Malacology is the branch of invertebrate zoology that deals with the study of the Mollusca, the second-largest phylum of animals in terms of described species after the arthropods. Mollusks include snails and slugs, clams and squid, numerous other kinds, many of which have shells. One division of malacology, conchology, is devoted to the study of mollusk shells. Malacology derives from Greek μαλακός, malakos, "soft". Fields within malacological research include taxonomy and evolution. Applied malacology studies medical and agricultural applications, for example mollusks as vectors of disease, as in schistosomiasis. Archaeology employs malacology to understand the evolution of the climate, the biota of the area, the usage of the site. In 1681, Filippo Bonanni wrote the first book published, about seashells, the shells of marine mollusks; the book was entitled: Ricreatione dell' occhio e dela mente nell oservation' delle Chiociolle, proposta a' curiosi delle opere della natura, &c. In 1868, the German Malacological Society was founded.
Zoological methods are used in malacological research. Malacological field methods and laboratory methods were summarized by Sturm et al.. Those who study malacology are known as malacologists; those who study or the shells of mollusks are known as conchologists. American Malacological Society Association of Polish Malacologists Belgian Malacological Society - French speaking Belgian Society for Conchology - Dutch speaking Conchological Society of Great Britain and Ireland Conchologists of America Dutch Malacological Society Estonian Malacological Society European Quaternary Malacologists Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Society German Malacological Society Hungarian Malacological Society Magyar Malakológiai Társaság Italian Malacological Society Malacological Society of Australasia Malacological Society of London Malacological Society of the Philippines, Inc. Mexican Malacological Society Spanish Malacological Society Western Society of Malacologists Brazilian Malacological Society More than 150 journals within the field of malacology are being published from more than 30 countries, producing an overwhelming amount of scientific articles.
They include: American Journal of Conchology American Malacological Bulletin Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology Basteria Bulletin of Russian Far East Malacological Society Fish & Shellfish Immunology Folia conchyliologica Folia Malacologica Heldia Johnsonia Journal de Conchyliologie - volumes 1850-1922 at Biodiversity Heritage Library. The Conchologist -> The Journal of Malacology The Festivus - a peer-reviewed journal which started as a club newsletter in 1970, published by the San Diego Shell Club. The Nautilus - since 1886 published by Bailey-Matthews Shell Museum. First two volumes were published under name The Conchologists’ Exchange. Impact factor: 0.500 The Veliger - impact factor: 0.606 貝類学雑誌 Venus Vita Malacologica a Dutch journal published in English -- one themed issue a year. Vita Marina Museums that have either exceptional malacological research collections and/or exceptional public exhibits of mollusks: Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia American Museum of Natural History Bailey-Matthews Shell Museum Cau del Cargol Shell Museum Maria Mitchell Association Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard Rinay Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels: with a collection of more than 9 million shells Smithsonian Institution Invertebrate paleontology History of invertebrate paleozoology Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology Cox L. R. & Peake J. F..
Proceedings of the First European Malacological Congress. September 17–21, 1962. Text in English with black-and-white photographic reproductions maps and diagrams. Published by the Conchological Society of Great Britain and Ireland and the Malacological Society of London in 1965 with no ISBN. Heppel D.. "The long dawn of Malacology: a brief history of malacology from prehistory to the year 1800." Archives of Natural History 22: 301-319. Media related to Malacology at Wikimedia Commons Periodicals about molluscs at WorldCat
Arques-la-Bataille is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in north-western France. Arques is situated near the confluence of the rivers Eaulne, Varenne and Béthune, with the forest of Arques to the north-east, it lies 4 miles southeast of Dieppe at the junction of the D23, D56 roads. The centre houses a castle dominating the town, built in the 11th century by William of Talou. After changing hands, it came into the possession of the English, who were expelled in 1449 after an occupation of thirty years. In 1589, its cannon decided the battle of Arques in favor of Henry IV. Since 1869, the castle has been state property; the first line of fortification was the work of Francis I. The church of Arques, a building of the 16th century, preserves a stone rood screen, stained glass and other relics of the Renaissance period. Just outside the town is the World War I Commonwealth War Graves Commission cemetery, designed by J R Truelove, the final resting place of 377 men of the South African Native Labour Corps.
