Serge Alexandrovich Koussevitzky was a Russian-born conductor and double-bassist, known for his long tenure as music director of the Boston Symphony Orchestra from 1924 to 1949. Koussevitzky was born into a Jewish family of professional musicians in Vyshny Volochyok, Tver Governorate, about 250 km northwest of Moscow, Russia, his parents taught him violin and piano. He learned trumpet. At the age of fourteen he received a scholarship to the Musico-Dramatic Institute of the Moscow Philharmonic Society, where he studied double bass with Rambusek and music theory, he excelled at the bass, joining the Bolshoi Theatre orchestra at the age of twenty, in 1894, succeeded his teacher, Rambusek, as the principal bassist in 1901. That same year, according to some sources, he made his début as a soloist in Moscow, although his biographer Moses Smith states he made his solo début earlier in 1896. In 1902 he married the dancer Nadezhda Galat; the same year, with Reinhold Glière's help, he wrote a popular concerto for the double bass, which he premiered in Moscow in 1905.
In 1905, Koussevitzky divorced Nadezhda and married Natalie Ushkova, the daughter of an wealthy tea merchant. He soon resigned from the Bolshoi, the couple moved to Berlin, where Serge studied conducting under Arthur Nikisch, using his new-found wealth to pay off his teacher's gambling debts. In Berlin he continued to give double bass recitals and, after two years practising conducting in his own home with a student orchestra, he hired the Berlin Philharmonic and made his professional début as a conductor in 1908; the concert included Sergei Rachmaninoff's Piano Concerto No. 2, with the composer at the piano. The next year he and his wife returned to Russia, where he founded his own orchestra in Moscow and branched out into the publishing business, forming his own firm, Éditions Russes de Musique, buying the catalogues of many of the greatest composers of the age. Among the composers published by Koussevitzky were Rachmaninoff, Alexander Scriabin, Sergei Prokofiev, Igor Stravinsky, Nikolai Medtner.
During the period 1909 to 1920 he continued to perform as soloist in Europe, in Russia he and his orchestra toured towns along the Volga River by riverboat in 1910, 1912, 1914. The programs included many new works. After the 1917 Russian Revolution, he accepted a position as conductor of the newly named State Philharmonic Orchestra of Petrograd. In 1920, he left Soviet Russia for Paris. In Paris he organized the Concerts Koussevitzky, presenting new works by Prokofiev and Maurice Ravel. In 1924 he took a post in the United States, replacing Pierre Monteux as conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. However, he continued to return to Paris in the summers to conduct his Concerts Koussevitzky until 1929. In 1941 he and his wife became United States citizens. Koussevitzky's appointment as conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra was the beginning of a golden era for the ensemble that would continue until 1949. Over that 25-year period, he built the ensemble's reputation into that of a leading American orchestra.
Together with Gertrude Robinson Smith he played a central role in developing the orchestra's internationally acclaimed summer concert and educational programs at Tanglewood where today the 5,700-seat main performance venue bears his name. In the early 1940s, he discovered a young tenor named Alfred Cocozza, provided him with a scholarship to attend Tanglewood. With the Boston Symphony he made numerous recordings, his students and protégés included Leonard Bernstein, Eleazar de Carvalho, Samuel Adler, Sarah Caldwell. Bernstein once received a pair of cufflinks from Koussevitzky as a gift, thereafter wore them at every concert he conducted. Koussevitzky's second wife Natalie died in 1942, he created the Koussevitzky Music Foundations in her honor. In late 1947, he married Natalie's niece. Naumova had acted as their secretary for 18 years. Olga Naumova was the daughter of the distinguished politician and civil servant Aleksandr Naumov who served as Minister of Agriculture in the Russian Imperial Cabinet.
She has been described as quiet, soft-spoken, Leonard Bernstein and Aaron Copland counted her among their close friends. Koussevitzky died in Boston in 1951 and was buried alongside his wife Natalie at the Church on the Hill Cemetery in Lenox. Koussevitzky was a great champion of modern music, commissioning a number of works from prominent composers. During his time in Paris in the early 1920s he programmed much contemporary music, ensuring well-prepared and good quality performances. Among the well-received premieres were Honegger’s Pacific 231, George Gershwin's Second Rhapsody and Roussel’s Suite in F. For the Boston Symphony Orchestra's 50th anniversary, he commissioned Ravel's Piano Concerto in G, Copland's Ode, Prokofiev's Symphony No. 4, Paul Hindemith's Concert Music for Strings and Brass, Stravinsky's Symphony of Psalms, as well as works by Albert Roussel and Howard Hanson. In 1922, Koussevitzky commissioned Maurice Ravel's arrangement of Modest Mussorgsky's 1874 suite for piano, Pictures at an Exhibition, premiered on 19 October that year and became the most famous and celebrated orchestration of the work.
