The word may refer to the lane, alley or back street onto which such stables open. It is sometimes applied to rows or groups of garages or, more broadly, today most mews stables have been converted into dwellings. The word derives from the French muer, to moult, reflecting its function to confine hawks while they moulted. From 1377 onwards the kings falconry birds were kept in the Kings Mews at Charing Cross, the name stuck when it became the royal stables starting in 1537 during the reign of King Henry VIII. Following its demolition in the early 19th century Trafalgar Square was built on the site, the Royal Mews relocated to the grounds of Buckingham Palace, where it remains today. The stables of St Jamess Palace, occupying the site where Lancaster House was built, were occasionally referred to as the Royal Mews. A mews in the sense of a building where birds used for falconry are kept, the words usage as a residential term originated in London, spreading to parts of Canada and the United States.
The term mews is not used for large individual non-royal British stable blocks, for example, the grand stable block at Chatsworth House is referred to as the stables, not the mews. Instead the word was applied to streets and the stables in them in cities. In the 18th and 19th centuries London housing for wealthy people generally consisted of streets of terraced houses with stables at the back. The mews had horse stalls and a house on the ground floor. Generally this was mirrored by another row of stables on the side of the service street. Sometimes there were such as small courtyards. Most mews are named after one of the streets which they back onto. Most but not all have the word mews in their name and this arrangement was different from most of Continental Europe, where the stables in wealthy urban residences were usually off a front or central courtyard. The advantage of the British system was that it hid the sounds, Mews lost their equestrian function in the early 20th century when motor cars were introduced.
At the same time, after World War I and especially after World War II, one place where a mews may still be found put to equestrian use is Bathurst Mews in Westminster, near Hyde Park, where several private horses are kept. Nearby, the stables have been put to commercial use, Hyde Park Stables
Peerages in the United Kingdom
The peerage is a legal system historically comprising hereditary titles in the United Kingdom, comprising various noble ranks, and forms a constituent part of the British honours system. The term peerage can be used collectively to refer to the entire body of nobles, and individually to refer to a specific title. British peerage title holders are termed peers of the Realm, New Labour, elected to power in 1997, sought to eject all hereditary peers from Parliament but PM Tony Blair relented by allowing only 92 members to remain by legislation enacted in 1999. The House of Lordss purpose is now that of a legislative chamber. Peerages are created by the British monarch, like all Crown honours, HMG recommends to the Sovereign who to be elevated to the peerage, after external vetting by the House of Lords Appointments Commission. The Sovereign, traditionally the fount of honour, cannot hold a British peerage, succession claims to existing hereditary peerages are regulated by the House of Lords Committee for Privileges and Conduct and administered by The Crown Office.
The modern-day parliamentary peerage is a continuation of the renamed medieval baronage system which existed in feudal times, certain other office-holders such as senior clerics and Freemen of the Cinque Ports were deemed barons. This right, entitlement or title, began to be granted by decree in the form of a Writ of Summons from 1265, many holders of smaller fiefdoms per baroniam ceased to be summoned to parliament, resulting in baronial status becoming personal rather than territorial. In the UK, five peerages co-exist, The Peerage of England — titles created by the Kings, the Peerage of Scotland — titles created by the Kings and Queens of Scotland before 1707. The Peerage of Ireland — titles created for the Kingdom of Ireland before the Act of Union of 1801, the Peerage of Great Britain — titles created for the Kingdom of Great Britain between 1707 and 1801. The Peerage of the United Kingdom — most titles created since 1801 to the present, Peers are of five ranks, in descending order of hierarchy, Duke comes from the Latin dux, leader.