Willa Cather's 1907 short story "Eleanor's House" is set in Arques-la-Bataille. Communes of the Seine-Maritime department Chinese Labour Corps INSEE Official website of Arques-la-Bataille photo gallery of Arques The CWGC cemetery Arques on the Quid information website Detailed history of the castle with photos and illustrations
French Second Republic
The French Second Republic was a short-lived republican government of France under President Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte. It lasted from the 1848 Revolution to the 1851 coup by which the president made himself Emperor Napoleon III and initiated the Second Empire, it adopted the motto of the First Republic, Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité. The Second Republic witnessed the tension between the "Social and Democratic Republic" and a Radical form of republicanism, which exploded during the June Days uprising of 1848; the 1848 Revolution in France, sometimes known as the February Revolution, was one of a wave of revolutions across Europe in that year. The events led to the creation of the nation's second republic; the Revolution of 1830, part of a wave of similar regime changes across Europe, had put an end to the absolute monarchy of the Bourbon Resturation and installed a more liberal constitutional monarchy under the Orleans dynasty and governed predominantly by Guizot's conservative-liberal centre-right and Thiers's progressive-liberal centre-left.
But to the left of the dynastic parties, the monarchy was criticised by Republicans for being insufficiently democratic: its electoral system was based on a narrow, privileged electorate of property-owners and therefore excluded workers. During the 1840s several petitions requesting electoral reform had been issued by the National Guard, but had been rejected by both of the main dynastic parties. Political meetings dedicated to this issue were banned by the government, electoral reformers therefore bypassed the ban by holding a series of'banquets', events where political debate was disguised as dinner speeches; this movement began overseen by Odilon Barrot's moderate centre-left liberal critics of Guizot's coservative government, but took on a life of its own after 1846, when economic crisis encouraged ordinary workers to demand a say over government. On 14 February 1848 Guizot's government decided to put an end to the banquets, on the grounds of constituting illegal political assembly. On 22 February, striking workers and republican students took to the streets, demanding an end to Guizot's government, erected barricades.
Odilon Barriot called a motion of no confidence in Guizot, hoping that this might satisfy the rioters, but the Chamber of Deputies sided with the premier. The government called a state of emergency, thinking it could rely on the troops of the National Guard, but instead on the morning of 23 February the Guardsmen sided with the revolutionaries, protecting them from the regular soldiers who by now had been called in; the industrial population of the faubourgs was welcomed by the National Guard on their way towards the centre of Paris. Barricades were raised after the shooting of protestors outside the Guizot manor by soldiers. On 23 February 1848 premier François Guizot's cabinet resigned, abandoned by the petite bourgeoisie, on whose support they thought they could depend; the heads of the more left-leaning conservative-liberal monarchist parties, Louis-Mathieu Molé and Adolphe Thiers, declined to form a government. Odilon Barrot accepted, Thomas Robert Bugeaud, commander-in-chief of the first military division, who had begun to attack the barricades, was recalled.
In the face of the insurrection that had now taken possession of the whole capital, King Louis-Philippe abdicated in favour of his grandson, Prince Philippe, Count of Paris claimed by Alphonse de Lamartine in the name of the provisional government elected by the Chamber of Deputies under the pressure of the mob. This provisional government with Dupont de l'Eure as its president, consisted of Lamartine for foreign affairs, Crémieux for justice, Ledru-Rollin for the interior, Carnot for public instruction, Goudchaux for finance, Arago for the navy, Burdeau for war. Garnier-Pagès was mayor of Paris. But, as in 1830, the republican-socialist party had set up a rival government at the Hôtel de Ville, including Louis Blanc, Armand Marrast, Ferdinand Flocon, Alexandre Martin, known as Albert L'Ouvrier, which bid fair to involve discord and civil war, but this time the Palais Bourbon was not victorious over the Hôtel de Ville. It had to consent to a fusion of the two bodies, in which, the predominating elements were the moderate republicans.
It was uncertain. One party seeing that in spite of the changes in the last sixty years of all political institutions the position of the people had not been improved, demanded a reform of society itself, the abolition of the privileged position of property, which they viewed as the only obstacle to equality, as an emblem hoisted the red flag; the other party wished to maintain society on the basis of its traditional institutions, rallied round the tricolore. As a concession made by Lamartine to popular aspirations, in exchange of the maintaining of the tricolor flag, he conceded the Republican triptych of Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité, written on the flag, on which a red rosette was to be added; the first collision took place as to the form. Lamartine wished for them to maintain their original principles, with the whole country as supreme, whereas the revolutionaries under Ledru-Rollin wished for the republic of Paris to hold a monopoly on political power. On 5 March the government, under the pressure of the Parisian clubs, decided in favour of an immediate reference to the people, direct universal suffrage, adjourned it until 26 April.