Koussevitzky held the rights to this version for many years. In 1940, Koussevitzky commissioned Randall Thompson a professor at
Claire Croiza was a French mezzo-soprano and an influential teacher of singers. Claire Croiza was born in Paris, the daughter of an expatriate American father and an Italian mother, as a child she excelled at piano and singing, she was taught singing at first and went to the Polish tenor Jean de Reszke for further study. She made her opera début in Nancy in 1905 in Messaline by Isidore de Lara. In 1906 she made her first appearance at La Monnaie in Brussels, as Dalila in Samson et Dalila, beginning a long association with that theatre which included the roles of Dido, Erda, Carmen, Léonor and the title role in Fauré's opera Pénélope. In 1910 she performed as Alays in the world premiere of Cesare Galeotti’s La Dorise and created the title role in the world premiere of Pierre de Bréville's Éros vainqueur at La Monnaie, it was again as Dalila that she made her Paris Opera début in 1908. Although she first established herself as an operatic singer, she developed her career as a recitalist specialising in mélodies, she undertook recital tours in numerous countries, including frequent visits to London where she was well received.
She had a great feeling for the French language and was always able to enunciate the words in clear and natural way without sacrificing the flow of the music. Several contemporary composers chose to accompany her in performances of their songs, including Ravel, Fauré, Poulenc and Swiss-French composer Arthur Honegger. From 1922, she worked as a teacher, giving classes in interpretation at the École Normale, from 1934 at the Paris Conservatoire, her pupils included Janine Micheau, Suzanne Juyol, the baritones Jacques Jansen, Camille Maurane and Gérard Souzay. In 1926 Croiza gave birth to a son, Jean-Claude, whose father was Honegger, but the parents did not marry, she died in Paris in 1946 at the age of 63. Her reputation was concisely summed up by a reviewer in The Times reporting on a Wigmore Hall concert in 1932: "Mme. Croiza is a supreme interpreter of modern French songs, she brings to them an exquisite sensibility that reveals every shade of meaning in the poems." This view was reinforced in an obituary tribute in The Times: "Her consummate musicianship, unerring in its intuition, sensitiveness and subtlety, exquisite diction and phrasing, combined with deep poetical feeling and a restrained but profoundly moving dramatic sense allied to an unusually wide culture, made her the friend and chosen interpreter of the chief contemporary French composers from Debussy to Poulenc and of the poets Valéry and Claudel."
Her surviving recordings comprise over 40 titles French songs and opera extracts. They have been collected in a 2-CD set by Marston Records: "Claire Croiza: champion of the modern French mélodie". Bannerman, Betty. "Recollections of Claire Croiza", in Bulletin of the Institute of Recorded Sound, no.1, p. 12. Bannerman, Betty; the Singer as Interpreter: Claire Croiza's Master Classes. ISBN 0-575-04391-1 Extensive biographical notes accompanying the Marston CD set. Review of Croiza's recordings from La Folia
Jehan Ariste Alain was a French organist and composer. Alain was born in Saint-Germain-en-Laye into a family of musicians, his father, Albert Alain was an organist and organ builder who had studied with Alexandre Guilmant and Louis Vierne. His younger brother was the composer and pianist Olivier Alain, his youngest sister the organist Marie-Claire Alain, his wife Madeleine and his three children Denis, Agnès, Lise. Jehan received his initial training in the piano from Augustin Pierson, the organist of Saint-Louis at Versailles, in the organ from his father, who had built a four-manual instrument in the family sitting room. By the age of 11, Jehan was substituting at St. Germain-en-Laye. Between 1927 and 1939, he attended the Paris Conservatoire and achieved First Prize in Harmony under André Bloch and First Prize in Fugue with Georges Caussade, he studied the organ with Marcel Dupré, under whose direction he took first prize for Organ and Improvisation in 1939. His studies in composition with Paul Dukas and Jean Roger-Ducasse won him the Prix des amis de l'orgue in 1936 for his Suite for Organ Op. 48, Variations and Choral.
