort became his major breakthrough in Denmark. In 1932, the first item, the Bellevue Sea Bath, was completed, Jacobsen designed everything from the characteristic blue-striped lifeguard towers and changing cabins to the tickets, season cards and even the uniforms of the employees.
The focal point of the area was supposed to have been a tower, more than a hundred metres high with a revolving restaurant at the top. Still, it is reflected in the arrangement of buildings in the area which all follow lines that extend from their missing centre. In 1934, came the Bellavista residential development, built in concrete and glass, with surfaces and open floor planning. Completing the white trilogy in 1937, the Bellevue Theatre featured a retractable roof allowing open-air performances and these early works clearly show the influence of the White Cubist architecture Jacobsen had encountered in Germany, particularly at the Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart. The cluster of buildings at Bellevue includes the Skovshoved Filling Station
Aga Khan Award for Architecture
The Aga Khan Award for Architecture is an architectural prize established by Aga Khan IV in 1977. It is presented in three-year cycles to multiple projects and has a monetary award, uniquely among architectural awards, it recognizes projects and stakeholders in addition to buildings and people. The award is associated with the Aga Khan Trust for Culture, the award is aimed at societies in which Muslims have a significant presence. It is organised on the basis of a cycle and is governed by a steering committee chaired by the Aga Khan IV. The Chairmans Award is given in honour of accomplishments that fall outside the mandate of the Master Jury, the Aga Khan Foundation funded the television series Architects on the Frontline which was about entries to the competition. Prizes totalling up to US$ 1m, constituting the largest architectural award in the world, are presented three years to projects selected by the Master Jury. Since 1977, documentation has been compiled on over 7500 building projects located throughout the world of which over 100 projects have received awards, the current 12th Award Cycle runs from 2011-2013.
The 1980 award ceremony took place at the Shalimar Gardens in Lahore, during this cycle, the Chairmans Award was given to Hassan Fathy in recognition of his lifelong commitment to architecture in the Muslim world. Prominent architect Muzharul Islam was a member of the Master Jury of the first Aga Khan Award for Architecture, six winners were chosen from among 213 entries. The Social Security Complex and Dar Lamane Housing address the issues of community, the Chairmans Award for Lifetime Achievements was given to Iraqi architect Rifat Chadirji. The fourth cycle of the award considered 241 project nominations, of these,32 were short-listed for technical review and the Master Jury selected 11 winners. Meanwhile, the Grameen Bank Housing Programme and Sidi el-Aloui Primary School apply architectural solutions to address current socioeonomic issues, uzbek government released a postal stamp to commemorate the award ceremony & restoration of Registan Square in Partnership with Aga Khan Trust for Culture.
The Master Jury selected seven winning projects of the 424 presented, during this cycle, special emphasis was placed on projects that responded creatively to the emerging forces of globalization. The Lepers Hospital created a sustainable and dignified shelter for a segment of society. The remaining projects were recognized for their contribution in evolving an architectural vocabulary in response to social and environmental challenges. During this cycle, the Chairmans Award was given to Geoffrey Bawa to honour and celebrate his achievements in. During the ninth cycle,378 projects were nominated, of these,23 were site-reviewed, and the Master Jury selected seven award recipients. Other winning projects include a school in Gando, Burkina Faso
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek
The Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek is an art museum in Copenhagen, Denmark. The collection is built around the collection of Carl Jacobsen. However, the museum is noted for its collection of painting that includes an extensive collection of French impressionists and Post-impressionists as well as Danish Golden Age paintings. The museums collection includes all the sculptures of Degas, including the series of dancers. Numerous works by Norwegian-Danish sculptor Stephan Sinding are featured prominently in various sections of the museum, Carl Jacobsen was a dedicated art collector. He was particularly interested in art, but over the years he acquired a considerable collection of French. When his private villa in 1882 was extended with a winter garden, the same year the collection was opened to the public. In the following years the museum was expanded on a number of occasions to meet the need for space for his steadily growing collections. In spite of the extensions, it was finally clear the existing premises were inadequate.
On 8 March 1888 Carl Jacobsen donated his collection to the Danish State, Jacobsen was displeased with the location which he found to be too far from the city centre and he had reservations about the proximity of Tivoli which he found common. Instead he wanted a building on the new city hall square. It was Carl Jacobsen who chose the name for the museum, with inspiration from Ludwig Is Glyptothek in Munich, the moat around the radan was filled and the new museum opened first on 1 May 1897. At first it only included Jacobsens modern collection with French and Danish works from the 18th century, in January 1899 Carl Jacobsen donated his collection of Antique art to the museum which made an expansion necessary. It was designed by Hack Kampmann while Dahlerup designed a garden which connected the new wing to the old building. In 1996 the museum was again extended, this time with an infill constructed in one of its courtyards to the design of Henning Larsen. In 2006, the building underwent a major renovation programme under the direction of Danish architects Dissing + Weitling. the building is often noted for its elegance in its own right and the synthesis it creates with the works of art.