This added t
The Gare Saint-Lazare Paris-Saint-Lazare, is one of the six large terminus railway stations of Paris. It serves train services toward Normandy, northwest of Paris, along the Paris–Le Havre railway. Saint-Lazare is the second busiest station in Paris, after the Gare du Nord, it handles 275,000 passengers each day. The station was designed by architect Juste Lisch, the maître de l'oeuvre was Eugene Flachat; the first station at St Lazare was 200 m north-west of its current position, called Embarcadère des Batignolles. The station was opened by Marie-Amélie on 24 August 1837; the first line served was the single track line to Le Pecq. In 1843 St-Lazare was the terminus for three lines; the station had 14 platforms in 1854 after several enlargements, now has 27 platforms sorted in six destination groups. On 27 April 1924 the inner suburban lines were electrified with 750 V third rail; the same lines were re-electrified at 25 kV overhead wires in the 1960s. On 21 March 2012, a new three-level shopping mall with 80 shops opened inside the passenger hall.
The Gare Saint-Lazare is situated in the 8th arrondissement, in a dense business and shopping area of Paris. The Gare Saint-Lazare has been represented in a number of artworks, it attracted artists during the Impressionist period and many of them lived close to the Gare St-Lazare during the 1870s and 1880s. Édouard Manet lived close at 4 rue de Saint-Pétersbourg. Two years after moving to the area he showed his painting The Railway, at the Paris Salon in 1874. Painted from the backyard of a friend's house on the nearby rue de Rome, this canvas, now in the National Gallery of Art at Washington D. C. portrays a woman with a book as she sits facing us in front of an iron fence. At the time of its first exhibition it was caricatured and the subject of ridicule. Gustave Caillebotte lived just a short walk away from the station, he painted Le Pont de l’Europe in 1876 and On the Pont de l'Europe in 1876-80. While the former picture looks across the bridge with the ironworks diagonally crossing the picture to the right, with a scene of interacting figures on the bridge to the left, the latter depicts the iron structure of the bridge face-on in a strong close-up of its industrial geometry, with three male figures to the left side of the painting all looking in different directions.
In 1877, painter Claude Monet rented a studio near the Gare Saint Lazare. That same year he exhibited seven paintings of the railway station in an impressionist painting exhibition, he completed 11 paintings of this subject. Oscar-Claude Monet's series of the Gare Saint-Lazare train station was one of his most famous series in his lifetime. Monet was one of the most important and influential painters in the Impressionist movement in the 19th century, he was a strong proponent of plein-air landscape painting. Artists such as Gustave Caillebotte, Edgar Degas and Berthe Morisot, do this in order to portray the scene in the moment instead of creating the painting from what they could remember. Monet and others who followed the Impressionism Movement were not accepted in the Salon de Paris, because of their rejection of the academies’ teachings of form, subject matter etc. so instead they decided to open a new exhibition on their own Impressionist Exhibition in April 1874. Claude Monet's depiction of this train station is an astonishing composition in which the hard-edged discs of the railroad signals hover above a scribbled swirl of blue and rose clouds of steam, with scrolled white edges, while the sketchy, angular drawing of the tracks and buildings provides contrast.
The flat, opaque circle of the largest signal, placed dead center and thickly painted, is so insistent that it turns the picture into a near-abstraction. The Gare Saint-Lazare piece was shown at the Third Impressionist Exhibition; the Gare Saint-Lazare is far different than Monet's previous paintings of harbors and oceans that viewers had seen before. The Gare Saint-Lazare series of paintings lead the viewers through a tour of the train station in different points of the day. “Monet exemplifies the modern life, in all its chaos and instability,” The steam coming from the trains creates a way of dissolving the train and showing the impressionistic style of blending colors and light. Everything turns into a flurry of blended colors; as said by Émile Zola, “Monet is able to turn a dirty and gritty place into a peaceful and beautiful scene…You can hear the trains rumbling in, see the smoke billow up under the huge roofs…that is where painting is today…our artists have to find the poetry in train station, the way their fathers found the poetry in forests and rivers.”