He was appointed organist of Saint-Nicholas de Maisons Laffitte in Paris in 1935, remained there for four years. He played at the Rue Notre-Dame-de-Nazareth synagogue; the only known recording of his playing—a six-minute improvisation—was made in 1938 at that synagogue. His short career as a composer began in 1929, when Alain was 18, lasted until the outbreak of the Second World War 10 years later, his music was influenced not only by the musical language of the earlier Claude Debussy and his contemporary Olivier Messiaen, but by an interest in the music and philosophies of the far east, a renaissance of baroque music, in jazz. Alain described Le jardin suspendu as a portrayal of "the ideal, perpetual pursuit and escape of the artist, an inaccessible and inviolable refuge", he wrote choral music, including a Requiem mass, chamber music and three volumes of piano music. But it is his organ music, his most famous work is Litanies, composed in 1937. That work is prefaced with the text: "Quand l’âme chrétienne ne trouve plus de mots nouveaux dans la détresse pour implorer la miséricorde de Dieu, elle répète sans cesse la même invocation avec une foi véhémente.
La raison atteint sa limite. Seule la foi poursuit son ascension.". Deuils, the second of the Trois danses, is dedicated to Odile as a "Funeral Dance to an Heroic Memory". Always interested in mechanics, Alain was a skilled motorcyclist and became a dispatch rider in the Eighth Motorised Armour Division of the French Army. On 20 June 1940, he was assigned to reconnoitre the German advance on the eastern side of Saumur, encountered a group of German soldiers at Le Petit-Puy. Coming around a curve, hearing the approaching tread of the Germans, he abandoned his motorcycle and engaged the enemy troops with his carbine, killing 16 of them before being killed himself, he was posthumously awarded the Croix de Guerre for his bravery, was buried by the Germans with full military honours. He left behind his wife, Madeleine Payan whom he had married in 1935, their three offspring and a body of compositions viewed by many to have been amongst the most original of the 20th century. Henri Dutilleux's Les citations contains a quotation from Jehan Alain's music.
Maurice Duruflé wrote a musical tribute to Jehan Alain with his Prélude et fugue sur le nom d'A. L. A. I. N op. 7 for organ. JA stands for Jehan Alain. 1929 – 18 years old – 4 opusJA 021 – Togo, pour piano JA 007 bis – Berceuse sur deux notes qui cornent, pour orgue JA 003 – Etude sur un thème de quatre notes, pour piano JA 008 – Chanson triste, pour piano 1930 – 19 years old – 14 opusJA 009 – Ballade en mode phrygien, pour orgue ou piano JA 002 – Thème et cinq variations, pour piano JA 014 – Lamento, pour orgue JA 001 – Quarante variations, pour piano JA 017 – Des nuages gris, pour deux pianos JA 004 – Ecce ancilla Domini, pour piano JA 029 – Postlude pour l'Office de Complies, pour orgue JA 130 – Adagio, pour piano JA 005 – Seigneur, donne-nous la paix éternelle, pour piano JA 007 – Etude de sonorité sur une double pédale, pour piano JA 010 – Etude sur les doubles notes, pour piano JA 020 – Pour le défrichage, pour piano JA 131 – Variations sur un thème donné de Rimsky-Korsakov, pour quatre voix JA 131A – Variations sur un chant donné de Rimsky-Korsakov, pour orgue JA 131B – Variations sur un thème donné de Rimsky-Korsakov, pour quatuor à cordes JA 129 – Lettre à son amie Lola pour la consoler d'avoir attrapé la grippe, pour piano 1931 – 20 years old – 12 opusJA 012 – Petite rhapsodie, pour piano JA 016 – Mélodie-sandwich, pour piano JA 006 – Verset-Choral, pour orgue ou piano JA 011 – Lumière qui tombe
The cello or violoncello is a string instrument. It is played by bowing or plucking its four strings, which are tuned in perfect fifths an octave lower than the viola: from low to high, C2, G2, D3 and A3, it is the bass member of the violin family, which includes the violin and the double bass, which doubles the bass line an octave lower than the cello in much of the orchestral repertoire. After the double bass, it is the second-largest and second lowest bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra; the cello is used as a solo instrument, as well as in chamber music ensembles, string orchestras, as a member of the string section of symphony orchestras, most modern Chinese orchestras, some types of rock bands. Music for the cello is written in the bass clef, but both tenor clef and treble clef are used for higher-range parts, both in orchestral/chamber music parts and in solo cello works. A person who plays the cello is called a violoncellist. In a small classical ensemble, such as a string quartet, the cello plays the bass part, the lowest-pitched musical line of the piece.