The first duke in a peerage of the British Isles was created in 1337, Marquess comes from the French marquis, which is a derivative of marche or march. This is a reference to the borders between England and Wales, a more evident in the feminine form. The first marquess in a peerage of the British Isles was created in 1385, earl comes from the Old English or Anglo-Saxon eorl, a military leader. The meaning may have been affected by the Old Norse jarl, meaning free-born warrior or nobleman, during the Danelaw, since there was no feminine Old English or Old Norse equivalent for the term, Countess is used, from the Latin comes. Viscount comes from the Latin vicecomes, vice-count, Baron comes from the Old Germanic baro, freeman. In the Peerage of Scotland alone, a holder of the rank is not called a Baron. Barons in Scotland were traditionally holders of feudal dignities, not peers, while holders of hereditary titles, are not peers since baronetcies have never conferred noble status, although socially they came to be regarded as part of the aristocracy
John Maxwell, 1st Baron Farnham
John Maxwell, 1st Baron Farnham was an Irish peer and politician. He was appointed Prothonotary of the Court of Common Pleas from 1725 until his death and he was a Member of Parliament of the Irish House of Commons for Cavan County from 1727 to 1756. He inherited Farnham estate from his cousin in 1737 and was appointed High Sheriff of Cavan for 1739, the latter year he was raised to the Peerage of Ireland as Baron Farnham, of Farnham in the County of Cavan. He had married in 1719 Judith Barry, daughter of James Barry of Newton Barry, Barry Maxwell, 1st Earl of Farnham, 3rd Baron Farnham. Rev. Henry Maxwell was Bishop of Dromore and Bishop of Meath and he married in 1759 Margaret Foster, daughter of the Rt. Hon. Anthony Foster, and sister of John Foster, 1st Baron Oriel and their two sons and Henry, eventually succeeded as the 5th and 6th Baron Farnham. He died in August 1759 and was succeeded in the barony by his son Robert, in 1760 Robert was created Viscount Farnham and three years created Earl of Farnham.
New York, St Martins Press,1990, leigh Rayments Peerage Pages Maxwell family genealogy, part 03, showing the Maxwell of Calderwood, Maxwell of Farnham, and Maxwell of Finnebrogue families. Cavan County Museum – The Farnham Gallery Farnham Estate
Albert Nobbs is a 2011 British-Irish drama film directed by Rodrigo García and starring Glenn Close. The screenplay, by Close, John Banville, and Gabriella Prekop, is based on a novella by George Moore and they received Golden Globe Award and Screen Actors Guild Award nominations. The film was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Makeup. The novella had been adapted as a play titled The Singular Life of Albert Nobbs in which Close starred Off-Broadway in 1982. Albert Nobbs works with extreme dedication as a butler in 19th-century Ireland. Assigned as female at birth, and initially raised as a girl, Albert has been secretly saving money to buy a tobacco shop to gain some measure of freedom and independence. Meanwhile, recently unemployed Joe Mackins arrives at the hotel to repair the boiler, flirtatious maid Helen Dawes is attracted to him, and they become lovers. However, Joe soon shows himself to be an alcoholic bully, at this time, a Mr. Hubert Page, who was tasked with painting the hotel, discovers Alberts secret, only to reveal that he is keeping the very same secret about himself.
Albert visits Hubert at his home and meets Cathleen, who lives with him as his wife. Albert tells Hubert the story of his life, born a bastard and abandoned, Albert was raised and educated in a convent before being kicked out after the death of Mrs Nobbs, Alberts mother. One night, aged 14 and still presenting as female, Albert was brutally gang-raped, immediately afterwards, after hearing there was a need for waiters, Albert bought a suit, was interviewed and was hired, and began his life with a male identity. Alberts former name is not revealed, believing Helen may be the ideal wife to run a shop with, Albert asks her to walk out. She refuses, but Joe, believing that Albert will give Helen money that could help the pair emigrate to America and she agrees to this approach, allowing Albert to buy her expensive gifts. Helen is uncomfortable with Albert and the arrangement that Joe forced her to make, Albert tells Helen about long-kept plans to buy a shop, though she only wants to leave Ireland for America.