“Monet’s work on the Gare Saint-Lazare is unparalleled in its evocation of steam and the smoke-filled station. In spite of the impressionist style, the work reproduces the topography of the area allowing one to deduce the precise point where the artist was standing while painting; this is the first time an artist had showed a single theme through a series of variations” The Gare Saint-Lazare itself, a monument to the last word in state-of-the-art transportation, the railroad. Le Quartier de l'Europe, where artists like Claude Monet and Gustave Caillebotte spent a lot of time and painted was, in short, a paradigm of mo
Athenaeum Club, London
The Athenaeum is a private members' club in London, founded in 1824. It is a club for men and women with intellectual interests, for those who have attained some distinction in science, literature or the arts; the impressive clubhouse was designed by Decimus Burton in the Neoclassical style, built by the company Decimus's father, James Burton, the pre-eminent London property developer. Decimus was described by architectural scholar Guy Williams as'the designer and prime member of the Athenaeum, one of London's grandest gentlemens' clubs'; the Clubhouse has a Doric portico, above, a statue of the classical goddess of wisdom, from whom the Club derives its name. The bas-relief frieze is a copy of the frieze of the Parthenon in Athens; the club's facilities include an extensive library, a dining room known as the Coffee Room, a Morning Room, a Drawing Room on the first floor, a newly restored Smoking Room on the upper floor, where smoking is not permitted, a suite of bedrooms. The Athenaeum was founded in 1824 at the instigation of John Wilson Croker Secretary to the Admiralty, responsible for the organisation and early development of the Club.
In 1823, Croker wrote to Sir Humphry Davy, "I will take the opportunity of repeating the proposition I have made to you about a Club for Literary and Scientific men and followers of the Fine Arts. The fashionable and Military Clubs... have spoiled all the Coffee Houses and Taverns so that the artist, or mere literary man... are in a much worse position". Croker suggested 30 names for the Club's organizing Committee, including the Earl of Aberdeen, the Earl of Ashburnham, Earl Spencer, Lord Palmerston, Sir Thomas Lawrence, Francis Chantrey, Robert Smirke the Younger: all of those invited, except Richard Payne Knight, accepted; the first meeting of the Athenaeum, with 14 men present, was held at the rooms of the Royal Society on 16 February 1824. A Committee was formed, the names being proposed by Croker, who wrote that "all depends on having a Committee with a great many good names and a few working hands". A smaller sub-committee was appointed with full powers to do what was necessary to establish the club.
It was resolved that there should be 400 members, of whom 300 were to be appointed by the Committee and the remainder elected by ballot. Sir Humphry Davy became Michael Faraday the first secretary. Faraday soon found that he could not spare the time required and resigned, though he remained a member of the club; the total number of members was increased to 1,000 by December 1824. By May 1824 temporary premises had been rented at 12 Waterloo Place, constructed by the company of Club member James Burton, the pre-eminent London property developer, whose son Decimus Burton 24 years old, was commissioned to design a permanent clubhouse. A site was found to be too small; the next proposed site was on the east side of Trafalgar Square, but the government decided to demolish Carlton House and develop the site and a portion of it was offered to the Athenaeum. The offer was accepted and a long lease was granted by the Crown. Decimus Burton was commissioned to design the Clubhouse at 107 Pall Mall, at the corner of Waterloo Place.
Despite his young age, Decimus Burton had designed many notable buildings in London. Burton's clubhouse is in the Neoclassical style, with a Doric portico with paired columns, has been described by architectural scholar Guy Williams as'a building of remarkable grace and astonishing novelty' with a central staircase that is'distinctly Egyptian in flavour'. Burton made himself responsible for the design of as many of the decorative features of the Club as possible, including the clock-cases and the pendant light-fittings; when the Clubhouse was completed in April 1830, the members of the Club Committee stated, " are bound to express their entire satisfaction at the manner in which the work has been carried out by Mr. Burton, they can testify, indeed the foregoing Accounts evince, the general accuracy of his estimates and they trust that the Club at large, as well as the public, must be satisfied of his professional skill, the beauty of his architectural designs". The original building had two principal storeys.