In an orchestra of the Baroque era and Classical period, the cello plays the bass part doubled an octave lower by the double basses. In Baroque-era music, the cello is used to play the basso continuo bassline along with a keyboard instrument or a fretted, plucked stringed instrument. In such a Baroque performance, the cello player might be joined or replaced by other bass instruments, playing bassoon, double bass, viol or other low-register instruments; the name cello is derived from the ending of the Italian violoncello, which means "little violone". Violone was a large-sized member of the violin family; the term "violone" today refers to the lowest-pitched instrument of the viols, a family of stringed instruments that went out of fashion around the end of the 17th century in most countries except England and France, where they survived another half-century before the louder violin family came into greater favour in that country as well. In modern symphony orchestras, it is the second largest stringed instrument.
Thus, the name "violoncello" contained both the augmentative "-one" and the diminutive "-cello". By the turn of the 20th century, it had become common to shorten the name to'cello, with the apostrophe indicating the missing stem, it is now customary to use "cello" without apostrophe as the full designation. Viol is derived from the root viola, derived from Medieval Latin vitula, meaning stringed instrument. Cellos are tuned in fifths, starting with C2, followed by G2, D3, A3, it is tuned in the same intervals as the viola. Unlike the violin or viola but similar to the double bass, the cello has an endpin that rests on the floor to support the instrument's weight; the cello is most associated with European classical music, has been described as the closest sounding instrument to the human voice. The instrument is a part of the standard orchestra, as part of the string section, is the bass voice of the string quartet, as well as being part of many other chamber groups. Among the most well-known Baroque works for the cello are Johann Sebastian Bach's six unaccompanied Suites.
The cello figures as a member of the basso continuo group in chamber works by Francesca Caccini, Barbara Strozzi with pieces such as Il primo libro di madrigali, per 2–5 voci e basso continuo, op. 1 and Elisabeth Jacquet de La Guerre who wrote six sonatas for violin and basso continuo. From the Classical era, the two concertos by Joseph Haydn in C major and D major stand out, as do the five sonatas for cello and pianoforte of Ludwig van Beethoven, which span the important three periods of his compositional evolution. A Divertimento for Piano, Clarinet and Cello is among the surviving works by Duchess Anna Amalia of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. A review of compositions for cello in the Romantic era must include the German composer Fanny Mendelssohn who wrote the Fantasy in G minor for cello and piano and a Capriccio in A-flat for cello. Other well-known works of the era include the Robert Schumann Concerto, the Antonín Dvořák Concerto as well as the two sonatas and the Double Concerto by Johannes Brahms.
Compositions from the late-19th and early 20th century include three cello sonatas by Dame Ethel Smyth, Edward Elgar's Cello Concerto in E minor, Claude Debussy's Sonata for Cello and Piano, unaccompanied cello sonatas by Zoltán Kodály and Paul Hindemith. Pieces including cello were written by American Music Cente founder Marion Bauer and Ruth Crawford Seeger. Polish composer Grażyna Bacewicz was writing for cello in the mid 20th century with Concerto No. 1 for Cello and Orchestra, Concerto No. 2 for Cello and Orchestra and in 1964 composed her Quartet for four cellos. The cello's versatility made it popular with many male composers in this era as well, such as Sergei Prokofiev, Dmitri Shostakovich, Benjamin Britten, György Ligeti, Witold Lutoslawski and Henri Dutilleux. Well-known cellists include Jacqueline du Pre, Raya Garbousova, Zara Nelsova, Hildur Gudna
Boston Symphony Orchestra
The Boston Symphony Orchestra is an American orchestra based in Boston, Massachusetts. It is one of the five major American symphony orchestras referred to as the "Big Five". Founded in 1881, the BSO plays most of its concerts at Boston's Symphony Hall and in the summer performs at Tanglewood. Andris Nelsons is the current music director of the BSO. Bernard Haitink holds the title of conductor emeritus of the BSO, Seiji Ozawa has the title of BSO music director laureate; the BSO was founded in 1881 by Henry Lee Higginson. Its first conductor was George Henschel, a noted baritone as well as conductor, a close friend of Johannes Brahms. For the orchestra, Henschel devised innovative orchestral seating charts and sent them to Brahms, who replied approvingly and commented on the issues raised by horn and viola sections in a letter of mid-November 1881; the orchestra's four subsequent music directors were all trained in Austria, including the seminal and influential Hungarian-born conductor Arthur Nikisch, in accordance with the tastes of Higginson.