A typhoid epidemic breaks out in Dublin, and when some staff fall ill, customers avoid the hotel, Albert becomes infected but recovers, while Helen discovers she is pregnant with Joes child. Joe is terrified, fearing he will become like his abusive father, Albert goes to Huberts home and learns that Cathleen died, leaving Hubert devastated. As a tribute to her and Hubert don dresses Cathleen made, though both at first are extremely uncomfortable, they eventually enjoy spending the day together dressed as women. They take a walk along the beach where Albert, feeling free, but a stumble and fall bring Albert back to reality
It has been broadcast on ITV since 2002. On 12 January 2015, ITV announced that no more episodes will be commissioned due to the costs of production. The last episode was broadcast on 18 January 2015 and he is assisted by his driver Samantha Sam Stewart and Detective Sergeant Paul Milner. From Series 7, it sees a retired Foyle working for MI5, Foyle, a widower, is quiet, methodical and scrupulously honest, yet he is frequently underestimated by his foes. Many of his cases concern profiteering, the market. Foyle often comes up against high-ranking officials in the British military or intelligence services who would prefer that he mind his own business, Christopher was the nearest male name to Christina. After Christina Foyles death, control of Foyles passed in 1999 to her nephew, Christopher Foyle was given a cameo in the episode Bad Blood, though the scene was cut from the PBS airings in the US. There are some running strands, mainly involving the career of Foyles son Andrew, each episode runs for about 90 to 100 minutes, filling a two-hour time slot on ITV when commercials are included.
To fit its PBS 90-minute time slot in the United States, Acorn Media contracted Cre-a-TV, Inc. to repackage the entire Foyles War programme into two-part episodes to run within PBS allotted airtime. In this incarnation, each episode was aired in two parts, each in a time slot – with each part running about 50 minutes. To fill in the slot, the station aired excerpts of interviews of the series creator and some cast members. After five series, the show was cancelled by Simon Shaps. This forced Horowitz to throw out scripts set during most of 1943 and 1944, in April 2008, the presumed final episode, All Clear, during which the end of the war is announced, was broadcast. At the time the figures for the final episode were released, ITV confirmed that it had entered and was continuing early discussions with Horowitz. These negotiations eventually led to the series being recommissioned for a three episodes. Series six commenced filming in February 2009 and premiered on UK television 11 April 2010, Series seven was filmed in Ireland and London from late August 2012 to December 2012 and was broadcast on UK television in March and April 2013.
Series eight comprised three episodes and aired in the UK in January 2015. This is typical of the modesty and precision of speech that he displays throughout the series, Foyle is a longstanding widower, he has one son, Andrew, to whom he is close, although their relationship is not demonstrative
Robert King, 1st Baron Kingsborough
Robert King, 1st Baron Kingsborough, known as Sir Robert King, Bt, between 1740 and 1748, was an Irish landowner and politician. King was the son of Sir Henry King, 3rd Baronet, by Isabella Wingfield, daughter of Edward Wingfield and sister of Richard Wingfield. He succeeded his father in the baronetcy in 1740, in 1744 he was returned to the Irish Parliament for Boyle, a seat he held until 1748, aged only 24, he was raised to the Irish peerage as Baron Kingsborough. He was Custos Rotulorum of Roscommon, lord Kingsborough died in May 1755, aged 31. He never married and the barony died with him and he was succeeded in the baronetcy by his younger brother, who was created Earl of Kingston in 1768
Richard Molesworth, 3rd Viscount Molesworth
Field Marshal Richard Molesworth, 3rd Viscount Molesworth, PC, styled The Honourable Richard Molesworth from 1716 to 1726, was an Anglo-Irish military officer and nobleman. He served with his regiment at the Battle of Blenheim before being appointed aide-de-camp to the Duke of Marlborough during the War of the Spanish Succession, during the Battle of Ramillies Molesworth offered Marlborough his own horse after Marlborough fell from the saddle. Molesworth recovered his masters charger and slipped away, by these actions he saved his masters life, during the Battle of Ramillies, which took place the following day, Molesworth offered Marlborough his own horse after Marlborough fell from the saddle. Molesworth recovered his masters charger and slipped away, by these actions he saved his masters life and he commanded an infantry regiment in Catalonia under the Duke of Argyll from July 1710 until he returned to England in late 1712. Molesworth became Lieutenant of the Ordnance in Ireland in December 1714 and was elected Member of Parliament in the Irish House of Commons for Swords in 1715.