There is a continuous balustrade on the first floor, with an outstanding but costly frieze, designed by Decimus Burton and executed by John Henning, a leading sculptor of the day, a copy of the marbles from the Parthenon in Athens, depicting the Panathenaic procession, copied from the Parthenon. Croker, much involved in the building of the clubhouse, was determined that it should have the frieze, despite the cost, resisted pressure from some members that an ice-house be part of the scheme. Instead of an Ice-House I give you a... Frieze! The frieze was executed by John Henning at a cost of £1,300. Building works commenced in 1827 and were completed by 1830; the statue of Pallas Athene by Edward Hodges Baily, which stands above the porch, was installed in the same year. The total cost was £43,101 14s 8d; this exceeded the estimate by £ 2,226, attributed to the cost of furniture. The cast of the Apollo Belvedere positioned in the recess at the top of the principal staircase at the Athenaeum was a gift to the Club from Decimus Burton.
A statue of Demosthenes was first installed there but was speedily removed and replaced by the Apollo. T
Physiology is the scientific study of the functions and mechanisms which work within a living system. As a sub-discipline of biology, the focus of physiology is on how organisms, organ systems, organs and biomolecules carry out the chemical and physical functions that exist in a living system. Central to an understanding of physiological functioning is the investigation of the fundamental biophysical and biochemical phenomena, the coordinated homeostatic control mechanisms, the continuous communication between cells; the physiologic state is the condition occurring from normal body function, while the pathological state is centered on the abnormalities that occur in animal diseases, including humans. According to the type of investigated organisms, the field can be divided into, animal physiology, plant physiology, cellular physiology and microbial physiology; the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded to those who make significant achievements in this discipline by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Human physiology seeks to understand the mechanisms that work to keep the human body alive and functioning, through scientific enquiry into the nature of mechanical and biochemical functions of humans, their organs, the cells of which they are composed. The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of systems within systems; the endocrine and nervous systems play major roles in the reception and transmission of signals that integrate function in animals. Homeostasis is a major aspect with regard to such interactions within plants as well as animals; the biological basis of the study of physiology, integration refers to the overlap of many functions of the systems of the human body, as well as its accompanied form. It is achieved through communication that occurs in a variety of both electrical and chemical. Changes in physiology can impact the mental functions of individuals. Examples of this would be toxic levels of substances. Change in behavior as a result of these substances is used to assess the health of individuals.
Much of the foundation of knowledge in human physiology was provided by animal experimentation. Due to the frequent connection between form and function and anatomy are intrinsically linked and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum. Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the functioning of plants. Related fields include plant morphology, plant ecology, cell biology, genetics and molecular biology. Fundamental processes of plant physiology include photosynthesis, plant nutrition, nastic movements, photomorphogenesis, circadian rhythms, seed germination and stomata function and transpiration. Absorption of water by roots, production of food in the leaves, growth of shoots towards light are examples of plant physiology. Although there are differences between animal and microbial cells, the basic physiological functions of cells can be divided into the processes of cell division, cell signaling, cell growth, cell metabolism. Microorganisms can be found everywhere on Earth.
Types of microorganisms include archaea, eukaryotes, protists and micro-plants. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel and other bioactive compounds, they are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora, they are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures. Most microorganisms can reproduce and bacteria are able to exchange genes through conjugation and transduction between divergent species; the study of human physiology as a medical field originates in classical Greece, at the time of Hippocrates. Outside of Western tradition, early forms of physiology or anatomy can be reconstructed as having been present at around the same time in China and elsewhere.
Hippocrates incorporated his belief system called the theory of humours, which consisted of four basic substance: earth, water and fire. Each substance is known for having a corresponding humour: black bile, phlegm and yellow bile, respectively. Hippocrates noted some emotional connections to the four humours, which Claudius Galenus would expand on; the critical thinking of Aristotle and his emphasis on the relationship between structure and function marked the beginning of physiology in Ancient Greece. Like Hippocrates, Aristotle took to the humoral theory of disease, which consisted of four primary qualities in life: hot, cold and dry. Claudius Galenus, known as Galen of Pergamum, was the first to use experiments to probe the functions of the body. Unlike Hippocrates, Galen argued that humoral imbalances can be located in specific organs, including the entire body, his modification of this theory better equipped doctors to make more precise diagnoses. Galen played off of Hippocrates idea that emotions were tied to the humours, added the notion of temperaments: sanguine corresponds with blood.
Galen saw the human body consisting of three connected systems: the brain and nerves, which are responsible for thoughts and sensations.