Wilhelm Gericke served twice, from 1884 to 1889 and again from 1898 to 1906. According to Joseph Horowitz's review of correspondence, Higginson considered 25 candidates to replace Gericke after receiving notice in 1905, he decided not to offer the position to Gustav Mahler, Fritz Steinbach, Willem Mengelberg but did not rule out the young Bruno Walter if nobody more senior were to accept. He offered the position to Hans Richter in February 1905, who declined, to Felix Mottl in November, engaged, to previous director Nikisch, who declined, he was conductor until 1908 and again from 1912 to 1918. The music director 1908–12 was Max Fiedler, he conducted the premiere of Ignacy Jan Paderewski's Symphony in B minor "Polonia" in 1909. During World War I, was arrested, shortly before a performance of the St. Matthew Passion in 1918, interned in a prison camp without trial or charge until the end of the war, when he was deported, he vowed never to return, conducted thereafter only in Europe. The BSO's next two titled conductors were French: Henri Rabaud, who took over from Muck for a season, Pierre Monteux from 1919 to 1924.
Monteux, because of a musician's strike, was able to replace 30 players, thus changing the orchestra's sound. The orchestra's reputation increased during the music directorship of Serge Koussevitzky. One million radio listeners tuned in when Koussevitzky and the orchestra were the first to perform a live concert for radio broadcast, which they did on NBC in 1926. Under Koussevitzky, the orchestra gave regular radio broadcasts and established its summer home at Tanglewood, where Koussevitzky founded the Berkshire Music Center, now the Tanglewood Music Center; those network radio broadcasts ran from 1926 through 1951, again from 1954 through 1956. The orchestra continues to make regular live radio broadcasts to the present day; the Boston Symphony has been involved with Boston's WGBH Radio as an outlet for its concerts. Koussevitzky commissioned many new pieces from prominent composers, including the Symphony No. 4 of Sergei Prokofiev, George Gershwin's Second Rhapsody and the Symphony of Psalms by Igor Stravinsky.
They gave the premiere of Béla Bartók's Concerto for Orchestra, commissioned by the Koussevitzky Music Foundation at the instigation of Fritz Reiner and Joseph Szigeti. Koussevitzky started a tradition of commissions that the orchestra continued, including new works by Heitor Villa-Lobos and Henri Dutilleux for its 75th anniversary, Roger Sessions, Andrzej Panufnik, for the 100th, for the 125th works by Leon Kirchner, Elliott Carter, Peter Lieberson. Other BSO commissions have included John Corigliano's Symphony No. 2 for the 100th anniversary of Symphony Hall. Hans Werner Henze dedicated his Eighth Symphony to the orchestra. Although Koussevitsky recommended his protégé Leonard Bernstein to be his successor after he retired in 1949, the BSO awarded the position to the Alsatian maestro Charles Munch. Munch had made his Boston conducting debut in 1946, he led orchestra on its first overseas tour, produced their first stereo recording in February 1954 for RCA Victor. In 1952, Munch appointed the first woman to hold a principal chair in a major U.
S. orchestra, flutist Doriot Anthony Dwyer. Erich Leinsdorf became music director in 1962 and held the post until 1969. William Steinberg was music director from 1969 to 1972. Steinberg was "ill and ailing" according to composer/author Jan Swafford, "for four years he was indisposed much of the time." After Steinberg's retirement, according to BSO trustee John Thorndike the symphony's board spoke to Colin Davis and "investigated thoroughly" his appointment, but Davis's commitments to his young family did not allow his moving to Boston from England. As the search continued, Leonard Bernstein met with four board members and recommended Michael Tilson Thomas, Assistant Conductor and Associate Conductor under Steinberg, for the directorship, but the young conductor "did not have sufficient support among the BSO players," according to journalist Jeremy Eichler; the committee chose Seiji Ozawa, who became Music Director in 1973 and held the post until 2002, the longest tenure of any Boston Symphony conductor.