He raised a regiment of Dragoons in 1715 and was wounded at the Battle of Preston in November 1715 during the Jacobite rising of that year, after taking part in the competition to develop a marine chronometer, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in March 1722. Molesworth became colonel of the Inniskilling Regiment of Foot in March 1725, promoted to the local rank of lieutenant-general in Ireland in 1739, he became Master-General of the Ordnance in Ireland in 1740. Promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general on 1 July 1742 and to general of the horse on 24 March 1746, he became Commander-in-Chief. At this time he lived at 14 Henrietta Street in Dublin, promoted to field marshal on 3 December 1757, Molesworth became Governor of the Royal Hospital Kilmainham, he died in London on 12 October 1758 and was buried in Kensington. Molesworth first married Jane Lucas, they had one child, following the death of his first wife he married Mary Jenney Usher on 7 February 1744 and had four children from this union, Melosina and Louisa
George Stone (bishop)
George Stone was the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh from 1747 to his death. Born in London, the son of Andrew Stone, a London goldsmith and he was educated at Westminster School and Christ Church, Oxford. Having taken holy orders, his advancement in the Church was very rapid, in 1733 Stone was made Dean of Ferns, and in the following year he exchanged this deanery for that of Derry. In 1740 he became Bishop of Ferns and Leighlin, in 1743 Bishop of Kildare, in 1745 Bishop of Derry, during the two years that he occupied the See of Kildare he was Dean of Christ Church, Dublin. From the moment that he became Primate of All Ireland, Stone proved himself more a politician than an ecclesiastic and he was said to have been selfish, worldly-minded and ostentatious, and he was accused, though very probably falsely, of gross private vice. These two, afterwards joined by the old rival Lord Shannon, and usually supported by the Earl of Kildare, regained control of affairs in 1758. In the same year Stone wrote a letter, preserved in the Bedford Correspondence, in which he speaks very despondingly of the material condition of Ireland.
According to Horace Walpole, his death was due to ruining his constitution by an excess of food and alcohol. Although this much-abused prelate, as Lecky calls him, was a supporter of the English government in Ireland. It was due to his influence that in the disturbances in Ulster in 1763 the government acted with conspicuous moderation. Archbishop Stone, who never married, was a man of remarkably handsome appearance, richard Cumberland, who was struck by the Polish magnificence of the primate, speaks in the highest terms of his courage and qualities as a popular leader. He was himself the author of volumes of sermons which were published during his lifetime. Richard Cumberland, Memoirs Francis Hardy, Memoirs of the earl of Charlemont Horace Walpole, Memoirs of the Reign of George II
Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Grafton
Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Grafton KG PC FRS was an Irish and English politician. He was the child and heir of Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton by his wife Isabella Bennet. He succeeded to his fathers titles on 9 October 1690 and he was Lord High Steward at King George Is coronation, becoming a Privy Counsellor in 1715 and a Knight of the Garter in 1721. He served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland from 1720 to 1724, in 1719 he was one of the main subscribers to the Royal Academy of Music, a corporation that produced baroque opera on the stage. In 1739 he supported the creation of what was to one of Londons most notable charities. He sat on that charitys original Court of Governors with such fellow Governors as the Duke of Bedford, the Lord Vere and the Lord Mayor of London. He married Lady Henrietta Somerset, daughter of Charles Somerset, Marquess of Worcester and Rebecca Child, they had seven children, Charles Henry FitzRoy, the Earl was notorious for mistreating his wife, who died seven months after their marriage, and died childless.