The Dahlerup Wing, the oldest part of the museum, is a lavish historicist building, the façade is in red brick with polished granite columns in a Venetian renaissance style. It houses the French and Danish collections, the Kampmann Wing is a more simple, neo-classical building, built as a series of galleries around a central auditorium used for lectures, small concerts and poetry readings
Architectural Association School of Architecture
Its wide-ranging programme of exhibitions, lectures and publications have given it a central position in global discussions and developments within contemporary architectural culture. The foundation of the Architectural Association was as an alternative to the practice where young men were articled to established architects and this practise offered no guarantee for educational quality or professional standards. The AA believed it was open to vested interests, abuse and this situation led two articled pupils, Robert Kerr and Charles Gray, to propose a systematic course of training provided by the students themselves. Kerr became the first president, 1847–48, the AA School was formally established in 1890. In 1901, it moved premises to the former Royal Architectural Museum, in 1917, it moved again, to its current premises in Bedford Square, central London. The school has acquired property on Morwell Street behind Bedford Square. Women were first admitted as students to the AA School during the First World War in 1917.
The students of the AA have been addressed by many eminent figures, from John Ruskin and George Gilbert Scott in the 19th century, to more recently Richard Rogers, recently launched programmes Projective Cities, Design + Make and Interprofessional Studio. The school has a bookshop, containing a range of architectural books, the bookshop is used as a platform for the AAs own books. AA Publications are designed and edited by the AA Print Studio, the school had its own independent radio station. The school is notable as existing outside the university system. It is noted that due to its nature of an independent school and it exists outside the UCAS application system, even at undergraduate/first degree level direct application is the norm. It is not included in books which guide potential undergraduates to choose appropriate courses. Howard Robertson Alvin Boyarsky Alan Balfour Mohsen Mostafavi John Summerson, The Architectural Association 1847–1947, Pleiades Books, official website Bedford Press AA Publications
American Institute of Architects
The American Institute of Architects is a professional organization for architects in the United States. The AIA works with members of the design and construction team to help coordinate the building industry. The AIA is currently headed by Robert Ivy, FAIA as EVP/Chief Executive Officer and Thomas V. Vonier, with Richard Upjohn serving as the first president. They met on February 23,1857 and decided to invite 16 other prominent architects to join them, including Alexander Jackson Davis, Thomas U. Prior to their establishment of the AIA, anyone could claim to be an architect and they drafted a constitution and bylaws by March 10,1857, under the name New York Society of Architects. Walter, of Philadelphia, suggested the name be changed to American Institute of Architects, the members signed the new constitution on April 15,1857, having filed a certificate of incorporation two days earlier. As of 2008, AIA has more than 300 chapters, the AIA is headquartered at 1735 New York Avenue, NW in Washington, D. C.
A design competition was held in the mid-1960s to select an architect for a new AIA headquarters in Washington, mitchell/Giurgola won the design competition but failed to get approval of the design concept from the United States Commission of Fine Arts. The firm resigned the commission and helped select The Architects Collaborative to redesign the building, the design, led by TAC principals Norman Fletcher and Howard Elkus, was ultimately approved in 1970 and completed in 1973. More than 90,000 licensed architects and associated professionals are members, AIA members adhere to a code of ethics and professional conduct intended to assure clients, the public, and colleagues of an architects dedication to the highest standards in professional practice. There are five levels of membership in the AIA, Architect members are licensed to practice architecture in the United States, international associate members hold an architecture license or the equivalent from a licensing authority outside the United States.
Emeritus members have been AIA members for 15 successive years and are at least 65 years of age or are incapacitated, allied membership is a partnership with the AIA and the American Architectural Foundation. The AIA’s most prestigious honor is the designation of a member as a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects and this membership is awarded to members who have made contributions of national significance to the profession. Slightly more than 2,600, or 2% of all members, have elevated to the AIA College of Fellows. Foreign architects of prominence may be elected to the College as Honorary Fellows of the AIA, the AIA is governed by a Board of Directors and has a staff of over 200 full-time employees. Although the AIA functions as an organization, at its heart are some 300 local. The components are spread throughout the United States, United Kingdom, Japan, by speaking with a united voice, AIA architects influence government practices that affect the practice of the profession and the quality of American life.
The AIA monitors legislative and regulatory actions and uses the power of its membership to participate in decisionmaking by federal, state