(Bernard Haitink served as principal g
Faust is an opera in five acts by Charles Gounod to a French libretto by Jules Barbier and Michel Carré from Carré's play Faust et Marguerite, in turn loosely based on Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Faust, Part One. It debuted at the Théâtre Lyrique on the Boulevard du Temple in Paris on 19 March 1859, with influential sets designed by Charles-Antoine Cambon and Joseph Thierry, Jean Émile Daran, Édouard Desplechin, Philippe Chaperon; the original version of Faust employed spoken dialogue, it was in this form that the work was first performed. The manager of the Théâtre Lyrique, Léon Carvalho cast his wife Marie Miolan-Carvalho as Marguerite and there were various changes during production, including the removal and contraction of several numbers; the tenor Hector Gruyer was cast as Faust but was found to be inadequate during rehearsals, being replaced by a principal of the Opéra-Comique, Joseph-Théodore-Désiré Barbot, shortly before the opening night. After a successful initial run at the Théâtre Lyrique the publisher Antoine Choudens, who purchased the copyright for 10,000 francs, took the work on tour through Germany, Belgium and England, with Marie Miolan-Carvalho repeating her role.
Performances in Germany followed, with Dresden Semperoper in 1861 being the first to bill the work as Margarethe rather than Faust. For many years this custom - or alternatively, staging the opera as Gretchen - continued in Germany; some sources claim this was out of respect for Part I of Goethe's poetic drama, which the opera follows closely. Others claim the opposite: that the retitling was done to emphasise Gounod's opera's reliance on Goethe's characters, to differentiate it from Spohr's Faust, which had held the stage for many years in Germany and had appeared in a three-act revision, it is possible that the 1861 Dresden title change was out of respect for Spohr's close and long association with the city. The opera was given for the first time in Italy at La Scala in 1862 and in England at Her Majesty’s Theatre, London in 1863. In 1864, when the opera was given at the same venue in English, Gounod took a theme from the prelude to the opera and wrote a new aria for the star baritone Charles Santley in the role of Valentin,'Even bravest heart may swell'.
This number was translated into French for subsequent productions as ‘Avant de quitter ces lieux’ and has become one of the most familiar pieces from the opera. In 1869 a ballet had to be inserted before the work could be played at the Opéra: it became the most performed opera at that house. With the change from spoken dialogue to sung recitatives, plus the musical and balletic additions, the opera was thus transformed into a work following the conventions of grand opera. Although the opera is still performed, it no longer sits in the "top twenty" performed worldwide, it was Faust with which the Metropolitan Opera in New York City opened for the first time on 22 October 1883. It is the eighth most performed opera there, with 753 performances through the 2012-2013 season, it was not until the period between 1965 and 1977 that the full version was performed, all performances in that production included the Walpurgisnacht ballet. Place: Germany Time: 16th century Faust's cabinet Faust, an aging scholar, determines that his studies have come to nothing and have only caused him to miss out on life and love.
He stops each time when he hears a choir. He curses science and faith, asks for infernal guidance. Méphistophélès appears and, with a tempting image of Marguerite at her spinning wheel, persuades Faust to buy Méphistophélès's services on earth in exchange for Faust's in Hell. Faust's goblet of poison is magically transformed into an elixir of youth, making the aged doctor a handsome young gentleman. At the city gates A chorus of students and villagers sings a drinking song. Valentin, leaving for war with his friend Wagner, entrusts the care of his sister Marguerite to his youthful friend Siébel. Méphistophélès appears, provides the crowd with wine, sings a rousing, irreverent song about the Golden Calf. Méphistophélès maligns Marguerite, Valentin tries to strike him with his sword, which shatters in the air. Valentin and friends use the cross-shaped hilts of their swords to fend off what they now know is an infernal power. Méphistophélès is joined by the villagers in a waltz. Marguerite appears and Faust declares his admiration, but she refuses Faust's arm out of modesty, a quality that makes him love her more.