He was married to Elizabeth Cosby, daughter of Colonel William Cosby and they were parents to two sons, who founded branches of the family still extant today, Augustus FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton Charles FitzRoy, 1st Baron Southampton Lord Charles FitzRoy. She married William Stanhope, 2nd Earl of Harrington and they were parents to Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl of Harrington and other six children. She married Francis Seymour-Conway, 1st Marquess of Hertford and they were parents to Francis Seymour-Conway, 2nd Marquess of Hertford and eleven other children. They were ancestors of Diana, Princess of Wales via their son Hugh, the Duke fathered an illegitimate son, Charles FitzRoy-Scudamore. Grafton Street in Dublin was named after him, R. H. Nichols and F A. Wray, The History of the Foundling Hospital
The Honorable Society of Kings Inns is the institution which controls the entry of barristers-at-law into the justice system of Ireland. The full title retains the spelling variant honorable in preference to the contemporary Hiberno-English spelling of honourable. The society was created in 1541,51 years before Trinity College, Dublin was founded, the founders named their society in honour of King Henry VIII of England and his newly established Kingdom of Ireland. The society secured a lease of lands at Inns Quay on the bank of the River Liffey in Dublin. The society was reconstituted in 1607, having been inactive for some time, the building was completed by his pupil Henry Aaron Baker. Only from the middle of the century onwards were courses of legal education provided at Kings Inns. Candidates who have a law degree may apply for the Degree of Barrister-at-Law. Alternatively, candidates without a law degree may undertake the societys Diploma in Legal Studies before presenting for the societys degree.
Those who are presented with the degree are entitled to be called to, in 2006, the society had an enrolment of approximately 300 students, whilst there are approximately 2,000 practising barristers. The library collection dates from the end of the 18th century, and was based on part of that of Christopher Robinson, senior judge of the Court of Kings Bench. Books were sold at auction at Sothebys, and a stock of them were sold to clients outside Ireland. This was seen at the time as a major cultural outflow, in addition, the societys library had received an annual grant since 1945 for the upkeep of the books from the Irish Exchequer. A Kings Inns team or individual has often won the prestigious Irish Times National Debating Championship, in 2006 the Inns hurling team competed in and won the Fergal Maher Cup in their inaugural year and have subsequently reached the final and semi-final. After crossing Bolton Street, Henrietta Street runs into Kings Inns Street, the latter was renamed due to its proximity to the Kings Inns.
In 1756, this appears as Turn Again Lane on Rocques map of Dublin. Henrietta Street is thought to have been named by Luke Gardiner in honour of Henrietta Somerset and her portrait by Enoch Seeman survives
Nathaniel Clements was an Irish politician and financial figure, important in the political and financial administration of Ireland in the mid-18th century. Clements was the son of Robert Clements. He married Hannah Gore, daughter of William Gore, D. D, dean of Down, on 31 January 1730. Clements became Member of Parliament for Duleek in 1727 under the patronage of Luke Gardiner and he commenced as a junior at the Irish Treasury in 1720 and held extensive offices there. He became the financial manager of the British and Irish Government in Ireland during the period. He assumed the offices of Deputy Vice-Treasurer and Deputy Paymaster General on Gardiners retirement in 1755, in 1761, Clements was returned for Cavan Borough in, holding this seat until 1768. In this year, he was elected for Roscommon Borough as well as Leitrim, in 1776, Clements stood for again for Cavan Borough as well as Carrick and represented the latter constituency until his death in 1777. Clements was appointed to the office of Chief Ranger of the Phoenix Park and Master of Game and he had an extensive property portfolio, including Abbotstown, County Dublin, estates in County Leitrim and County Cavan.
He was a developer of property in Georgian Dublin, including part of Henrietta Street where he lived at No.7 from 1734 to 1757 and he was one of the richest commoners in Ireland, notwithstanding his involvement in a failed banking venture in 1759. Clements was involved in charitable activities including Dr Steevens Hospital, the Erasmus Smith Educational Foundation, the Royal Hospital Kilmainham for retired soldiers. Nathaniel Clements and Hannah Gore had six children, Robert Clements, created Earl of Leitrim in 1795, hon. Henry Theophilus Clements, MP Elizabeth, m. 1750, Francis Burton, second Baron Conyngham Hannah, m,1752, George Montgomery, Ballyconnell, MP Catherine, m. Eyre Massey, 1st Baron Clarina Alice, m, sir Ralph Gore, sixth Baronet, created Earl of Ross. Nathaniel Clements and the elite in Ireland, 1725-75. Irish House of Commons Áras an Uachtaráin