Horned lizards known as horny toads or horntoads, are a genus of North American lizards and the type genus of the family Phrynosomatidae. The common names refer directly to their flattened, rounded body and blunt snout; the genus name Phrynosoma means "toad-bodied". In common with large true frogs and toads, horned lizards tend to move sluggishly, making them easy to catch, they are adapted to semi-arid areas. The spines on the lizard's back and sides are made from modified reptile scales which prevent the water loss through the skin, whereas the horns on the head are true horns. Of the 22 species of horned lizards, 15 are native to the United States; the largest-bodied and most distributed of the US species is the Texas horned lizard. Horned lizards use a wide variety of means to avoid predation, their coloration serves as camouflage. When threatened, their first defense is to remain still to avoid detection. If approached too they run in short bursts and stop abruptly to confuse the predator's visual acuity.
If this fails, they puff up their bodies to cause them to appear more horned and larger, so that they are more difficult to swallow. At least eight species are able to squirt an aimed stream of blood from the corners of the eyes for a distance of up to 5 feet, they do this by restricting the blood flow leaving the head, thereby increasing blood pressure and rupturing tiny vessels around the eyelids. The blood not only confuses predators, but tastes foul to canine and feline predators, it appears to have no effect against predatory birds. Only three related species are known to be unable to squirt blood. While previous thought held that compounds were added to the blood from glands in the ocular sinus cavity, current research has shown that the chemical compounds that make up the defense are in the circulating blood, it is possible. The blood-squirting mechanism increases survival after contact with canine predators. Ocular autohemorrhaging has been documented in other lizards, which suggests blood-squirting could have evolved from a less extreme defense in the ancestral branch of the genus.
Recent phylogenic research supports this claim, so it appears as though the species incapable of squirting blood have lost the adaptation for reasons yet unstudied. To avoid being picked up by the head or neck, a horned lizard ducks or elevates its head and orients its cranial horns straight up, or back. If a predator tries to take it by the body, the lizard drives that side of its body down into the ground so the predator cannot get its lower jaw underneath. A University of Texas publication notes that horned lizard populations continue to disappear throughout the southwest despite protective legislation; the Texas horned lizard has disappeared from half of its geographic range. Population declines are attributed to loss of habitat, human eradication of the ant populations upon which the lizards prey, displacement of native ant populations by invading fire ants, predation by domestic dogs and cats. In 2014, the Center for Biological Diversity in Tucson, Arizona petitioned the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation to have the Texas horned lizard put on the endangered species list due to the massive declines of its population in Oklahoma, where it was once plentiful.
The Center said it may seek protection for the animal on a Federal level. The following 22 species are recognized as being valid, three species of which have recognized subspecies. Giant horned lizard, Phrynosoma asio Cope, 1864 Phrynosoma bauri Montanucci, 2015 Phrynosoma blainvillii Gray, 1839 Short-tailed horned lizard, Phrynosoma braconnieri A. H. A. Duméril, 1870 Phrynosoma brevirostris Cedros Island horned lizard, Phrynosoma cerroense Stejneger, 1893 Texas horned lizard, Phrynosoma cornutum Coast horned lizard, Phrynosoma coronatum Cape horned lizard, P. c. coronatum California horned lizard, P. c. frontale Van Denburgh, 1894 Central peninsular horned lizard, P. c. jamesi Schmidt, 1922Phrynosoma diminutum Montanucci, 2015 Ditmars' horned lizard or rock horned lizard, Phrynosoma ditmarsi Stejneger, 1906 Pygmy short-horned lizard, Phrynosoma douglasii Phrynosoma goodei Stejneger, 1893 Greater short-horned lizard, Phrynosoma hernandesi Girard, 1858 Flat-tail horned lizard, Phrynosoma mcallii Roundtail horned lizard, Phrynosoma modestum Girard, 1852 Mexican Plateau horned lizard or Chihuahua Desert horned lizard, Phrynosoma orbiculare P. o. bradti Horowitz, 1955 P. o. cortezii P. o. dugesii P. o. orbiculare P. o. orientale Horowitz, 1955Phrynosoma ornatissimum Desert horned lizard, Phrynosoma platyrhinos Girard, 1852Southern desert horned lizard, P. p. calidiarum Northern desert horned lizard, P. p. platyrhinos Girard, 1852Phrynosoma sherbrookei Nieto-Montes de Oca et al. 2014 Regal horned lizard, Phrynosoma solare Gray, 1845 Mexican horned lizard, Phrynosoma taurus Dugès, 1873 Gulf Coast