Marguerite's garden The lovesick boy Siébel leaves a bouquet for Marguerite. Faust sends Méphistophélès in search of a gift for Marguerite and sings a cavatina idealizing Marguerite as a pure child of nature. Méphistophélès brings in a decorated box containing exquisite jewelry and a hand mirror and leaves it on Marguerite's doorstep, next to Siébel's flowers. Marguerite enters, pondering her encounter with Faust at the city gates, sings a melancholy ballad about the King of Thule. Marthe, Marguerite's neighbour, says it must be from an admirer. Marguerite tries on the jewels and is captivated by how they enhance her beauty, as she sings in the famous aria, the Jewel Song. Méphistophélès and Faust join the
The clarinet is a family of woodwind instruments. It has a single-reed mouthpiece, a straight, cylindrical tube with an cylindrical bore, a flared bell. A person who plays a clarinet is called a clarinetist. While the similarity in sound between the earliest clarinets and the trumpet may hold a clue to its name, other factors may have been involved. During the Late Baroque era, composers such as Bach and Handel were making new demands on the skills of their trumpeters, who were required to play difficult melodic passages in the high, or as it came to be called, clarion register. Since the trumpets of this time had no valves or pistons, melodic passages would require the use of the highest part of the trumpet's range, where the harmonics were close enough together to produce scales of adjacent notes as opposed to the gapped scales or arpeggios of the lower register; the trumpet parts that required this specialty were known by the term clarino and this in turn came to apply to the musicians themselves.
It is probable that the term clarinet may stem from the diminutive version of the'clarion' or'clarino' and it has been suggested that clarino players may have helped themselves out by playing difficult passages on these newly developed "mock trumpets". Johann Christoph Denner is believed to have invented the clarinet in Germany around the year 1700 by adding a register key to the earlier chalumeau. Over time, additional keywork and airtight pads were added to improve the playability. In modern times, the most popular clarinet is the B♭ clarinet. However, the clarinet in A, just a semitone lower, is used in orchestral music. An orchestral clarinetist must own both a clarinet in A and B♭ since the repertoire is divided evenly between the two. Since the middle of the 19th century the bass clarinet has become an essential addition to the orchestra; the clarinet family ranges from the BBB♭ octo-contrabass to the A♭ piccolo clarinet. The clarinet has proved to be an exceptionally flexible instrument, used in the classical repertoire as in concert bands, military bands, marching bands, klezmer and other styles.
The word clarinet may have entered the English language via the French clarinette, or from Provençal clarin, "oboe". It would seem however that its real roots are to be found amongst some of the various names for trumpets used around the Renaissance and Baroque eras. Clarion and the Italian clarino are all derived from the medieval term claro which referred to an early form of trumpet; this is the origin of the Italian clarinetto, itself a diminutive of clarino, of the European equivalents such as clarinette in French or the German Klarinette. According to Johann Gottfried Walther, writing in 1732, the reason for the name is that "it sounded from far off not unlike a trumpet"; the English form clarinet is found as early as 1733, the now-archaic clarionet appears from 1784 until the early years of the 20th century. The cylindrical bore is responsible for the clarinet's distinctive timbre, which varies between its three main registers, known as the chalumeau and altissimo; the tone quality can vary with the clarinetist, instrument and reed.
The differences in instruments and geographical isolation of clarinetists led to the development from the last part of the 18th century onwards of several different schools of playing. The most prominent were French school; the latter was centered on the clarinetists of the Conservatoire de Paris. The proliferation of recorded music has made examples of different styles of playing available; the modern clarinetist has a diverse palette of "acceptable" tone qualities to choose from. The A and B ♭ clarinets use the same mouthpiece. Orchestral clarinetists using the A and B♭ instruments in a concert could use the same mouthpiece; the A and B♭ have nearly identical tonal quality, although the A has a warmer sound. The tone of the E♭ clarinet is brighter and can be heard through loud orchestral or concert band textures; the bass clarinet has a characteristically deep, mellow sound, while the alto clarinet is similar in tone to the bass. Clarinets have the largest pitch range of common woodwinds; the intricate key organization that makes this possible can make the playability of some passages awkward.
The bottom of the clarinet's written range is defined by the keywork on each instrument, standard keywork schemes allowing a low E on the common B♭ clarinet. The lowest concert pitch depends on the transposition of the instrument in question; the nominal highest note of the B♭ clarinet is a semitone higher than the highest note of the oboe. Since the clarinet has a wider range of notes, the lowest note of the B♭ clarinet is deeper than the lowest note of the oboe. Nearly all soprano and piccolo clarinets have keywork enabling them to play the E below middle C as their lowest written note, though some B♭ clarinets go down to E♭3 to enable them to match the range of the A clarinet. On the B♭ soprano clarinet, the concert pitch of the lowest note is D3, a whole tone lower than the written pitch. Most alto and bass clarinets have an extra key to allow a E♭3. Modern professional-quality bass clarinets have additional keywork to written C3. Among the less encountered members of t